facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley
Wiki
Page translation
 

PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF LINGUOCULTURAL ARCHETYPES AND STEREOTYPES IN MODERN COMPARATIVISTICS

PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF LINGUOCULTURAL ARCHETYPES AND STEREOTYPES IN MODERN COMPARATIVISTICS
Ageeva Viktoria, senior research associate, candidate of philology

Julia Bondur, senior research associate

Mykolayiv National University named after V.O. Suhomlinskiy, Ukraine

Conference participant

The principles of the analysis of an archetypical concept FIRE are defined in the article. Semantic, onomasiological, functional principles, on the basis of which the complex technique of reconstruction and comparison of motivational signs of its nominators are developed; among them are those which express stereotypical ideas of fire in consciousness of  English and Ukrainian language native speakers.

Keywords: archetypes, stereotypes, concept FIRE, motivation.

 

The diversity of research was devoted to the impact of language on the conception of the world, which discussed not only the appropriateness of such a question formulation, but of the methods of language influence on naive and scientific world [1; 3; 13; 14]. However, no one has yet either disproved this hypothesis or expressed enough convincing arguments in its defense, due to the lack of verification methods. Symbols of a particular language are designed to transmit cultural and national identity of the people and their identification, because their figurative content embodies the cultural and national outlook. But only correlation of the symbol expressive content with archetypes and stereotypes of national culture and their interpretation in the sphere of material, social or spiritual culture shows us culturally significant meaning of it. The symbol interpretation act can be done by a native language speaker, and for this reason symbols become linguocultural archetypes and stereotypes. The article is to determine the principles and methods of analysis linguocultural archetypes and stereotypes in modern Comparativistics.

The word fire is one of such linguocultural archetypes and stereotypes that recently has been studied as a mental formation, which is a concept. According to its structure with specific semantics, cultural and symbolic potential the concept FIRE is an invariant-hyperonym, and the symbols are its immediate implementation (hyponyms). As an element itselffire is already considered as an archetype, its invariant-variant structure reflects both ancient, mythological notions representing archaic consciousness (which form its semantic and conceptual features of archetype), and modern connotations of fire (the stereotypical semantic and conceptual features) characterizing different ethnic cultures. Semantic and conceptual archetypes and stereotypes characteristics of concept FIRE can be defined using the following principles: semantic, onomasiological and functional. Semantic principle determines concept FIRE analysis direction: from its semantic side to the means (forms) of expression in a particular language. It means that the semantics of language units of Fire are analyzed through the context reflecting them in both ancient mythological representations of fire of native speaker’s language and stereotypical situations associated with the use of fire. Onomasiological principle is focused on the analysis of motivational origins of vocabulary, idiomatic and metaphoric symbols of fire, allowing to reconstruct cultural components (archetypal (mythological, religious, etc.) and stereotyped) and motives transforming views into (verbal) form. The functional principle involves the identification of concept FIRE purpose in a particular ethnic culture, which means its native language speaker’s evaluation and finding ways of transferring functional load from archetypal symbols to stereotypical ones. The principle of functional CF identity is exclusively correlated with homogeneity of the human factor (the illocutionary intention is focused on achieving perlocutionary effect).

To analyse concept FIRE in different languages, we have to use those methods of valid comparison, such as contrastive, comparative historical and typological which are based on the above mentioned principles. It is worth noticing that recent comparative linguistics has been increasingly inclined to give the same importance in a research of identifying both distinct and common features, as most clearly distinct features can be displayed through common ones [9, 34]. In this case, it is advisable to show the relationship between typological (universal) and genetic (national and local (areal) [16, 364-369]. Contrastive research method of fire archetypal and stereotyped symbolism, for example, in English and Ukrainian aimed primarily to find common and different features in archetypal and stereotyped formulas of fire. Although their magic and ritual functions eventually lost their relevance, changed into expressive, but the logic of design formulas, the choice of language signs are subject to the laws of conceptual content verbalization of linguistic signs [1, 293] in these languages. Therefore, it seems a logical assumption that these laws are largely symmetrical. It is the field where the historical and cultural leitmotiv of concept FIRE mental structures transformation into verbal ones may become the most active by means of semantic content of its nominating symbols (options) and adequate means of expression in each of the languages. To reconstruct the external and inner form of the lexeme fire and the Ukrainian lexeme vogon’, and lexemes with the semantics of fire, it is necessary to use comparative-historical method, based on reproduction and simulation initial platforms of linguistic phenomena.

The search of genetic (national and local (areal) associates with reconstruction of choice motivations of lasting magic-ritual, mythological, cultural and ritual archetypal formulas of fire. We have to clarify what we mean by the term motivation, which is used in different humanity sciences. Motivation is interpreted in this research close to onomasiological understanding concerning the first inner form of language units. In terms of onomasiology motivation concept coincides with the concept of a principle mode of implementation of the category that the field of fire lexeme semantics associated with internal fixation in the form of the sacred, magical, religious, cultural and social content in the stereotype fire. Since we are dealing with a specific type of category using a single word (eng. Fire, flame (s), blaze, spark, Ukr. vogon’, vognysche), and verbal formulas such as phraseological units (Eng. play with fire, Ukr. zhyvyi vogon’ (live fire), errant fire, fire and sword) and proverbs (Eng. add fuel to the fire / Ukr. pour (pour) fuel to the fire), our research will be grounded on in I. Rodionova’s understanding of the motivation, based on the semantic side of language signs and provides as the motivational signs motif, in our case – as an archaic seme fire, on which updated integral, differential and potential semes or allomotif fire. This procedure involves the use of methods of component analysis [9, 97]. The motif of fire (or an archaic seme 'fire') is revealed as an opposed alomotives 'living' and 'dead' fire (integrated seme) now. i.-ye. * Ker- "set up, drag" (flame), "dark", that is "the product of combustion" as the Eng. charred, but the Indo-arias. kora "new young" [12, 241]. Alomotif 'dead fire' (differential seme) is a chain of meanings that are valuable themselves, that is, a system that does not move and does not develop, aging comp. Celt. * Mog- "fire" but Toch. mok "old", and. Germ. alt, OE eald "old" but old isl. eldr "fire" [12, 242].

Fire is a sign of deities – objects of a sacred sphere. The pagan Slavs associated fire directly with the god Perun as a heavenly god, a god of thunder and lightning. B. Voytovych adds to the god Perun’s dual nature of fire ("light" and "dark") [2, 364]. God Perun’s name, according to the Alexander Kolesnik‘s observations, "comes from the personal names: cz. Perun, Bulg. Perun, which meant simply "the one who hits." The Ukrainian Perun well correlates with lit. Perkunas, Prus. Percunis meaning "thunder." Perun also once meant "oak god", Latin. quercus "oak", Alb. perëndi "god", rus. Perun, cz. perun, pol. piorun means "thunder" sln. perunika "others", then connected with perą, pьrąti"beat, give a blow" [op. by Ave .: 8]. God Perun is ruthless to the dark and evil forces of Chernobog and god Mary. He is "the one who makes the fire, throwing fire, shooting fire." Perun is the god who not only gives life but also punishes the man for his guilt. Perun’s thunder and lightning are the most terrible punishment for those who violate the oath gods [2, 364].

Symbolic man "top" of Perun-fire determined its punitive function (Perun - from old slov. Pъrati verb "beat, destroy" [4, Vol. 3, 456]). So the next allomotif 'to hit by fire, to hit by thunder or lightning' is found in such language units, where the word “fire” performs a penal function of “thunder”: Let the thunder beat him! Let the thunder punish him!, Let the thunder kill them!, Let the heavenly thunder burn him!, which "expresses extreme displeasure, an unhappiness wish to someone"; Thunder kill me !, Let the thunder kill me!, which means "to take an oath in telling the  truth."

The origins of the punitive function of fire lie in the worldview of our ancestors: they believed that the fire was holy, so it helped to provide God’s law as it was  believed that the innocent wouldn’t be burnt by fire, but "a hat is burning on the thief’s head"[5, 105]. In English, the fire only occasionally serves as a penalty motif: May every day of it be wet for ye (Saint Patrick), but here we find numerous associating alomotifs of 'fire as a punitive force', particularly with colour - red as hot, hot (red nail, red stone): A red nail on the tongue that said it. By my tongue may it get you., A red stone in your throat. In the inner form of other linguistic units it is associated with sulfur fire as a symbol of hellish torture: Fire and brimstone. Against the background of the alomotif 'fire as a punitive force "in Ukrainian another alomotif is actualized” – ' destructive force of fire': Ukrainian: Hay jogo  pale nebesna syla z usih 4 storin – Let (albeit, neh) him [clear fire (flame)] burn – the expression shows dissatisfaction, irritation, annoyance to anyone May fire burn him [10, 8], May fire start burning you skin [18, 336], Let thou be burned without fire [18, 337], Let thou smolder [18, 337]. Fire as a punitive force in the English language speakers’ worldview is connected to the notion of ‘hell’ where the souls of sinners are fried: Eng. Hell roast him, In hell may you be because of your sins, May the devil roast Him.

The next alomotif is associated with hell both the British and the Slavic mythological space Eng. Ellylldan (wandering lights that are viewed as a part of 'hellfire'). People believe that these lights are glowing on the graves only of great sinners whom God is punishing in hell before Doomsday. The origin of wandering lights can be explained by the presence of evil spirits on cemeteries, especially vampires who try to do harm to people and scare them. Also they are considered as light that is lit by angels on the graves of the righteous or souls that came out of the grave with funeral candles [2, 32].

Above mentioned examples display that mythological meanings of fire, based on archetypes, have a high degree of common motifs in Ukrainian and English languages; few differences can be explained by "individual language development, different degrees of "preservation" and structuring of ancient mythological representations" [11, 352]. This comparative analysis piece of different variant signs of fire in English and Ukrainian languages allows us to trace the general trends and patterns, as well as differences in the formation of the archetypal and sometimes stereotypical symbols of fire and clarify the role of each component of verbal formulas of fire/burning semantics in their formation of figurative and symbolic content in both languages. We understand verbal formulas components as people's idea of favorable/ unfavorable fire, which are recorded as combined in different language units associated with these concepts. For example, the English proverb Throw the fat in the fire, shows as the British motivate associations in fueling passions. A Ukrainian idiom Playing With Fire which is motivated in the minds of Ukrainian native speakers as very dangerous actions, or actions that could lead to a backfire. And those units where mythological ideas imprint the safety/fire danger, personify mythological creatures like the pagan god Perun – the god of thunder, or lightning of thunder as a punitive force (Ukrainian: Perun let you crack [18, 330], a stable distribution (interaction) component structure forms a kind of archetypal meaning layers that unite culturally relevant ideas which commensurate with the expression of fire semantics. Motif semantics, according to S. Neklyudova, is not only intertextual but paradigmatic. It relies on the "tradition understanding" and is much broader than what is manifested; motif belongs not only to verbal formula, but to tradition in general. Its value is not derived only from inner phrase syntagmatics, but to understand the reasons for the choice of the motif has to be correlated, firstly, to the picture of the world according to national culture, and, secondly, to a plot motive fund common to a mankind and fundamentals in its semantic universals [17 236]. Understanding the motivation as the means of correlation nomination leads us to onomasiological parameters of comparison. In a broad sense (by V. Manakin) onomasiological matching options - are the features of similarities and differences that point to differing methods of nomination of the same objects in different languages [13, 235]. In the context of our study such objects will form (different means, ie linguistic units - the word - to the sentence and even phrases) expression of semantics fire. Increased attention to onomasiological aspects of language units, including those that are filled with cultural content, can be observed in studying far related languages. Onomasiological features (if any significant layer typological features) are those to appear most clearly and explicit when comparing. Mapping motivation features of language formulas in semantics of fire in different languages allows you to see what is often ignored - prints of culture relics and linguistic creativity of people, to compare the specifics of the structure of CF linguistic creativity, as the way of enriching its own language and consciousness.

The internal form, that is the basis for the nomination of lexemes and verbal formulas of semantics fire as the essence of which is directly linked to the vector onomasiological research process, serves as the means of motivation and at the same time as a link mechanism between the form of a formal entity and its ability to convey a certain meaning. In this sense the internal form can be interpreted as a basis of motivation [7, 98-107]. According to O. Potebnya "the inner form is the relation between the thought content and consciousness; it shows how a man imagines his own thought" [18, 83]. Internal form acts as a basis for motivation semantics of fire, combining content and form of these specific linguistic signs, which are lexemes and verbal formulas to describe the fire. It simultaneously establishes epistemological relevant information (discrete elements of the original conceptual ideas) as favorable / unfavorable fire to humans.

The above statements are convincing arguments for choosing onomasiological motif as tertium comparationis in this study as it is invariant in its multiplicity of variant implementations, not only in a national tradition. Each specific motive realization is always updating one aspect of its semantic volume, which in turn is formed by the motivation system. So the structure of onomasiological motif is formed by a system of vertical and horizontal relations of reasons. The vertical structure is formed by variant motif (alomotif) systems that show different degree of isomorphism and alomorphism in compared languages. The horizontal structure is connected to the systems of motivators that combine motives variants and their verbalization in a particular culture and language. Motivators enclose word classes connected by motivational relations to motives variants. Motivational analysis is carried out by multilateral comparing and contrasting in onomasiological direction including the results of semasiological analysis. This integrated approach is based on vector research: from the semantics of existing language units studies to mental spheres of identification of a certain magic, sacred, mythological, cultural, social content, and then to determination of the semantic scope motive or motivational structure (the semasiological analysis will be its gronds), then to the results of certain variants of motif verbalization by each language means considering the cultural component of the motivator selection form to describe the contents of the fire. Thus, by means of the deductive method, at the beginning the object of study becomes a system of nominative units, and the subject – a motivational model dictated by cultural factors, defining the scope and the content of motif fire \burning in its different forms in each language, using application method to receive common and different features, we determine the meaning of identification scope that provide mental verbal component of verbalization.

The last step in the analysis is to determine the motivational structure onomasiological motif and systems of motivators that provide the shift of the mental motivation component into verbal one in each language. Summing up shows us how one and the same motivational sign verbalizes in different languages because of the typological and genetic. We have to underline that the principles and methods of analysis of the archetypal concept of fire and its basic stereotypical characteristics, reflected in English and Ukrainian lingvoculture are specified by a general understanding of the concept of mental (invariant-variant) formation and its diachronical nature in particular.

 

References:

  • 1. Berezovych EL Language and Traditional Culture. Эtnolynhvystycheskye Studies / Elena Lvovna Berezovych. - Moscow: Yndryk, 2007. - 600 p.
  • 2. Valery Voytovych. Ukrainian mythology. - K .: Lybed, 2002 - 663 p.
  • 3. Golubovska IO Ethnic peculiarities of language world / Golubovska IA - K .: Logos, 2000. - 284 p.
  • 4. Dictionary of Ukrainian language / [Ch. Ed O. Melnychuk] 7 tons. - K.: Scientific Thought, 1982 -. - Vol 1: A - G - 1982. - 631 p .; T. 2: D - Koptsi - 1985. - 570 p .; T. 3: Bark - M - 1989. - 549 p .; T. 3: H - P - 2003. - 656 p .; 5. TV: R - T - 2003. - 407 p.
  • 5. B. Lark Signs Ukrainian ethnic culture: Dictionary Directory / Vitaly Lark. - K: Trust, 2006. - 703 p.
  • 6. Karasik VI Arhetypycheskye kontseptы in communication // Pryamaya and nepryamaya Kommunikatsii: Sat. scientific. articles. - Saratov: Izd HosUNTs "College", 2003. - P. 43.
  • 7. Kyyak TR Motyvyrovannost leksycheskyh units: kolychestvennыe and qualitative characteristics / Taras Romanovich Kyyak. - Lviv: High School, 1988. - 161 p.
  • 8. A. Kolesnik Linhvokulturni linhvosemiotychni features verbalization and concept myths FIRE / OS Kolesnik // Language and conceptual world view [Coll. Science. pr.]. - K: CUP "Kyiv University". - Vol. 43 - Part 2. - P. 218-226.
  • 9. Kocherhan MP comparable linguistics, methods, principles, aspects and levels of study / MP // Kocherhan Linguistics. - 2006. - № 5. - P. 34-51.
  • 10. Kuz GT exclamation phraseologisms Ukrainian language, ethno-linguistic and functional aspects: Author. Dis. NUS on competition. degree candidate. Philology. Sciences specials. 10.02.01 "Urayinska language" / GT Kuz. - Ivano-Frankivsk, 2000. - 19 p.
  • 11. Levchenko O. Phraseological symbols, linguistic and cultural aspects / Yelena Levchenko. - Lviv, LRI NAPA, 2005. - 352 p.
  • 12. Comparative M. Makowski dictionary mythological symbolism in yndoevropeyskyh language: Obrazы world and worlds obrazov / Mark M. Makowski. - Moscow: Humanyt. Izdatel'stvo center VLADOS, 1996. - 416 p.
  • 13. Manakyn VN Fundamentals kontrastyvnoy lexicology: blyzkorodstvennыe and rodstvennыe Languages ​​/ Vladimir Nikolayevich Manakyn. - K., Kirovograd Centre. - Eng. Publishing House, 1994. - 262 p.
  • 14. Maslov VA Introduction to kohnytyvnuyu lynhvystyku [Text] / VA Maslov. - M .: Flynta, 2007. - 294.
  • 15. V. Large Mokienko dictionary Russians narodnыh sravnenyy. Large obъyasnytelnoy dictionary / VM Mokienko, T. Nikitin et al. - Moscow: Olma Media Group, 2008. - 799 p.
  • 16. Mokienko VM K razhranychenyyu henetycheskyh ties and typological Slavonic pohovorky / VM Mokienko // slavyanskye Modern Culture: Development, Interaction, The International Context. Materials mezhdunarodnoy conference of UNESCO. - K: Scientific Thought, 1982. - P. 364-369.
  • 17. Nekludov SY motif and text / SY Nekludov // Culture Language: semantics and grammar. C 9-80 anniversary day co rozhdenyya ac. NI Tolstoy (1923-1996). - Moscow: Yndryk, 2004. - P. 236-247.
  • 18. Proverbs and sayings. The relationship between people / [uporyadk. MMPazyak]. - K: ScientificThought, 1991. - 440 p.
Comments: 1

Hamze Dimitrina

Уважаемые коллеги! Благодарю Вас сердечно за весьма интересный, колоритный и емкий доклад! Ролево-функциональный дапазон концепта „огонь” удивительный. Интресно бы было проследить в будущем как „работает” символ огня в разных лингвокультурах. Тепло, с уважением и наилучшими пожеланиями! Димитрина
Comments: 1

Hamze Dimitrina

Уважаемые коллеги! Благодарю Вас сердечно за весьма интересный, колоритный и емкий доклад! Ролево-функциональный дапазон концепта „огонь” удивительный. Интресно бы было проследить в будущем как „работает” символ огня в разных лингвокультурах. Тепло, с уважением и наилучшими пожеланиями! Димитрина
PARTNERS
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.