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THE HISTORY OF THE MODERN MAN SEARCH IN UKRAINE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF DANIEL LERNER THEORY: DID UKRAINE HAVE ANY CHANCES TO CONSTRUCT HIM?

THE HISTORY OF THE MODERN MAN SEARCH IN UKRAINE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF DANIEL LERNER THEORY: DID UKRAINE HAVE ANY CHANCES TO CONSTRUCT HIM?THE HISTORY OF THE MODERN MAN SEARCH IN UKRAINE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF DANIEL LERNER THEORY: DID UKRAINE HAVE ANY CHANCES TO CONSTRUCT HIM?
Filiakova Tetiana, doctor

University of Vienna, Austria

Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Austria";

Taking into account the Daniel Lerner theory of modernization and economic development, designed to solve the problems of the transition from the 'backwardness' to 'modernity' and is very common in the West, which reflected the US desire intelligently to subdue 'third world' countries we will try to answer the questionswhether such person as I, being the Russian on the nationality, having the Ukrainian passport and living in Vienna, can try to answer the question if there is a modern man in Ukraine? Whether there is a chance for Ukraine to create or grow up the modern man? Whether this Ukrainian modern man will correspond to the European concept of "modernity"? And whether there can also be another concept of "modernity" which differs from the European one? We will try to answer all these questions within Lerner's theory of modernization.

Keywords: Empathy, Modern man, Lerner Theory, Social solidarity.

 

If to consider ‘modernity’ through a prism of the European concept of modernity, or as accessory to European, then the Ukrainian society can't be modern in any way because of the simple reason that we have no such level of social, economic, political development as Europe has. As a proof any economic reports could be taken into account, but the most banal - the level of economic development in a year over the countries [The Global Competitiveness Report 2014 - 2015]. According to these ratings Ukraine is on the 76th place and never occupied the first places.

But it is so if to look from the point of view of that concept of ‘modernity’, that is imposed to the world community by the developed Europe. Why actually all other countries have to reckon with these European concepts of ‘modernity’ and ‘development’? Europe has imposed on the rest of the world guilt and inferiority complex. All are now striving to achieve this cherished modernity and development level. 

Generally the very history of the ‘modernity’ concept, attempts to reveal it by various authors (once again mostly by western authors), including Lerner [Lerner (1958): 44], in my opinion this history itself predetermined the following Eurocentric trend of such a concept. I mean that actually all authors who started looking for answers to questions of existence of a difference in developments between the countries began to look for this distinction between notions of ‘their’ West and ‘not their’ East! But the world isn't bipolar! Why almost no one such study does even mention Russia (I am not speaking about Ukraine, Ukraine did not exist that time, but the Russian Empire existed since the 18th century, and was taking the second place on the Earth with the occupied land territory, namely 1/6 of the total land area, how could such a great land territory be overlooked?)? Besides, Russian Empire, on which part the state of Ukraine was formed in 1991, had culture, which was absolutely other than any of eastern state, language, traditions, belief, ceremonies - everything that played a game in formation of the modern man was absolutely another, not eastern and not western, another – the Russian one.

So lets talk about ‘modern’. Almost in any sources, where such a concept of modernity is mentioned, the industrialization level is meant. As reasons Peer Vries, it is all about the initial boom of development of 1810th and of country trade distribution, when the world ‘division of labour and division of wealth’ occurred [Vries (2013): 273], which resulted to formation of industrialized and not industrialized countries as well as of asymmetric development. However it shouldn't be forgot that Industrialization in the Russian Empire was the response to the similar processes happening in Western Europe where in the XVIII century industrial revolution began. But even earlier, in the XVII century, the accelerated development of the industry began in Holland. In this regard, already under the reign of Peter I the need for the rapid industrialization of the country was recognized. According to R.Dupuy and T.Dupuy ‘in the era of Ivan Grozny Russia had quite a developed industry and crafts. Especially a lot of progress has been achieved in the weapons and artillery affairs. In terms of production of guns and other weapons, their quality, diversity and properties Russia of that time was perhaps a European leader. By the size of the artillery park (2 thousands guns) Russia was superior to other European countries, and all the guns were of domestic production’ (and Ukraine was the part of Russia) [Dupui (2004): 142—143]. As is pointed out by the historian N.Rozhkov, in Russia of that time many other types of industrial and handicraft production were developing, including metal, furniture, tableware, linseed oil and so on. Some of these kinds of industrial products were exported [Rozhkov (1928): 24-29]. The first paper-manufacturing factory in the country was built under the reign of Ivan Grozny [Pokrovsky (1911): 117]. You can ask why am I talking about Russia, if the topic is about Ukraine? The answer is very simple: Ukraine did not exist at that time, it was only the region of the Russian Empire and just in 1991 Ukraine gained its independence. You might say, so that is the answer - there is no industrialization, no development, and therefore the first and essential element in achieving the status of ‘modernity’ is lacking. I dare to protest - there was no Ukrainian state, but there was industrialization on its territory, as there was industrialization on the entire territory of present-day Russia, and in the 20s-30s years of the 20th century in the Ukrainian territory the forced construction process of the industrial enterprises of heavy and light industry began to be implemented. As Stalin said in his report of 1931: ‘We are lagging behind the advanced countries for 50-100 years. We must cover this distance in ten years. Either we do it or they crush us’ [Stalin (1951): 29.]. Thus, since the late 1920s until 1941 hundreds of new industrial enterprises were built in Ukraine. The main enterprises were operated the entire territory of the USSR [Liber (1992): 322].

Cold War also played a huge role in the increased industrialization of the Soviet Union countries. Another thing - rationally or not those funds from industrialization have been used. In fact, the bulk of the revenue went for military purposes and settled in the pockets of the higher power echelons, the vast majority of ordinary people did not catch a penny from this amount. As is noted by J.Boffa: ‘The increase of  ‘shadow economy’ refers to the Khrushchev's years, although the latter tried to fight her with severe methods, including even the death penalty in cases of embezzlement or the largest theft of state property. But the real qualitative leap occurred in the reign of Brezhnev and Kosygin. The reason for that was not only an inevitable weakening of state control, but an increase in the flow of goods, which was still insufficient to meet the needs of the increased population rate. Between these two events there was a direct link’ [Boffa  (1996): 68].

What else besides industrialization can help us to create a modern man, to reach the level of modern development and to make this process irreversible and progressive? Empathy - answers Lerner, arguing that modernization is a kind of mental shift, an achieving of a particular state of mind, which contributes to the achievement of the state of ‘development’ and is an integral part of it. The presence of empathy implies the need that social workers have identified themselves with the new political leaders and programs, new economic products and modern social institutions [Lerner (2000)]. In other words, the success of modernization and general reformation process depend, according to this approach, on the degree of people sense of belonging to what is happening in society, the degree of identification with the occurring transformations, the belief that the latter are designed to improve their lives or reduce ‘the fundamental concern’.

Lerner in ‘The passing of traditional society’ demonstrates how deep contradictions between the traditional and the modern smoothed through the development of new traits such as empathy and horizons broaden. The sociologist argues, that in order to discuss the new values and styles of behaviour, learned in the process of modernization, individuals should be more flexible and be able to establish relationships with a variety of people. Individuals  ‘are studying that empathy through participation in contemporary social forms such as factories, cities, schools, politics and the media’ [Lerner (2000): 119]. The latter form the ‘agenda’ that is common for all or most social groups, thereby creating a consolidated social whole, united not only with project of the future, but also with the appropriate feelings about it, that is - shared with social well-being, which, of course, must be positive and constructive.

Thus, Lerner emphasizes the essential characteristic of social reform - the degree of social solidarity. It affects the type of social being that determines, in turn, the prospects of any macro-transformations. In one word, the success of the modernization of society must be presented through solidarity. The desired degree of consolidation creates the necessary social well being - a social empathy, vector which is distributed on both macro and the micro-social level, and without which the prospects of modernization and reformation become very problematic.

Of course we cannot say that Ukrainian society has no empathy at all. People are sharing such characteristics as: mutual influence of citizens on public policy, mutual responsibility and respect (between employer and employee), the equality between different nations, equal rights and duties between man and woman, continuity and mutual respect between the older and younger generations, mutual responsibility and respect between the people and the authorities. That is, the content of consciousness of the overwhelming majority of citizens are the rules that can be defined as the constructive, based on the values of collectivism and democracy. But I would say that people share norms only on paper, in theory, but in practice there are: immutable bureaucracy, corruption, beating all records for its size, the lack of social benefits, wages below the subsistence level, poor goods and services quality and the lack of consumer protection. How people could even dream of some kind of empathy under such circumstances?

Having not found thus general use of the empathy term, I stumbled upon a widely used into scholarly circulation of the term ‘empathic joining’, which was introduced by the American social psychologist E. Staub, who was describing it as a special type of intra-group interaction, a peculiar form of empathy arising in the group, in which the ‘emotional contamination acts as means for mutual influence and a source of satisfaction for the members of the group’ [Staub (1992): 238]. In modern psychology, ‘empathic joining’ can mean either a form of cognition of man by man, one way of the emotional reaction of the subject (the reaction of compassion), determinant of human behaviour in social interaction, as well as a method of psychotherapy (see: [Hoffman (1987); Barlow (2008)]). As examples of ‘empathic connection’ in the sociological sense we can lead the support, for example, by the Soviet people of a number of programs and projects of the country's leadership, including: space exploration, the development of virgin lands, VI World Festival of Youth and Students (Moscow, 1957), Olympic Games 1980 etc. Empathic joining is emotional support of various kinds of community initiatives - from the protection of tropical forests to the movement of non-resistance, from the salvation of blue whales to assistance to children in Africa. Phenomena of the same order are nationalist enthusiasm and jingoism (enough to remember the jubilation in the US over the murder of Ben Laden in early May 2011, presented to the world an example of a high level of empathic connection of Americans to their President and the US military). This is also the pride of ‘our’ army, ‘our science’, ‘and cult of personality’. The main difference between the empathic joining and the ‘simple’ enthusiastic, which is covering sometimes large and small social communities, is that enthusiasm is usually short-lived and is optional in the identification sense while empathic joining, as a rule, is characterized by long-term nature and involves even identification of the person to his subject. But, unfortunately, in modern Ukrainian society the situation with emphatic joining is more than negative. It can be noted the actual lack of identification of Ukrainian citizens with key political figures of the domestic political Olympus and political underground.

Thus, the macro-level of consolidation of Ukrainian society, to put it mildly, leaves much to be desired. The degree of social complementarity - identification with leading political figures, community development programs, new socio-economic and political institutions – is extremely low. Practically there is no empathic connection to the power entities - agents of social reform (‘modernization’), and institutions, providing both the reform and daily operation of society. The lack of empathy on the macro-level is no less dangerous than at micro social interactions. The situation is further exacerbated by the fact that the system of basic public relations of Ukrainian society, in fact, is not sanctioned by the dominant norms, forcing all people to live and think in the notorious ‘double standards’.

It is obvious that without the proper level of empathy and social complementarity and the proper level of consistency between the norm in the beliefs and practices of social factuality the necessary social well-being, which is intended to ensure the success of socio-economic development and the actual project to modernize the country of Ukraine, can not be build.

Mass media. Lerner continues to ascend to the modernity. We need mass media says he. ‘Irreversible’ according to Lerner's modernization process is inherently linked with the role of the media, which should give to developing countries an example of what actually should be pursued (based on the example of the West). And if Daniel Lerner, given a lead role in the modernization to the media, is not interested in any type of media suitable for this role, then the Wilbur Schramm [Schramm (1964)] and Itel de Sola Pool fill this gap. The second author emphasizes in particular the contribution of commercial media, in particular the American media, to the process of modernization. Are they not more efficient (compared to social media) in a heightened sense of ‘desire of another way of life’ due to hosted persistent advertising [Pool (1963): 285]? This thesis, as a good cover for private and public American strategy, for example, is one of the common elements‘ characteristics of the theory of development/modernization. And what about Ukraine? (And now we will talk about some specific points that are associated with the implementation of the general premises concerning the European integration of Ukraine).

It is clear that any integration projects are doomed to failure without the support of the media. After all, the media - are one of the most important factors in the formation of public opinion in the world today. And without Ukrainian public opinion mood on the implementation of the European vector, the political elite has no chances to operate this project. However, the question arises - whether truthfully illuminate Ukrainian media the situation in Europe, whether they are objectively analysing the need for Ukraine's entry into Europe? Or more: whether the position of Europe on certain issues of political, economic and cultural life is provided in the Ukrainian information space?

If we start to answer these questions not a good picture is emerging. Illumination of events in European countries by Ukrainian media in most cases could not be called objective. And this is so due to various reasons. A specified majority of newspapers, magazines and television stations are in one or another degree affiliated with some political Parties, therefore, the information is presented through a very narrow angle of view. The Others - the so-called yellow press and private radio stations - seek to attract the audience's attention to sensational scandals, crime news, the private life of famous people. Finally, the government media focus mainly on officialdom. As to the problem of the need for Ukraine's entry into Europe, it is mostly only declared, but is not supported by arguments.

It should be noted that even in the media, which really set the direction for the European development of Ukraine and are trying to give the audience a true picture of life in Western Europe, there is almost no analysis of the countries experiences that have already passed the stage of European integration. We are talking about the majority of the former communist bloc. Meanwhile, the experience of these countries is extremely interesting and instructive for Ukraine, because some problems as well as their solutions in the way of entry into Europe for all are common.

And what about Ukraine? In Ukraine, in addition to hot-Civil war, the Cold War is carried out. Thus, the television offices broadcasting Russian TV are destroying, criminal cases against Russian actors are opening, serials with the ‘wrong’ actors who supported the Donbas are banning. There is no alternative.

Finally, institutions. As writes Vries: ‘(Western) Europe, in their view, was institutionally different and that is fundamental in any explanation of the Great Divergence’ [Vries (2013): 320].  Michael Mitterauer, writes Vries further, also thinks the roots of European exceptionalism are deep and to a large extent institutional [Vries (2013): 320]. So why, then, there is no development in Ukraine, where is the Ukrainian modern man and whether he can be created in Ukraine?

Now at the highest administrative level sound proudly promises to pull Ukraine closer to Europe. It seems that this country has always been in the background of Europe almost a beggar, and now has a chance to become related to Europe, and, therefore, to move towards success.

Ukrainian ruling elite, of course, is interested in the image of previous backward and plague Ukraine, as such a past is rehabilitating the present. That present, to which the ruling elite and the political and corporate business had lowered the country. For this reason it became forgotten that in Soviet times Ukraine was famous not only for its technologically advancement and advanced science, culture and education, but it was a developed country of the Soviet Union.

The present Ukraine is considered in Europe as one of the most backward countries. It seems that the reasons for the fall of Ukraine are enclosed in the sphere of economic. But then the question arises: where did this bad economy come from? To answer this question, we must turn to the state of the scope not only economic but also moral and spiritual. In this respect, even Lev Gumilyov gave the formula: ‘The Spirit wins matter’. In this context the following statement of Vsevolod Chaplin - the head of department on cooperation of church and society (Russia) attracts our attention. He declared: ‘... If the government does not want to be gnawed out slowly, and people - to feed ... someone else's business, you need to go to the dictatorship of conscience and will. Will political and moral’ [Bychkov (2012)].

Let us recall that the phenomenon of the economic miracle, whether it was the time of Britain Protestantism, or the period of China Deng Siaoping's reforms, or the Soviet industrialization and changes in the 1928-1935, always were based on the explosive enthusiasm and belief in the future.  But converse is also true: spiritual oppression, lacks of faith and moral strain with economic success are not compatible. And the fact that Ukraine is now economically weak, is not due just because of the miscalculations in the government's economic development, not only because of variety of the proposed models or wrong ways to implement them, but more devastating influence is due to non-believers in fate and the oppressed spirit. The most striking thing in this context is that the majority of Ukrainians do not consider themselves to be the creators of their own destiny. The same pessimism appears in the hopes of improving the future live.

Conclusions: So are there nevertheless modern men in Ukraine? Have they ever been there? Or maybe there is a chance to grow that one in the present conditions? Being nevertheless a Russian by nationality, having Ukrainian passport and living in Vienna, I would say that Europe probably will never see people from countries such as Ukraine in the ‘developed’ or ‘modern’ lists, people from pro-Soviet space in Europe are being treated with biases and perceived as a yoke on the neck of socialism. It is harder for us to nostrify our diplomas, sometimes even impossible, it is more difficult to find a job, the existed stereotypes about us are not always good, as well as actually about all the ‘foreigners’. In spite of this, people in Ukraine, as in all countries, are different but they are educated, kind, sympathetic, friendly, and certainly not less developed than the Europeans. They have another kind of development itself, not European one, but it is clear - they have another historical heritage, can never go back to the beginning of the 19th century and get ahead of England in terms of economic and industrial development. But why actually that very Britain and its environment expressed by the modern Europe were considered possible to accept and use the only single ‘quality standard’ of development, a single version of modernity? Who granted them this right and why all others, who are in European opinion ‘not developed countries’, have to feel all the time like ‘catching up’. May it be enough to measure everything within the same Eurocentrism standards?

References:

  • In Russian and Ukrainian languages:
  • 1. Боффа Дж. От СССР к России. История неоконченного кризиса. 1964-1994: Пер. с ит. Хаустовой Л.Я. — М.: Междунар. отношения, 1996. — 320 с.  (J. Boffa. From the USSR to Russia. History of unfinished crisis. 1964-1994: Trans. From it. Khaustova LY - M.: Intern. relationship, 1996. - 320 p.).
  • 2. Бычков С. Диктатура совести "Московский комсомолец" №25838 от 10 января 2012  URL: http://www.mk.ru/social/article/2012/01/09/658842-diktatura-sovesti.html(Last call 19.08.2015) (S. Bychkov Dictatorship of Conscience "Moskovsky Komsomolets" №25838 from the January 10, 2012).
  • 3. Все войны мировой истории, по Харперской энциклопедии военной истории Р. Дюпюи и Т. Дюпюи с комментариями Н. Волковского и Д. Волковского. СПб., 2004, кн. 3, с. 142—143. (All histories of World War II, within the Harperskoy military history encyclopedia R. Dupuis and T. Dupuis with commentary of N. Volkov and Dmitry Volkov. SPb., 2004, Vol. 3, p. 142-143).
  • 4. Культура имеет значение. Каким образом ценности способствуют общественному прогрессу / Под ред. Л. Харрисона, С. Хантингтона. М.: Московская Школа Политических Исследований, 2002. URL: http://msps.su/files/2010/12/Wer_culture-matters1a.pdf(Lastcall19.08.2015) (Culturematters. How values contribute to social progress / Ed. L. Harrison, Samuel Huntington. M .: The Moscow School of Political Studies, 2002).
  • 5. Покровский М. Русская история с древнейших времен. При участии Н. Никольского и В. Сторожева. Москва, 1911, т. III. (Pokrovsky Russian history from ancient times. With the participation of N. Nikolsky and B. Sentry. Moscow, 1911, t. III).
  • 6. Рожков Н. Русская история в сравнительно-историческом освещении (основы социальной динамики). Ленинград — Москва, 1928, т. 4, с. 24-29. (N. Rozhkov Russian history in comparative historical illumination (basic social dynamics). Leningrad - Moscow, 1928, vol. 4, p. 24-29).
  • 7. Сталин И. В. Сочинения. — Т. 13.М.: Государственное издательство политической литературы, 1951.(Stalin The works. - V. 13. M.: State Publishing House of Political Literature, 1951).
  • 8. «Українське суспільство 1992-2011 рр. Соціологічний моніторинг» URL: http://i-soc.com.ua/institute/el_library.php(Last call 19.08.2015) ("Ukrainian Society 1992-2011. Sociological Monitoring").
  • In English and in French:
  • 1. Barlow D.H. (ed.) (2008): Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-Step Treatment Manual. New York: The Guilford Press.
  • 2. George Liber (1992): Soviet nationality policy, urban growth, and identity change in the Ukrainian SSR, 1923-1934. —322 p.
  • 3. Hoffman M.L. (1987): The Contribution of Empathy to Justice and Moral Judgment // Empathy and its Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • 4. Ithiel de Sola Pool (1963): Le rôle de la communication dans le processus de la modernisation et du changement technologique // Bert F. Hoselitz et Wilbert E. Moore (dir.), Industrialisation et société, Paris : Unesco. – 285 p.
  • 5. Lerner, Daniel (1958): Modernizing Styles of Life: A Theory, in Ders: The passing of Traditional Society. Modernizing the Middle East, Gemcoe. – 466 p.
  • 6. Lerner D. (2000): The Passing of Traditional Society: From Modernization to Globalization: Perspectives on Development and Social Change. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  • 9. Staub E. (1992): The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. – 352 p.
  • 7. The Global Competitiveness Report 2014 - 2015 URL:  http://www.weforum.org/reports/global-competitiveness-report-2014-2015(Last call 19.08.2015)
  • 8. Vries, Peer (2013): Escaping Poverty. The origins of modern economic growth. In: Vienna University Press. – 320 p.
  • Schramm W. (1964): Mass media and National Development; the Role of Information in the Developing Countries / Stanford CA: Stanford University Press. – 360 p.
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Comments: 6

Ateeva Viktoria

Very broad! All global relationships from a historical, sociological, economic and cultural point of view.

Karen Pahlevanyan

Уважаемая Татьяна, Спасибо за интересную статью. С уважением, Карен Пахлеванян.

Talpasheva Dinara

The article is interesting and relevant, is highly commendable. Important: Ukraine, finally, for the first time gained statehood as a result of the October Revolution in the USSR, and in 1991 and full independence. And the rest will be adjusted....

Filiakova Tetiana

Dear Dinara Talpasheva, thank you very much for your comment! The question left behind is whether Ukraine really gained this statehood already.. And this is a kind of rhetorical one. Because I would briefly characterize the present situation of Ukrainian state as still a transition one - even first stages of transition after the Soviet State Model and it will take many years of hard restructuring of the entire economic system, in order to at least come closer to the real state of complete independence.

Aleksey Konovalov

Поднята интересная научная проблема. Приведены многие точки зрения. Выражено авторское мнение. Оно - вполне понятное. Если говорить об Украине современной надо иметь ввиду и все бывшие Советские республики, а также царские окраины России в составе некогда развитой державы. Более того. Россия всегда оставалась ядром развития и способствовала этому ее окраинам. Украина, как и Казахстан, во многом близки и похожи в истории России, СССР. Они в течение долгого времени развивались в рамках единой державы и в этой связи были не самостоятельны в своих успехах. Представляется, что и Украина, и Казахстан в будущем не могут обойтись без тесных интеграционных связей. Для Украины выгодно строить интеграцию на все стороны, в т.ч. с Россией, а не замыкаться от нее. Согласен с важностью ценностей коллективизма и демократии. Я бы еще добавил, что все мы - члены общества заинтересованы в успехах друг - друга, а не - в поражениях, как того требует конкуренция.

Filiakova Tetiana

Уважаемый Алексей Коновалов, благодарю Вас за комментарий! К сожалению, не смотря на многолетние, а порой и многовековые уроки истории, миром по прежнему правит не рационализм, на котором базировался и так отчаянно стремился достичь всем известный неолиберализм со всеми его вытекающими последствиями. Почему к сожалению? Потому что обладая хоть толикой этого самого рационализма современный политикум, в данном случае Украины, должен бы был стремится к рациональному (в экономическом, социальном, культурном, историческом смысле) использованию имеющихся ресурсов (опять таки не только лишь природных), а не ставить во главу угла личные наживы и нещадное разграбление страны, что в результате дает лишь картину злого оскала неолиберализма и сателлитно-периферийного мира.
Comments: 6

Ateeva Viktoria

Very broad! All global relationships from a historical, sociological, economic and cultural point of view.

Karen Pahlevanyan

Уважаемая Татьяна, Спасибо за интересную статью. С уважением, Карен Пахлеванян.

Talpasheva Dinara

The article is interesting and relevant, is highly commendable. Important: Ukraine, finally, for the first time gained statehood as a result of the October Revolution in the USSR, and in 1991 and full independence. And the rest will be adjusted....

Filiakova Tetiana

Dear Dinara Talpasheva, thank you very much for your comment! The question left behind is whether Ukraine really gained this statehood already.. And this is a kind of rhetorical one. Because I would briefly characterize the present situation of Ukrainian state as still a transition one - even first stages of transition after the Soviet State Model and it will take many years of hard restructuring of the entire economic system, in order to at least come closer to the real state of complete independence.

Aleksey Konovalov

Поднята интересная научная проблема. Приведены многие точки зрения. Выражено авторское мнение. Оно - вполне понятное. Если говорить об Украине современной надо иметь ввиду и все бывшие Советские республики, а также царские окраины России в составе некогда развитой державы. Более того. Россия всегда оставалась ядром развития и способствовала этому ее окраинам. Украина, как и Казахстан, во многом близки и похожи в истории России, СССР. Они в течение долгого времени развивались в рамках единой державы и в этой связи были не самостоятельны в своих успехах. Представляется, что и Украина, и Казахстан в будущем не могут обойтись без тесных интеграционных связей. Для Украины выгодно строить интеграцию на все стороны, в т.ч. с Россией, а не замыкаться от нее. Согласен с важностью ценностей коллективизма и демократии. Я бы еще добавил, что все мы - члены общества заинтересованы в успехах друг - друга, а не - в поражениях, как того требует конкуренция.

Filiakova Tetiana

Уважаемый Алексей Коновалов, благодарю Вас за комментарий! К сожалению, не смотря на многолетние, а порой и многовековые уроки истории, миром по прежнему правит не рационализм, на котором базировался и так отчаянно стремился достичь всем известный неолиберализм со всеми его вытекающими последствиями. Почему к сожалению? Потому что обладая хоть толикой этого самого рационализма современный политикум, в данном случае Украины, должен бы был стремится к рациональному (в экономическом, социальном, культурном, историческом смысле) использованию имеющихся ресурсов (опять таки не только лишь природных), а не ставить во главу угла личные наживы и нещадное разграбление страны, что в результате дает лишь картину злого оскала неолиберализма и сателлитно-периферийного мира.
PARTNERS
 
 
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