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PECULIARITIES OF ENGLISH ECONOMIC TERMS’ TRANSLATION INTO UKRAINIAN

PECULIARITIES OF ENGLISH ECONOMIC TERMS’ TRANSLATION INTO UKRAINIAN
Usachenkoi Irina, lecturer

Kateryna Shapochka, associate professor, candidate of education

Feliks Loshchenov, student

Mykolayiv National University named after V.O. Suhomlinskiy, Ukraine

Conference participant

The articledeals with the basic ways of English economic terms’ translation into Ukrainian.

Keywords: economic term, way oftranslation,lexical equivalent, transcoding, transliteration, loan translation, descriptive method, concretization, generalization, compression.

 

Economic terminological system is characterized by dynamic development, thus it is in close contact with the life and development of society, responsive to language situation change, conveys scientific information. Modern scientific translation studies are aimed at studying the factors that influence the choice of translation variant and their connection with the target language specifications.

The problem of terms’ translation from English into Ukrainian has been one of the most pressing in modern translation studies. Investigation of the terms’ translation process was conducted by scientists V.Karaban, F.Tsytkina, N.Aleksandrova, L.Borysova, V.Danylenko etc. This process is of particular interest for economy, because over the last decade it has undergone an intensive development. The economic terminological system of the English language is numerous and complex, and this fact influences the occurrence of complications in the process of translation.

So professional terms as linguistic signs, which represent the concept of special professional field of science or technology, are an essential component of scientific and technical texts and one of the main difficulties of translation because of their ambiguity, lack of correspondences of the new terms in a target language, and some differences of terminology formation process in the English and Ukrainian languages.

Linguists emphasize that adequate translation of terms requires, first and foremost, an interpreter’s excellent knowledge of the science or technology field, which translation is actually applied to, and, secondly, understanding of the terms’ meaning in English and knowledge of professional terminology in the native language. “When translating scientific and technical literature, one of the important issues is the interaction of a term with the context in which it reveals its lexical meaning” [2, P.255], because only context allows to understand which particular field of knowledge a term belongs to and, accordingly, choose the right equivalent in the target language. Therefore, the scholar distinguishes two stages in the translation process of terms: the first one is identification of the term meaning in context, and the second one is translation of the meaning into the native language.

“The main method of translation is the translating by means of lexical equivalent. Equivalent is a constant lexical correspondence, which coincides with the meaning of a foreign word-term. Terms which have equivalents in the native language play an important role in the translating. They serve as reference points in the text, they determine the meaning discovery of other words, provide an opportunity to clarify the text character and the field which it belongs to” [2, P.255]. However, the search for equivalents in the native language to translate terms from a foreign language is complicated by the fact that terms are ambiguous and, depending on the field in which they are used, have different meanings and definitions. Therefore, a term is not always translated by means of a term that is by means of complete and absolute equivalent. However some terms are indeed unambiguous and have no other meanings ​​in any other fields and are always translated by means of an absolute equivalent. For example such terms as economics, chemistry, lexicology, atom, money, market, biology have exact correspondences in the Ukrainian language: економіка, хімія, лексикологія, атом, гроші, ринок, біологія;they are easily found in common dictionaries without calling even to professional ones. However, the proportion of such terms in general term stock is minor, so the translation of most of specific field terms is not just a replacement of a word-term by an appropriate term sign in the target language. “Translation of terms would be easy and simple only in the case if scientific literature had a monopoly on their use, or if each term in fact had a term equivalent in any pair of languages. But it does not work that way. So the best way of translation is “notion -> Ukrainian term”, but not “foreign term -> Ukrainian term”, regardless of a target language” [3, P.35]. That is the search of a term correspondence in the target language must begin, first of all, with properties’ analysis of a new foreign notion. And if the name of a foreign notion-term is based on its most important property or successful comparison, then in other languages ​​(into which the term sign is being translated) these properties will be considered as basic ones. In such cases, the translation of a term actually turns into translation of an ordinary language unit, which is the easiest way to match a name with a certain foreign scientific notion.

The results of the research have demonstrated that the translation of special field terminology, including economic, is carried out in various ways, such as the following interlingual transformations: lexical, lexical-semantic and lexical-grammatical. The main task of a translator is to choose the right method during the translation process to convey the meaning of each term as precisely as possible.

One of the easiest lexical means of economic terms’ translation is transcoding. Transcoding is a literal or phoneme by phoneme conveying of a source lexical unit using target language alphabet. This method is often used to translate English economic term signs, because the spelling system of the English language is very different from the Ukrainian one and involves, first of all, the rendering of a sound form of a term, and then its lexical meaning.

However, using such method of translation as transliteration, one should not forget about the “translator’s false friends”, which have different meanings despite the structural similarity in the English and Ukrainian languages. These are pseudo-internationalisms, i.e. the words of the source and target languages ​​that do not have similar lexical meanings. Transliteration of these words “will lead to an unjustified semantic loan translation, violation of lexical compatibility, stylistic inadequacy of the Ukrainian equivalent, and eventually, to serious misinterpretation of the lexical meaning of the word which is being translated” [1, P.410]. Although these words are quite common in economic texts, they do not have the status of economic terms.

This method is often used in translation of names of various companies, corporations, and financial institutions. The terms can also be rendered by another lexical means of translation namely loan translation, i.e. rendering of combinatorial, not sound, composition of words when parts of words (morphemes) or phrasemes (lexemes) are translated by equivalent elements of the target language.

The most common lexical method of economic terms’ translation is descriptive translation to render the meaning of a term-sign. This method is used in the translation of economic notions and realias that have been known for a long time in post-industrial societies, but only now begin to appear in the Ukrainian society. Rendering of meanings ​​of such terms is possible only through additional revelation and explanation of the new terminological units’ content. These terms are presented by modern forms of trade and financial services.

In cases when specialized dictionary doesn’t contain the exact equivalent of this or that economic term, or when the use of loan translation, transliteration or descriptive translation can’t be used, lexical-semantic and lexical-grammatical methods of translation are possible. In particular, the methods, mentioned above, used in the translation of specialized terms, include concretization and generalization.

Concretization is the process by which a unit of a wider concrete content is rendered using the unit of a specific content in the target language. Because of the fact that “the English words are characterized by more extensive semantic structure than the equivalent Ukrainian words, their translation in many cases can be wrong, and the situation with the translation of such words from Ukrainian into English is more reliable, because the English word can be used in the wrong sense that will lead to great misrepresentation of the content” [1, P.409].

Sometimes in the Ukrainian language it is necessary to substitute a word or a word combination, which has a wide range of meanings in the English language, with an equivalent, which specifies the meaning according to the context or stylistic standards. First of all, this kind of substitution presupposes the search of a synonymic equivalent in the target language, which will render the field classification of a lexical unit more specifically and according to stylistic standards.

The synonymic replacement of an English economic term with a wider concrete content to specify its meaning in the target language is also used in the translation practice and is justified at micro context level only when the meaning of the sentence is quite clear.

Generalization is also possible during the translation of economic terms. Generalization of the original meaning occurs in cases when an extent of information order of an original unit is wider than the one of an equivalent unit in the target language.

Another lexical-grammatical translation method of the modern economic terminology is compression which is a more compact presentation of thoughts due to omission of unnecessary elements and extra-linguistic context [1]. This method is usually used by translators dealing with professional terminology at macro context level; it is rarely used at the level of micro context because this may lead to unjustified omission of the lexical meaning of a term.

Undoubtedly, the translation of terms is a very important task for a translator, which requires a high degree of competence in both languages, complex perception of the world picture, as well as an excellent knowledge of the field of science or technology, which actually relates to the translation. Indeed, despite the expansion of international cultural and economic relations in the world, the use of modern means of communication, such as, the Internet, and the consequent enrichment of different languages ​​and cultures, the translator can’t ignore the fact that every language is a unique and dynamic structure. It is characterized by its realias, developed cultural and historical realias, and emerging of new realias and concepts that do not have equivalents at the time of their translation into other languages. That is why a translator obtains the role of an interlingual mediator, which helps recipients get the necessary information for them, and at the same time, perpetuates new terminological lexical units in the vocabulary of their native language.

During the translation of English economic terms, experienced translators usually choose one or another way of translation, basing on the content of the context in which a field term is used, and sometimes they combine all techniques mentioned above to render their lexical meaning in the target language as precisely as possible, saving thus, the form and morphemic structure of an original terminological unit. And despite the fact that modern English is the producer of new international economic terms, the adequate translation of field terminology is particularly important for the successful establishment and normalization of Ukrainian financial-economic terminology in accordance with international standards.

 

References:

  • 1.    Карабан В.І. Переклад англійської наукової і технічної літератури. Граматичні труднощі, лексичні, термінологічні та жанрово-стилістичні проблеми. – Вінниця: Нова книга, 2002. – 458 с.
  • 2.    Коваленко А.Я.Общий курс научно-технического перевода: Пособие по переводу с англ.языка на рус. – К.: ИНКОС, 2003. – 320 с.
  • 3.    Наконечна Г.Українська науково-технічна термінологія. Історія і сьогодення //Вісник Львів.держ.ун-ту ім.І.Франка. – 1999. – №8. – С.29-37.
Comments: 1

Hamze Dimitrina

Уважаемая коллега! Большое Вам спасибо за ценный и актуальный доклад! Экономическая сфера одна из самых динамических и трансформативных областей жизни. Этот факт действительно ставит перед рядом испытаний как переводчика, так и самый перевод как таковой. Особенное внимание заслуживают выявленые Вами методы, используемые при переводе специализированных терминов. Желаю дальнейших успехов! Сердечно и с уважением! Димитрина
Comments: 1

Hamze Dimitrina

Уважаемая коллега! Большое Вам спасибо за ценный и актуальный доклад! Экономическая сфера одна из самых динамических и трансформативных областей жизни. Этот факт действительно ставит перед рядом испытаний как переводчика, так и самый перевод как таковой. Особенное внимание заслуживают выявленые Вами методы, используемые при переводе специализированных терминов. Желаю дальнейших успехов! Сердечно и с уважением! Димитрина
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