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THE PHENOMENON OF SUFFERING IN CONTEMPORARY ANTHROPOLOGICAL DISCOURSE

Автор Доклада: 
Alieva N., Shevchenko J., Nekrasova E.
Награда: 
THE PHENOMENON OF SUFFERING IN CONTEMPORARY ANTHROPOLOGICAL DISCOURSE

УДК 14: (00+62)

THE PHENOMENON OF SUFFERING IN CONTEMPORARY ANTHROPOLOGICAL DISCOURSE

Natalia Alieva, Dr philosophy
Julia Shevchenko, graduate
South Russia State University of Economics and Service
Elena Nekrasova, graduate
North Caucasus Research Center High School


The article exposes the concept of the phenomenon of pain in the anthropological discourse of modernity. It is about the impact of modern technology not only to the biological nature of man, but on the spiritual. Held philosophical analysis of contemporary anthropological conceptions of man of the future - man after man.
Keywords: the phenomenon of suffering, anthropological discourse, the nature of man, man after man.

Scientific and technological development of mankind has brought a flurry of nano-bio-geno-neuro-information and other revolutions, associated not only with science, technology, and human nature. Human nature is not clear. Modern philosophy considers man not only as a biological creature, which arose as a result of natural evolution, but also as being intelligent, emotional, spiritual, social and cultural.. Studying the phenomenon of man, should be considered a whole range of characteristics of human existence in the world. At the present time, science has a set of disparate theories; the concepts presented in the first place, the sciences of man. The knowledge about man is multifaceted, fragmented and provides no means complete and contradictory picture of human nature.
Nevertheless, there are major changes in perceptions about human nature, caused by the latest technology. XX century has brought a revolutionary change, which strongly affects the possibility of transformation of the biological nature of man through genetic engineering in relation to changes in its genetic characteristics. XXI century did introduced the possibility of changing human practice of nanotechnology to radically change a person and turn him into a man after man. Futurists (Jean Baudrillard, Fukuyama, Habermas) argue that the latest modern technology industry marked the beginning of a future of «man after man», which transforms not only the existence of mankind, but also human nature.
This situation raises many questions. So what is the future of «man after man»: illusion or reality that threatens us? That humanity can gain and lose that way? And how should we treat human race fast technology, which has caused a flurry of scientific revolutions in the sciences of man? What makes the future of «man after man» danger?
Philosophical understanding of the challenges of the future man stands on the two polar positions. First of all, is the concern of philosophers of the problems associated with modern man. They see the greatest threat to mankind in the art: "The threat to man comes not primarily from the potentially lethal machines and technological equipment is always a real threat is directed against human nature." (Martin Heidegger) [1].
Francis Fukuyama in his book "Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the biotechnology revolution," says the main problem of what it means to be human, either to stay with the desired properties (accidentals) and the existing set of emotional responses, or change themselves to improve the attributes of his nature. Fukuyama asks: "What is so important to be human in the traditional sense ... In the end, the present human species is the result of an evolutionary process that has lasted millions of years and yet, God willing, the same will continue. And there is no fixed property rights, in addition to the overall ability to choose what we want to be, and to change ourselves according to our wishes and who told us what it means to be human and have the advantage of a range of - emotional reactions that have arisen as a by-product of our evolution? Such thing as a biological family, human nature or "normal" person does not exist, and even if they were, why they we should focus on the question of what is right? and fair ... We must continue to suffer to have pain, loneliness, suffering from diseases that make us crippled and -. That's because it was common for people in the history of their existence as a species ... why cling to these properties and say that they are at the heart " human dignity ", it might be worth just to know its purpose? - we are creatures who can change themselves [2].
This approach raises the question of modification, transformation, renewal rights. Several authors have immediately removed even the possibility of such a formulation of the problem. Human existence is defined by its own properties, mind, consciousness that can not be changed without changing its nature and does not make it not a man. At the heart of human nature is the notion of exclusivity and over-time person in the universe. Until now, there are views of human nature unchanged, over-time constant of the ontological, as defined by a set of properties (accidents). A manifestation of this attitude can be seen as the anthropos principle, which states that the universe was created just for well-defined, existed at the time the person who will remain the same at all times, that is over-time.
All speeding race in the basic sciences and industry super technology leads us to the notion of so-called " man after man," which will appear in the future of «man after man». This is a special time of the evolutionary state of genesis of anthropos society in which the center of discourse, a phenomenon of nature and society is no longer a man, and man after man.
Grounds for a radical turn in the perception of human nature are the following innovations. First, the possibility of scientific and technological expansion in the world of human genes that alter genes, genome, human genetics. Change the biological nature of man creates a real opportunity to expand the so-called rights of its transition to man after man. Will he from this man?
Second, the possibility of nanotechnology are endless replacement of all the atoms and cells with new ones, which leads him to an infinite life and immortality. But will such a modified system of a person, or be artificial being, a cyber clone with artificial intelligence. Will there had emotions and whether he spiritual and moral? Here and there are opponents and supporters of man after man. The problem of human nature is undergoing fundamental changes. Eternal discourse about human nature flares again with the expansion of new trends and attitudes that undermine the understanding of human nature as ontologically immutable and eternal. On the one hand, the old philosophical anthropology and bioethics, on the other side of Transhumanism, immortality, the concept of technological singularity, etc. Who is right?
"Posthuman" stage of human history, called the Posthuman Future, is just engaged in the practice of using high or powerful super technology such as nanomedical, molecular biological, genomic, neural, and others, to transform a person, not only its nature but also his consciousness , reason, spirituality. We call this transformation or modernization upgrade rights. Under the upgrade, we mean any system upgrades designed to improve its quality.
Thus, scientific and technical development of urgency to the central idea of the anthropological discourse - the idea of improvement, modernization and upgrading of the human race. It requires the person to top view current and future human, who is called or man after man transition man. This can only top view philosophy. Combining different views of different forms of scientific thought - natural philosophical, metaphysical, religious, technical and others, can make the solution of problem analysis ability or inability to upgrade the practice of human nature in the future and design man after man. Moreover, its review of demand questions about the possibility, necessity and legality of the practice of upgrading, changing and transforming people. What? In man after man - meet and transhumanists immoralists, a cyber, artificial intelligence - respond to their opponents. Our task - to make sense of all these problems.
Here and there is still another facet of possibility and necessity of changing human nature, its moral and spiritual spheres. We consider this problem as an example of anthropological phenomena, such as suffering and compassion.
The modern world with its natural and social disasters, either directly or indirectly affect the rights, causes different feelings and reactions in his heart, including pain. Society, developing, reconstructing their form, invades the lives of violence, forms and manifestations are different. Social life is danger of social slavery, violent attempts to rebuild people's lives: war, revolution, international terrorism, which involve hunger, misery and suffering for them, many people.
It should be noted and the dangers we carry natural and man-world. All these dangers claim thousands of lives and leave people without homes and possessions, and give rise to human suffering. XX century has brought an understanding that not only give rise to social causes of human suffering, but also the entire world around him becomes a cause of "universal nature of suffering" (Erich Fromm).
"Suffering makes a person a real man... Like many philosophers and writers who are suffering from a man who finds solace in human solidarity, it can ease their own suffering, compassion for others. Thus, Dostoevsky felt compassion for the most important and perhaps the only law of all mankind, and Berdyaev wrote that the new ethic of compassion should be put on a par with freedom and creativity.
Philosophical analysis of the phenomenon of compassion shows that compassion is not only an intimate domestic human feelings. As the complexity of human compassion to society extends beyond personal feelings and the social and philosophical context has emerged as the "universal principle of social relations, the enduring value and an essential element of public institutions of society" (VP Starostin) [3].
Compassion from the misfortunes of others sympathetic to move in to help. Thus there is a change in moral values of compassion from empathy to the suffering of another internal to the individual actions to an active, activity compassion. Moreover, compassion is beyond the scope of individual thoughts and actions, and goes on general human level. It becomes a principle of construction of social relations. Compassion and charity are the already social activities, social work, is the institutionalization of social work. Compassion is not alone and the most important element of the state institutions of society. It provides a stable functioning of society as a harmonious system that has compassion and enriches the mind and consciousness of each person as part of the community.
Thus, suffering and compassion is, of course, the fundamental moral - ethical values without which it is impossible to further the progress of man and human society. Will the value of this constant change in the future of man? What happens to morality, ethics, spirituality man after man? Modern anthropological Forsythe, trying to comprehend the human future, are very polar opinions on this issue. For example, Francis Fukuyama, recalling the romance-utopia Huxley's "Brave New World," in which people through drugs or other technical means of action in the brain become happy and nestradayuschimi, believed that they have ceased to be human: "They do not fight, they will not want to. They do not like, do not suffer, do not make difficult moral choices, have families and do not do anything such that we traditionally think of men. They no longer have the properties that give us dignity. "[2].
Pathos Fukuyama leads to the conclusion that "the pursuit of prosperity in this case leads to the burial of the human in man. Consequently, the return-to-person is a return to love, which is always suffering and sacrifice. It means the fullness of living "[4].
S.A Smirnov, agrees that "one can not wish for a man of hunger and disease. You can not force a person to suffer. But it is suffering make it man. And then note: this is how we think. The fundamental assumption of a man deeply ingrained in us to become a man, to suffer, work hard, a lot of worry, worry. This is what is the anthropological norm "[4].
But should we expect the immutability of these rules in the future? By changing the nature of the first man, his biology, physicality, we were horrified when they saw themselves in the clones, cyborgs, androids, who are deprived of the second nature of man - the cultural, moral, and not creation of the first nature, and cultivated by man in spiritual practices. So, the first change in human nature will change and his second nature.
There is another point of view on this issue. Thus, Epstein believes that the ordinary "man thing of the past as a species - and moving into the future as a technological view, the production of cyber (Cyber), an artificial organism, the genetic Fantasy" [5]. SA Smirnov believes that such a prudent person after person is shocking to the point of philosophy and intellectual science fiction.
S.S Horuzhy, represents a new direction in anthropology - anthropology, transformative, notes that the analysis of problems of human need to focus not only on technological innovation. SA Cornet wrote: "Hermeneutics of post-human tendency not to be considered technology, and anthropology, but putting such questions as: What happens to the mind and the whole human person what happens to the sphere of emotions, and perceptions? Aesthetic? In the field of communications the social dimension of existence? And so "[6].
Thus, anthropological Forsythe decides whether the effect of transforming human nature in spiritual practice. There is no doubt that the fundamental moral - ethical values, such as suffering and compassion that are the object of our philosophical analysis of the impact on the further progress of human society.

References:
1. Martin Heidegger, Bask Writings (New York: Harper and Row, 1957), p. 308
2. Fukuyama F. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the biotechnology revolution / Francis Fukuyama, Trans. from English. MB Levin. - Moscow: OOO "Publisher AST": OAO "LUX", 2004. - 349. [3]. - (Philosophy).
3. V.P Starostin Compassion as a socio-philosophical phenomenon. / Abstract. cand. diss. 2008. - 28 sec.
4. S.A Smirnov Man after man. Anthropological Forsyth.
5. M. Epstein Humanology. The outlines of a new discipline. / / Philosophical Age. Almanac 21. Science of man in the world today. Part 21. - SPb.: Saint-Petersburg Center of the History of Ideas, 2002.
6. S.S. Chorunzi The problem of man after man or transformative anthropology through the eyes of Synergetic Anthropology. / / Philosophy. - 2008. - № 2 

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Спасибо всем за комментарии и

Спасибо всем за комментарии и оценки! Ответы на поставленные вопросы будут даны в диссертационном исследовании, а в данной конкретной статье были рассмотрены только изменения духовной сферы человека на примере феномена страдания. С уважением, Ю. С. Шевченко.

An interesting topic but I

An interesting topic but I would include more examples and stress more why suffering is so essencial in making us human

Очент актуальная проблема.

Очент актуальная проблема. Хотелось бы больше конкретики, как в самой работе, так и в выводах. Авторы ставят много вопросов. Хотелось бы увидеть ответы. Современные технологии влияют на изменение эмоциональной сферы - как? соотношение эмоционального и рационального - как? сознания - как?В целом как изменяется духовная сфера, ценности современного человека. Все эти изменения воздействуют на социокод культуры в целом и на личностную культуру отдельного человека. Наверное, эти вопросы будут затронуты в дальнейших исследованиях авторов.

Интересная статья. Я с Вами

Интересная статья. Я с Вами абсолютно согласна, что Мир спасёт высшая духовность, милосердие, сострадание и как обычно говорится - красота.

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