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Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Ukraine";
The aim of this paper is to analyze international factors in the formation and development of technological competitive advantages of the country. Analyzes current trends and developed an algorithm to improve the effectiveness of international economic relations in terms of technological criteria.
Keywords: globalization, innovation, international technology transfer, market, model, foreign investment.
Целью данной работы является анализ международных факторов формирования и развития технологических конкурентных преимуществ страны. Проанализированы существующие тенденции и разработан алгоритм повышения эффективности МЭО с точки зрения технологического критерия.
Ключевые слова: глобализация, инновации, международный трансфер технологий, рынок, модель, иностранные инвестиции.
Communication «problem ?knowledge ?imagination ?innovation ?intellectual property ?solution in the form of improved products and new technology» continues to be a powerful stimulus for economic development and in the knowledge economy this role is increasing.
The main priorities is the ability to create something that can not produce more that can be achieved by just technology. In particular, the global output of knowledge- and technology-intensive industries as a share of global GDP increased to close to 30% of global GDP in 2007, with knowledge-intensive services accounting for the greatest share at 26%, and high-technology manufacturing industries accounting for 4% (the five high-technology manufacturing industries include aerospace, pharmaceuticals, computers and office machinery, communications equipment, and scientific instruments).
Trade in technology comprises four main categories: transfer of techniques (through patents and licenses, disclosure of know-how); transfer (sale, licensing, franchising) of designs, trademarks and patterns; services with a technical content, including technical and engineering studies as well as technical assistance; industrial R&D.
In general and specifically in this study we consider the problem from next two sides:
1) formation of technological advantages through technology transfer;
2) strengthening the existing competitive advantages at the expense of the international factor.
At the beginning it should be mentioned, that markets of technology differ from markets for other goods and services in several key ways: codified versus non-codified knowledge, absorptive capacity of technology acquirer, information asymmetry, appropriability problem. In the case of high technology, these differences are significantly enhanced.
The process of knowledge management in the high-tech firms is therefore focused on developing their competitiveness in an unstable and volatile market. Firms have to build up their sustainable competitive advantages through developing and/or acquiring strategic resources .
High-technology industries in Ireland, Finland, the United States and Iceland perform more than two-thirds of all manufacturing R&D (figure 1). Our studies show a correlation between the technological intensity of the economy and socio-economic development of nations.
Figure 1 Business R&D in the manufacturing sector by technological intensity, 2008
As a percentage of manufacturing business enterprise R&D
Today we can say that high technology has become a source of growth. According to the figure and the OECD high-tech sector during the first wave of the global crisis of 2008 showed nimenshee decline among all the others (figure 2). Under certain assumptions of the crisis itself was caused by technological pause when prev technology (especially ICT) could no longer continue to stimulate growth, and new (nano technology) is still not as integrated into the economic cycle.
The next factor is the innovative nature of foreign investment. FDI flows have grown from less than 5% of global GDP in 1980 to over 15% in the late 1990’s. Globalisation is not only trade. It also involves foreign direct investment including offshoring and relocation and an increase in all forms of technology transfer.
Attractiveness for investment in innovation is high on the policy agenda in many countries as innovation is a key factor of growth and competitiveness. Virtually all governments keen to attract international investment by multinational enterprises (MNEs, TNCs) as a means to promote growth and employment, create new jobs and bring in new technologies.
Figure 2 OECD manufacturing trade by technology intensity, 1995-2009
TNCs invest in developing markets in order «to protect the existing market, to create new markets, to bypass prohibitive barriers and import restrictions, to take advantage of cheap labor and skills, and to discover or protect raw materials» . All these priorities can best be fulfilled by retaining ownership and control of the technology transferred to a foreign market incident to an investment in that market. The task of a country is to create conditions to attract certain groups of TNCs, which will develop the country of the recipient. Among the top 1,000 global R&D spenders a modest number of MNEs from middle-income economies, notably from China and India, now conduct R&D on a par with their counterparts in high-income countries. The growing economic clout of these countries is giving rise to so-called “reverse” innovation which emphasizes the development of products that meet the needs of consumers in these markets .
According to OECD researches  location determinants in high-technology industries (industry approach of innovation) are the size of the market, the availability of high-quality resources such as scientific infrastructure and the supply of skilled labor, agglomeration effects arising from the proximate location of other companies and public knowledge centers. Cost considerations, including labor costs, appear to be more secondary than in other industries; instead, the quality of the location factors in the host country is much more important.
Several authors have noted that the export of high technology is an advantage of the industrialized countries, although in recent years, new exporters of those products - the newly industrialized countries. But in addition, a number of countries have a narrow technological advantage in some areas (eg, space technology in post-Soviet countries).
Technology receipts from patents and licences and -payments for R&D services are the main source of infor-mation on disembodied technology diffusion and indicate the internationalisation of technology flows (figure 3).
Figure 3 RLF payments and receipts, USD millions (left) and
percentage share of GDP (right), 1960-2009 
Considering the high-tech development strategy is necessary to consider all stakeholders: the state as the main subject of innovation policy, the characteristics of industries and businesses (business entities) as the misuse of foreign economic activity participants. As a result of the above, you can propose a model of the formation process of competitive advantages at the international level. It is based on a broad model of public-private partnership and includes three levels of control:
1) level of companies (micro level);
2) level of industries and sectors;
3) state level (institutional or strategy level).
According to the model, participation in international processes should be consistent with the objectives of each level (figure 4).
In the field of high technologies are extremely valuable technology and development. Protection of intellectual property throughout its lifecycle, as well as management of patents and copyrights is the top priorities of companies, by definition. Patent protection in the event of international relations has the following functions:
- patent information facilitates technology transfer and foreign direct investment;
- patents encourage research and development in universities and research centers;
- patents are catalysts of new technologies and business practices (firms are confident to disclose technology when negotiating a licensing contract and patents offer a delineation of technological assets combined with the assurance of market exclusivity)
- enterprises accumulate patents involved in licensing, joint plants and other lucrative deals on the basis of such assets.
We use the clonal selection algorithm, the essence of which lies in the consistent optimization of the set (card-playing) variables, the substitution which gives the optimal objective function value. Its use varies depending on the chosen technology strategy.
Figure 4 Simplified algorithm for registration of the international factor in the formation process of competitive advantages
At the state level it requires a strategy to create the institutional conditions of integration into the international innovative space that includes a mechanism for international agreements and adaptation the legal framework to the needs of the subjects of international economic relations. For example, the legal regulation of high technology are quite problematic, which complicates the implementation of economic activities in these areas.The necessity of this is confirmed by the increasing role of international cooperation and technological innovation (figure 5). Relations and cooperation between the companies currently played more important than in the past, the role and more often include intensive services.
Figure 5 International co-operation in patents. Patents with foreign co-inventors 
To confirm the need for a systematic approach we present the following arguments.
Case study of (B?rgel, Fier, Licht, Murray, 2000)  evidence suggests that early internationalization is a contributor to success in high-tech markets. The step from home to foreign markets is often associated with large growth prospects. 70% (60%) of UK (German) firms in our sample of high-tech start-ups consider the potential of foreign markets for long-term company growth as their mail motive for international business activities.
For example, the system state of innovation of small businesses well developed in France. Making sure that the increased activity of small firms affects the growth of the international competitiveness of the country, special programs are implemented by innovative businesses, contributing to their cost through subsidies, tax incentives, preferential loans, venture capital and advisory services. Support and training of employees of small businesses involved in the Association of Industrial Promotion (APRODI) under the Ministry of Trade and Industry of France. Special Company SOFARIS (Societe Francaise de Garantie des Petits et Moyennes Enterprises), including 12 regional agencies and commercial banks, helping small businesses to upgrade equipment and international cooperation, as well as a special fund for lending to research projects, new product development and launch them to market. In France, there is also a regional network of innovative centers and organizations, transfer centers, technology transfer and the type of firms mentioned "incubators" of technology . It should be noted as a function of the state information and analytical support for international activities, particularly of modern methods of information support for decision-making on development and implementation of knowledge-intensive, technologically advanced product innovation and development.
As a result, the consistency technology policies at all levels within the state and corresponding global trends it is able to significantly increase the competitiveness of the state through innovative development.