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Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Russia";
Currently knowledge and information gain the role of the most important factor of public production development and allow overcoming the limitedness of material resources (including natural ones) and increasing labor effectiveness. During the examination of the problem it was revealed that the possession of the technological, commerce, financial information, ability to apply it is the intellectual asset of the firm, its invisible assets, identifying its market value which sometimes differ from the account assessment of the material funds.
Increment of knowledge and information has no limit in essence. It doesn't decrease during its usage but on the contrary, it widens, deepens and get renewed. Knowledge transfer isn't accompanied by its alienation from the former owner, so the scope of its activity increases manyfold. As opposed to other resources, knowledge cannot be limited and rare. With the help of knowledge the limitedness and the rareness of other production resources can be overcome.
In the contemporary high-tech production rich with knowledge (including the commercial which takes into consideration the peculiarities of the customer demand), the direct expense ratio in the ultimate (customer) assessment of the welfare decreases dramatically. At the same time the expense ratio of the feedback increases, the size of which reflects the economic value of the welfare, including the price created by knowledge, its contribution into the satisfaction of needs or into the economy of the public resources.
The value problem created by the information technologies refers to the new economy. Huge exceeding of the market price of shares and other securities over the real assets is considered sometimes as a speculative value which is regulated by nearly mystical reasons. A part of the market value of the securities, corporations and its isolation from the balance assessment of funds depends directly on its human and intellectual potential , on the "value created by knowledge", on the positions in the informational sphere, including the possession and usage of technological, organizational and also commercial information. The scheme of the closed loop of transformation of knowledge into the profit is represented in pic. 1.
It is obvious that the condition of the new economy origin is the existence of knowledge. Its combination with the analytical abilities allow reaching a certain result which provides the additional profit earning. The earned profit can be partially invested in further education, in social security, in the secondary enterprise, production diversity.
Pic. 1. Closed loop of transformation of knowledge into the profit
If an economic unit (a firm) or the administration of higher level "advance money" to the head putting him on the payroll before resuming the economic activities, the result follows the "remuneration of labor". Anyway the connection between the profitability of an enterprise and the capitalization is both direct and reverse, so the phased increase of salary should be considered both as a consequence of the productivity of labor growth and as its prerequisite, and also both as a function and as an argument of the results of labor change. It is necessary to take into account that the connection between the first and the last link of the presented scheme has more probabilistic character, as the person makes a decision about the further education mainly being under the influence of economic, social and his own psychological peculiarities. So, the intellectual capital provides a person with a relevant place on the labor market.
If the firm has bigger "intellectual capital", it provides its higher efficiency. It has an effect on the remuneration of labor. The extra income has an indirect effect on the intellectual capital, as the increased income rises the firm status and increases directly the motivation and the material ability of the further knowledge development by means of training. Then "the spiral" becomes screwed up again. If the "capital circulation" scheme functions this way ("in a positive direction"), the so called satisfaction which intensifies the connection between the mentioned links is "build" into this scheme.
Emphasizing the positive consequences of "the innovative economy" formation, we should notice the risks caused by this process. So, in the conditions of the IT intensive development in the developed countries some of the dominating economy segments will integrate into the global economic system and others will increase its isolation from the processes of accumulation and consumption. Material and financial streams will "bypass" the uncompetitive regions and segments of economics. At the same time, the informational component of the reproductive process will become the basis of the leading countries prosperity and of its dominating position in the world, intensifying the information inequality.
It should be noticed that the links of the scheme are not equivalent. Knowledge, intellectual capital and capitalization are so called bearing links and the intellectual capital and the enterprise profitability are derivative ones, as the first three links are necessary components which predetermine the enterprise profitability. On the other hand, the capitalization of the enterprise, knowledge and the achieved result influence the intellectual capital, and in this context the intellectual capital is a derivative component.
It's important for Russia nowadays to keep pace with the processes which are held in the IT sphere during the formation of the relevant international legislation and integration into the world market zone. The investors enter the Russian market very carefully, acquainted with the financial crisis, tax legislation, crimes. But it is impossible to avoid the investments into the development of the new economics in Russia because the potential market of goods and services is too big and the main thing is that there are a lot of consumers.
First of all, it is necessary to invest in the telecommunication sphere, as the qualitative access to the Internet (especially in the regions) is one of the preconditions of the increase of the Internet users quantity.
In our opinion the basic task for the Russian Government is the growth of the competitiveness of the economic agents and the creation of new jobsites by using the opportunities provided by new informational technologies for the development of the new online commerce, modernization of management of business, finance and human resources, promotion of new products and services. Specifically, the development of the IT industry as one of the strategic and priority sectors of the economics development of the country; formation and consolidation of the normative legal and controlling basis in the IT sphere for the purpose of promoting the electronic economics and electronic commerce, matching the normative legal basis to the international requirements, particularly to the requirements of the European Union; creation and promotion of the national systems of electronic payments which allow paying for the goods and services via the Internet at the fair price; the development of the Internet-platforms of the electronic commerce for the purpose of promotion of the local goods and services export; the wide-ranging application of the electronic commerce for the government purchase; improvement of the professional standard f the business sphere representatives and representatives of the public institutions in the sphere of electronic economics, promotion of the electronic commerce advantages.
So, the factors which prevent the economics development and which are based on the IT application are presented in picture 2.
Factors favouring the economics development (pic. 3) which are based on the IT application.
The potential opportunities of the exclusion of the country from the crisis with the help of IT are very considerable. These are: the general rationalization; "professionalization" of the decisions making by means of intensification of information and knowledge usage; increase of social and economic activity of the citizens with the help of development of such personal qualities as the ability to choose and seek for an optimal strategy, the ability to master new things. The economic conditions for competitive innovative production to enter the market should become the results of the state policy in the sphere of innovative system development. The actions of favourable economic and legal environment creation should become the means of the state policy in the sphere of innovative system development.