facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley
Wiki

IMPORTS AND ECONOMIC SECURITY (IN EAST KAZAKHSTAN)

Автор Доклада: 
Konovalov A. P., Tischenko J. A.
Награда: 
IMPORTS AND ECONOMIC SECURITY (IN EAST KAZAKHSTAN)

UDK 316.33.52 (574.42):330.34

IMPORTS AND ECONOMIC SECURITY (IN EAST KAZAKHSTAN)

Konovalov Aleksey Petrovich, cand. of the historical sciences, associate professor, the honored figure of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Semeyed State University named after Shakarim,center of SocialMonitoring and Forecasting
Tischenko Julya Aleksandrovana, student
Semeyed State University named after Shakarim

 

The article contains the materials of the public opinion poll conducted by the authors in the territory of the East Kazakhstan region and concerning the problems of consolidation of the republic’s economic safety under the conditions when import consumer goods prevail on markets.
Predominance of import substantially restrains the development of domestic industry, limits the opportunities of Kazakhstan people in expanding of labor employment. Besides, considerable part of import does not correspond to elementary quality requirements. The article is intended for a wide range of readers.
Key words: goods, security, import, economics, sociology

 

The sociological interview was made in 2011 year. It was attended by1458 people in cities and villages of the East Kazakhstan. In the corresponding proportions there are all of the main socio-demographic categories of the population in East Kazakhstan Area.  In general, we have some information, which allows sufficiently qualified to judge the distribution of consumer goods imported and domestically produced. We can see the attitude of East Kazakhstan people about the problem of manufacturinggoodsin Kazakhstan. The most part of goods is not manufactured in Kazakhstan.The limitedscope of this article does not allow presenting all the research material. That is why we present you the most interesting moments for readers. We will start analyzing the results in table1 from the importance ofsocial issuesinmodernlife of East Kazakhstan people.

Testing was conductedon twenty-eight questions. We show the rating to ten social problems, in the context of only two major cities, villages and the main ages in general.

It is impossible notto note that in the first ten social problems were a wide range of - economic, environmental, utilities, drugs, language, education quality, etc.Such diversity, in our opinion, shows a lot, including the fact that our republic actively goes out of economic doldrums and solve complex issues of a higher order - of development.

Table1. Rating the importance of the first dozen social problems among residents of the East Kazakhstan region (in%)

№№ p.p.

 

 

 

The main problems

Amount The East Kazakhstan Region

Consist of

Semey city

Ust Kamenogorsk City

The villages of the East Kazakhstan Region

18-29 years

30-39 years

40-49 years

50-59 years

60 years and older

1.

The  increasing prices

60,4

56,3

55,3

69,2

52,0

70,6

53,8

62,9

75,8

2.

The ecology

45,0

35,0

63,5

39,3

53,1

40,7

50,3

32,9

24,2

3.

The corruption

31,8

33,1

27,1

34,4

33,7

25,8

33,3

39,9

30,5

4.

The unemployment

30,5

25,9

8,5

54,9

23,1

32,1

33,1

35,0

41,1

5.

The conditions of the streets and roads

29,2

32,0

36,2

19,8

39,0

28,0

26,3

17,5

17,9

6.

The drug addiction

23,6

23,1

18,6

28,5

32,3

19,5

18,0

35,7

5,3

7.

The language problems

21,5

24,1

17,0

22,9

26,3

21,2

16,7

16,1

28,4

8.

The payand expensivemedical care

17,5

20,5

13,8

17,6

12,5

18,1

17,5

25,9

25,3

9.

The quality of education

17,1

21,4

11,0

17,8

21,9

14,5

14,3

14,0

22,1

10.

The poor health

16,5

13,4

18,4

18,2

18,9

21,0

11,3

10,5

15,8

Dynamicsof the interview in the territories and age of respondents show us , for example, that prices increase sharply experiencing relatively young people (most with small children) and the rural population.The severity of ecology is clearly expressed in Ust-Kamenogorsk, unemployment - again, in the countryside, etc.

Looking ahead, we note that the problem of reducing the share of domestic goods in the consumption of Kazakhstan worries quite a small part of the region's population (6.5%).This is what we have in mind when we analyze the degree of involvement Kazakhstan in the production of mass consumption (see below).

Next,we present an analysis of some survey results. Whyarea residents do not have acute needs actively involve in the process of mass production and why they can not do it.

In Table 2,we present systematic basic food commodities that are bought most frequently by our respondents.

Table 2.Ranking of countries producing some basic foodstuffs, which are often bought respondents (in%).

№№p.p.

Countries, names of goods

The East Region

Consist of

SemeyCity

UstKamenogorsk City

The Villages

1.

Bread and bakery products

 

 

 

 

1.1.

Kazakhstan

99,3

100,0

97,5

100,0

1.2.

Russia

0,7

-

2,5

-

2.

Fresh meat

 

 

 

 

2.1.

Kazakhstan

96,6

99,4

92,7

100,0

2.2.

Russia

2,1

-

7,1

-

2.3.

China

0,2

0,4

0,2

-

2.4.

Kyrgyzstan

0,1

0,2

-

-

3.

Sausages

 

 

 

 

3.1.

Kazakhstan

91,6

92,2

94,2

88,7

3.2.

Russia

8,2

7,8

5,1

11,3

3.3.

China

0,2

-

0,7

-

4.

The milk

 

 

 

 

4.1.

Kazakhstan

96,0

99,4

97,2

91,1

4.2.

Russia

3,0

0,6

1,2

7,3

4.3.

China

1,0

-

1,6

1,6

5.

Condensed milk

 

 

 

 

5.1.

Kazakhstan

96,0

92,4

79,4

83,2

5.2.

Russia

3,0

7,6

16,7

16,4

5.3.

China

1,0

-

3,9

0,4

6.

Fresh vegetables

 

 

 

 

6.1.

Kazakhstan

77,6

90,4

60,0

79,6

6.2.

China

10,4

1,5

13,8

17,0

6.3.

Kyrgyzstan

6,4

3,4

14,7

2,2

6.4.

Russia

5,6

4,7

11,5

1,2

7.

Candies

 

 

 

 

7.1.

Kazakhstan

64,9

66,4

56,4

67,0

7.2.

Russia

27,0

26,9

32,3

22,3

7.3.

Ukraine

4,8

4,2

3,2

9,7

7.4.

China

2,8

0,6

7,6

1,0

7.5.

Italy

0,3

0,8

-

-

7.6.

Belorussia

0,2

1,1

0,5

-

The materialsin Table 2, in our opinion, show that among the main (strategic) food dominates the Kazakh component. The domestic meat bought 99.3% of residents of the region, the candy - already 64.9%

Explanations ofthis phenomenon arewell known. It is mainly about traditional foods, and perishable, and production which deal with the nature of Kazakhstan.Now we would like to turn to the table3. In Table 3 we can see the countries which are dominated. The majorproducing countries are China, Turkey, Russia and other countries.Kazakhstan takes the 4 Th position in our rating. It is pity.

Table 3.Rating of countries producing some of the major types of footwear and clothe (in%).

№№p.p.

Countries, names of goods

The East Region

Consist of

SemeyCity

UstKamenogorskCity

The Villages

1.

The footwear

 

 

 

 

1.1.

China

56,0

49,6

48,9

70,3

1.2.

Turkey

14,1

16,3

12,8

14,7

1.3.

Russia

13,3

17,2

12,8

11,4

1.4.

Kazakhstan

6,9

3,0

8,0

1,0

1.5.

Kyrgyzstan

6,8

4,4

15,8

2,2

1.6.

Italy

2,9

9,5

1,7

0,4

2.

The summer cloth

 

 

 

 

2.1.

China

60,7

56,5

66,7

61,1

2.2.

Turkey

12,4

14,6

10,1

12,0

2.3.

Russia

11,4

13,2

5,3

13,0

2.4.

Kyrgyzstan

6,7

4,7

7,1

6,4

2.5.

Kazakhstan

4,3

6,8

1,2

6,1

2.6.

Italy

4,1

3,4

9,6

0,8

2.7.

Other

0,4

0,8

-

0,6

3.

The winter cloth

 

 

 

 

3.1.

China

60,0

52,7

71,8

58,5

3.2.

Turkey

15,1

16,4

9,6

13,9

3.3.

Russia

10,9

11,5

4,4

13,8

3.4.

Kyrgyzstan

5,0

5,1

-

7,5

3.5.

Italy

4,5

2,8

11,0

0,6

3.6.

Kazakhstan

3,5

10,2

-

5,3

3.7.

Other

1,0

1,3

3,2

0,4

The dynamics ofthe values ??ofrespondents is available in Table 3, also suggests that Chinadoes not hold for all goods equally-high position.For example, the Chinese footwear demands in rural areas than in urban areas.In rural areas there is a problem with material wealth and mobility in the supply, etc.

It is impossible notto see how actively the markets of Turkish goods compete, despite the fact that our neighborhood is a large country as Russia.

(Table4) shows a picture of the major producers of household goods.

From the sevenmain types of major appliances, only furniture is dominated in Kazakhstan.

In general the most popular goods are from China and Russia. From China there are 4 species and from Russia there are 2 species.Moreover,imports of these countries are fairly evenly distributed throughout the East Kazakhstan Region.

Table 4.Ranging of countries producing certain kinds of major household goods purchased by the respondents (in%).

№№p.p.

Countries, names of goods

The East Region

Consist of

SemeyCity

UstKamenogorskCity

The Villages

1.

The washing machines

 

 

 

 

1.1.

China

37,5

33,5

40,9

34,4

1.2.

Russia

33,8

35,2

31,9

40,1

1.3.

Kazakhstan

12,7

8,6

13,9

14,3

1.4.

Italy

5,3

8,0

4,9

2,9

1.5.

Turkey

0,9

4,4

-

-

1.6.

Other

9,8

10,3

8,4

8,3

2.

The fridges

 

 

 

 

2.1.

China

35,5

28,5

36,4

31,4

2.2.

Russia

38,8

37,8

46,4

53,4

2.3.

Kazakhstan

9,7

4,5

10,6

11,3

2.4.

Italy

4,1

5,7

3,2

-

2.5.

Turkey

1,7

4,2

-

-

2.6.

Other

10,2

19,3

3,4

3,9

3.

The TVs

 

 

 

 

3.1.

China

36,1

30,5

38,9

48,4

3.2.

Russia

30,2

29,5

36,1

31,0

3.3.

Kazakhstan

8,9

8,1

10,6

8,3

3.4.

Turkey

1,7

4,7

0,7

0,6

3.5.

Ukraine

1,2

1,3

1,0

0,4

3.6.

Italy

0,7

1,9

0,6

0,2

3.7.

Other

21,2

24,0

12,1

11,1

4.

The electric andgas stove

 

 

 

 

4.1.

Russia

42,6

41,7

43,3

51,8

4.2.

China

28,1

25,9

19,5

37,0

4.3.

Kazakhstan

8,9

4,9

12,2

10,3

4.4.

Belorussia

6,0

5,3

13,3

0,2

4.5.

Turkey

0,8

1,5

-

0,5

4.6.

Ukraine

0,4

0,8

-

0,2

4.7.

Italy

0,3

0,8

-

-

4.8.

Others

12,9

19,1

11,7

-

5.

Thevacuum cleaner

 

 

 

 

5.1.

China

42,1

44,3

41,1

41,1

5.2.

Russia

33,8

16,9

43,5

50,4

5.3.

Kazakhstan

5,8

8,3

0,5

6,9

5.4.

Italy

1,4

3,0

-

0,9

5.5.

Kyrgyzstan

0,6

1,5

-

-

5.6.

Ukraine

0,4

0,9

-

0,2

5.7.

Others

15,9

25,1

14,9

0,5

6.

Thesanitary engineering

 

 

 

 

6.1.

Russia

50,2

53,6

40,1

52,5

6.2.

China

26,5

32,2

16,5

25,2

6.3.

Kazakhstan

20,0

9,3

33,3

22,1

6.4.

Italy

2,3

2,3

4,8

0,2

6.5.

Turkey

0,6

0,2

1,8

-

6.6.

Other

0,4

2,4

3,5

-

7.

The furniture

 

 

 

 

7.1.

Kazakhstan

37,0

22,2

28,8

47,8

7.2.

Russia

31,7

35,0

32,0

28,1

7.3.

China

20,0

25,6

20,2

18,7

7.4.

Belorussia

8,9

11,4

13,1

5,4

7.5.

Italy

1,5

2,5

5,5

-

7.6.

Turkey

0,6

1,5

-

-

7.7.

Other

0,3

1,8

0,4

-

With the help ofthe respondents, Table 5, we ranktheshare of Kazakhstanand foreign goods in the structure of East Kazakhstani purchases.The result wasexpected.Twentykinds of products were tested. Nineof them were manufactured in Kazakhstan and eleven of all products were imported. We can not compare different goods.For example, it is difficult to compare televisions, refrigerators and computers with bread, bakery and other food products. Major householdappliances are the result of a higher science, technology and human skill.

Table 5.Kazakhstanandforeign goodsin thebuying patternsof the view of our respondents (in%).

Only answers

Kazakhstangoods

 

Imported goods

№№

p.p.

The productname

%

№№

p.p.

The product name

%

1.

Bread, bakery

99,8

1.

Footwear

79,5

2.

Fresh meat

100,0

2.

Summer cloth

80,6

3.

Milk

97,7

3.

Winter cloth

83,8

4.

Condensed milk

90,0

4.

Household appliances

81,6

5.

Vegetables, potatoes

89,3

5.

TVs

82,1

6.

Fruits

59,8

6.

The furniture

45,5

7.

Candies

56,2

7.

The sanitary engineering

58,4

8.

Croups

62,2

8.

Fragrancesand Cosmetics

76,4

9.

Alcoholicbeverages

81,5

9.

Bedding equipment

61,8

 

 

 

10.

The stationery

40,2

 

 

 

11.

The tableware

60,5

The following results of our interview (Table 6) show us that import products dominate and the attitude of The East Kazakhstan Region to this situation.

Table 6. shows us the attitude of The East Kazakhstan Region population(without answer "no opinion").

№№

p.p.

The productname

Only answers

«Positively»

in %

«Negatively»

in %

1.

Among daily products

23,7

38,7

2.

Among footwear

46,8

17,8

3.

Among cloth

43,9

18,9

4.

Amonghouseholdtechnology

46,1

20,0

5.

Among the vegetables

23,3

44,4

6.

Among fruit

21,3

44,1

7.

Among juices, drinks

20,9

41,7

            The average percentage

32,3

32,2

The"positive" and "negative" opinions are completelycoincidedin the fact. Negativefeelings aboutone part of thegoods(food,vegetables, juices andsoft drinks) became equal by positive feelingsabout theother part of theimported goods(shoes, clothes, household appliances). As a result,there was noreason tosay so,for the formationof seriousdissentand conflict(as we knowat the time ofthe Soviet Unionthere wasan acute shortageof many productsof mass consumption, there were queues,which ultimatelyledto the underminingof the economic systemonce one of themajornations of the world).

The materials ofthe interview (Table 7) are interesting becausethey showhow much ofthe region's populationprefers to buygoodswhich are expensive  and show the opinion of "highquality" goods.

Table 7.Basic principlesthat are used by the respondentswhen they buy the goods (%).

№№

p.p.

The name of products

Only answers

«Only cheep»

«Expensive»

«We do not see on prices»

«It depends on the quality of goods»

1.

Bread and bakery

19,0

13,2

67,1

2.

Fresh meet

15,8

10,3

72,3

3.

Milk

13,5

12,3

71,5

4.

Condensed milk

14,9

12,5

71,0

5.

Vegetables and potatoes

17,3

12,5

69,6

6.

Fruit

17,4

11,4

69,3

7.

Candies

15,1

19,1

65,2

8.

Footwear

16,9

20,1

62,0

9.

Cloth

15,9

16,6

67,3

10.

Household technology

15,7

15,4

68,6

11.

Furniture

19,7

13,1

66,6

12.

Croups

17,5

14,6

66,9

13.

Sanitary engineering

28,0

12,3

58,5

14.

Fragrances and cosmetics

14,2

16,8

68,9

15.

Bedding equipment

15,6

16,2

68,0

16.

Tableware

22,1

12,8

64,3

17.

The stationery

25,1

12,3

61,5

18.

Alcohol beverages

12,2

13,1

71,6

The average percentage

17,6

14,1

67,2

The mostof respondents can buy high-quality goodsand food products. But in average the 17.6 % ofresidentscan notkeep up withrising prices forgoodsat any timeto buysomething importantforyourself, and good quality.

The followingresults of our interview concerns to domestic productionof goodsof mass demand.

Let's startwith thedetail ofrespondents' attitudes towardsimports,in principle(see Table 8).

Table 8.Respondents' attitudes towardsimports of goods(in%)

№№p.p.

The questions and the answers

The East Kazakhstan Region

Consist of

SemeyCity

Ust  Kamenogorsk

The Villages

18-29years

50-59years

1.

In your opinion is it bad to develop import goods, but do not develop our Kazakhstan products and goods.

 

The positive

23,5

30,7

12,2

25,9

16,1

27,3

 

The negative

48,9

49,6

64,7

34,2

53,4

55,9

2.

Should we drive outof our marketsimported goods?(without answer "no opinion").

 

We have to

75,6

64,4

96,8

68,9

79,7

81,8

 

We should not

23,1

33,3

1,8

30,8

18,5

18,2

As we see, among the inhabitants of The East Kazakhstan Region the negative attitudes about the import are dominated. This  is "a negative impact on the development of domestic production".

Dominated by the views of the "crowding out of our markets with imported goods".
The reasons are also well known, especially when it comes to reducing economic dependence on neighboring countries and the involvement of an additional number of nationals in economic activity, employment, etc.

Materials of Table 9 complement the negative emotions of the respondents about the prevalence of import in the markets area. Indeed, as we see, the overall average score of the level of domestic production in the fifteen main products of mass consumption is not exceeded. And the four kinds of (shoes, household appliances, cosmetics and perfumes, sanitary ware) are lower.

Table is 9.Evaluation of the levelof domesticproductionof mass consumption(the 5 is the maximum evaluation).

№№p.p.

The name of industry

The average score for The East Kazakhstan Region

Including

SemeyCity

Ust Kamenogorsk

The Villages

18-29years

50-59years

1.

The meat production

3,29

3,47

2,04

4,25

3,01

4,56

2.

The grain production

2,99

3,23

1,01

4,47

2,66

2,9

3.

The vegetables production

2,89

2,96

1,12

4,35

2,61

3,03

4.

The wool production

2,61

2,87

1,06

3,82

2,41

2,81

5.

The footwear production

1,8

2,03

1,01

2,29

1,79

2,07

6.

The cloth production

1,92

2,15

1,01

2,49

1,85

1,62

7.

The tableware production

2,02

2,29

1,0

2,65

1,97

1,85

8.

The household appliances

1,86

2,15

1,04

2,32

1,81

1,78

9.

The fragrances and cosmetics production

1,91

2,19

1,0

2,5

1,84

1,55

10.

The sanitary engineering

1,79

1,99

1,12

2,23

1,85

1,64

11.

The stationery production

2,31

2,66

1,23

2,93

2,26

2,09

12.

The alcohol beverages production

3,75

3,44

4,36

3,49

3,76

3,88

13.

The detergents production

2,48

2,6

1,88

2,92

2,95

1,73

14.

The bedding equipment production

2,3

2,64

1,03

3,1

2,11

1,98

15.

The croups production

2,66

3,11

1,02

3,66

2,39

2,45

The average score

2,44

2,65

1,46

2,62

2,35

2,39

There is the problem of the involvement of Kazakhstan in the production of mass consumption.

Table 10 recorded cross-section of actual participation in the East Kazakhstani above mentioned process. The interview confirms the structure of the producers of goods on the market area.

Table is 10.On the employment ofthe respondents andtheir associatesin the production ofconsumer goods(in%)

№№p.p.

The questions and answers

The East Kazakhstan Region

Including

SemeyCity

Ust Kamenogorsk

The Villages

18-29years

50-59years

1.

Do you know people which connect with mass manufacture?

 

I have

37,2

44,5

31,9

34,0

37,2

33,6

2.

What does your family produce for selling …

 

Nothing

60,2

53,0

89,9

41,5

63,5

44,8

2.1.

The meat

41,0

19,4

50,0

58,1

30,4

58,2

2.2.

Milk products

35,3

14,9

-

58,1

10,1

68,4

2.3.

The vegetables

22,2

10,9

-

35,3

11,4

24,1

2.4.

The eggs

21,7

16,9

-

29,1

12,7

29,1

2.5.

Bread and bakery

11,0

14,9

22,7

5,9

12,0

19,0

2.6.

The wool

4,3

1,6

-

7,3

2,5

13,9

2.7.

The fruit

3,8

1,6

-

6,2

0,6

10,0

2.8.

The grain

3,4

6,5

-

1,4

3,8

1,3

2.9.

The fish

3,2

2,4

6,8

3,5

5,7

2,5

2.10.

The cloth and fragrances cosmetics too

по 3,1

6,0

-

1,0

3,2

-

2.11.

The melons

2,6

1,6

-

3,8

3,8

9,6

2.12.

The furniture

2,4

20,1

11,4

1,4

2,5

-

2.13.

The footwear

2,1

4,0

-

0,7

1,9

-

2.14.

The tableware

1,7

3,6

-

0,3

-

-

2.15.

The sausages

1,2

2,8

-

-

2,5

-

2.16.

The alcohol beverages

0,5

1,2

-

-

-

-

2.17.

The household appliances

0,3

0,8

-

-

1,3

-

The interview in Table 10 clearly defines the relationships between the proportion of people employed in domestic production and the significance of its products in the consumption of Kazakhstan. For example, meat production is engaged in 41.0% of respondents. Correspondingly, it was compared with imports, it is difficult to compare the (predominant).

Final system sociological materials (tables 11 and 12) complete the picture.

Table is 11.The evaluation ofthe economicdevelopmentof neighboringcountriesand Kazakhstan(in%), without answer "no opinion".

№№ p.p.

The countries

Only 2 answers

The high level

The low level

1.

Russia

78,3

2,6

2.

China

73,7

2,5

3.

Ukraine

11,1

31,1

4.

Belorussia

13,9

17,5

5.

Uzbekistan

10,2

33,1

6.

Turkey

25,8

23,3

7.

Italy

21,0

43,8

8.

Mongol

4,6

39,9

9.

Kyrgyzstan

11,3

32,2

Table is 12.Aboutthe Customs Unionand the threat toeconomic security (in%).

№№ p.p.

The questions and answers

The East Kazakhstan Region

1.

Whatdo you expect fromthe Customs Union,in terms of developmentof Kazakhstan'sproduction (with no value "no opinion") ...

1.1.

It accompanies domestic nature production

45,9

1.2.

Nothing will change

16,1

1.3.

It weakens our economy

11,7

2.

In your opinion, the effort of trade relationswith neighboring countriescould threatenthe economic securityof our country (without answer  "no opinion") ...

2.1.

No

40,3

2.2.

Yes

37,4

3.

The development of the economiesof neighboring countrieswhich, in your opinion,maythreatenmore than any othereconomic securityof Kazakhstan ...

3.1.

China

69,0

3.2.

Russia

11,1

3.3.

Turkey

10,4

3.4.

Kyrgyzstan

4,9

3.5.

Uzbekistan

1,4

3.6.

Belorussia

1,2

3.7.

Ukraine

0,9

Firstly, it is hard to argue with the perceptions of our respondents about the level of economic development of neighboring countries and Kazakhstan, Russia and China for our economy.

Second, it is dominated by positive expectations of East Kazakhstan The Union Custom.

Third, in the general population area is dominated by optimism about the economic security of our country. Although the ratio of China there are serious concerns. It is no accident that 69.0% of the respondents (the vast majority), attributed China to a country which can no longer threaten the economic security of others in Kazakhstan.

In this regard, the conclusions are obvious: Kazakhstan will have to give serious attention to the strengthening of its economic system. Including a significant expansion of production of mass consumption.

7.5
Your rating: None Average: 7.5 (4 votes)
PARTNERS
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.