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Miriyeva Farida Mahammad, student
Ismailova Aydan Rasim kizi, student
Baku State University, Azerbaijan
Keywords: innovation, economy, torusm, mathematical – cartographical models, agriculture, natural division, geographical information system
Innovative development of economy requires mainly exact and proper consideration of characters of natural condition. All spheres of economy- agriculture, tourism, fishing, huntering, all spheres of industry are developed by considering of characters of natural conditions. In this direction, digital mathematical-cartographic models play main role.
After compilation of digital mathematical-cartographic models of natural condition, it is required to divide of areas into districts on indicators of natural condition providing development of economy and industry.In this direction, we made method of physical-geographic division into district on the basis of new information technologies in sample of Azerbaijan Republic. Its levels are interpreted in following form:
1. Theoretical fundamens of physical geographic division
Characters and principles of natural division is closely connected with its assignment. Firstly, natural division is divided to common and special ones.
Common. Is made not depended on usage of area in economy (scientific division)Special. Is made by considering economic measures for conduction of usage of natural resources in order of scientific basis.So, during division, such similarity and difference of nature is considered that, they enable solution of issue forwarded in research. Common complex division, is called as complex physical-geographic division also. Physical-geographic division is for solution of scientific issues of physical-geography. It means revelation of natural similarity and differences, objectivity of areas and division of color and types of geosystems connected with them. It is an important way providing assignment of physical-geographic conformity. And conformity is main issue of any science. Its solution gains practical significance of issue.
Physical-geographic division is the important part of any physical-geographic research. In one hand, it includes initial level of learning of natural condition of area. Before going out, researcher investigates on the basis of literature and initial material. So, working hypothesis is created and it is checked during out research and it is conformity is assigned. Physical geographic division is the final level of learning of area nature. As well as, it is the final knowledge on similarity and difference. Physical geographic division unit is the regional geographic characteristics unit in the same L. Complex characteristics of area nature is given by that. It is true that, objective division simplifies compilation of physical geographic characteristics. It enables to get exact information on area nature and its parts. Physical geographic division is necessary for correct typology of L, geocomplexes. Physical geographic division has great significance. Geocomplexes are differed by generality of natural condition, difference of natural opportunities for usage of nature that is potentiality. In connection with that, physical geographic division means division of area units differed on usage characters from economy. For example: there are legal acts made by state for allocation of agricultural areas. By estimating research of physical geographic division, solution of its concrete issue is determined. Physical geographic division does not answer to practical questions and its research does not give basis for conduction of division. In the last opinion, we don’t need scheme of physical geographic division. In this case, for the basis of created scheme, division of area to geocomplexes is conducted on the basis of similarity and difference of natural condition and enables conduction of physical geographic division.
Digital map compilation rules by Surfer CIS program.
After installation of Surfer program to computer, New window order is executed in File menu and plot regime is selected.Then vectorized map-for example map of Azerbaijan, with squares on it by side of 5 cm, is loaded to screen with import order in File menu.
Then map is clicked by mouse. After that, Digitize order is executed in Map menu. During indicating of mouse as point in definite directions on the border of Azerbaijan, window called digit dat is emerged in right side of computer screen. In this window, coordinates of points indicated on map (X, Y) is begun to be written. At the end of work, save as order is executed in file menu. With the same rule, central points of squares on map, by being indicated, is memorized as merkez.dat.
During indicating of mouse as point in definite directions on the border of Azerbaijan, window called digit dat is emerged in right side of computer screen. In this window, coordinates of points indicated on map (X, Y) is begun to be written. At the end of work, save as order is executed in file menu. With the same rule, central points of squares on map, by being indicated, is memorized as “merkez.dat”.
For writing of geographical datas to kvadrat.dat file, open worksheet order is executed and “kvadrat.dat” file is emerged in screen. Then geographical datas are written on it.
For compilation of isolined map in accordance with created basis, open data order is executed in Grid menu and file of geographical data is indicated here and method is selected for interpolation (clinking in our example). And “ok” is executed.
On the basis of selected and calculated interpolation, for screening of isolines, Contour order is selected in Map menu. And consequently, following view is emerged.
For dying of spaces of drawn isolines, Fill contour word in Contour part is clicked and color is selected.
Then Yes is written within label menu providing view of mark in front of each color scale.
Consequently, following colored map is emerged.
For making of 3D model of this map, 3D view order is executed in Map menu and here, 2 dimensions map is rolled under different angle in space.
3.Physical geographic division methods
Division by using mathematical methods. Information on each component of physical geographic complex is collected by different ways. One part of them is measured by apparatus, one part is shot and signs of other parts are indicated by word. In all cases, information on natural component passes geographic and mathematical check after initial measures. Information of natural components is collected both within time and space. Time information is collected by apparatus or observer in selected point in different times. Space information is collected during out check, or by shot by aero and cosmic apparatus.Time information by being collected by apparatus in observation points, indicators noted in each second during the day, is collected by chronograph. Then, extreme marks are calculated for day. Daily, monthly, average annual, average multi-annual indicators are calculated on the basis of these indicators, so by collecting information for each year, it is indicated in special inquiry book. Space information is collected 1 or 2 (summer and winter) and sometimes 4 times (in all seasons) . During surface research, space information is collected as researcher can see and these materials are schemed on the basis of topographic map of area. Sample materials on components are also collected in out researches. For example: information of herbal for plant, horizontals of soil cut for ground cover, temperature of water for water basins, its density, transparency, chemical contain and other physical geographic information is taken. For collection of information on area components, aerocosmic photos of researched area are used. In both cases, both time and space information are checked to be depended on mathematical distribution conformity within 100 or more than 100 rows. If calculated and assigned indicator rows, by indicating by numbers, if distribution quantity on intervals of indicators is closer when assigning normal distribution character, in this case it is possible to calculate all mathematical indicators in given row. This graphic is made on the basis of given row and calculated by normal distribution schedule of Gauss. For checking correctness of normal distribution in given row, authenticity percentage of all indicators of that row is calculated. These percentages may be 90, 95, 99. Their calculation is depended on exactness required in researched area. Usually 90 and 95 percentage exactness is required in geographic researches. Following indicators of normal distribution is calculated in given row:
For conduction of division on the basis of similarity by square method of area, areas of contour indicator types are calculated in each square and matrixes in following form.
During calculation of this information, various validity criterions are used. Validity measures indicate level of inconstancy of normal distribution in given row. One of these criterions is student criterion.
Common border is passed in proper places of geocomplexes by putting it in whole of common division maps, and average border is drawn in non-whole places. This method was firstly used by Gramo, Finnish geographer.
So, one on another tendency of special region areas is characteristic for landscape geocomplexes. Using this methods of nature regioning in centre “Computer geography” at the Baku State University compiled digitap maps of nature conditions of the Azerbaijan Republic(Please see www.ali-nabiyev.narod.ru//azmaps.html . Any examples this maps showed the next pictures:
Pic.3. Using quality wather Pic.4. Research territory setting
1.Mathematical methods in geography. KSU,Kazan,1971, 300 page (in Russian)