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PECULIARITIES OF REPRODUCTION OF BERBERIS THUNBERGII BY SOFTWOOD CUTTINGS IN GREENHOUSES WITH ARTIFICIAL FOG IN OMSK REGION

PECULIARITIES OF REPRODUCTION OF BERBERIS THUNBERGII BY SOFTWOOD CUTTINGS IN GREENHOUSES WITH ARTIFICIAL FOG   IN OMSK REGION
Prokhorova Natalia, lecturer, candidate of agricultural science

Vladimir Kumpan, dean, candidate of agricultural science, associate professor

Omsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin, Russia

Conference participant

The most favorable microclimatic conditions for rooting green cuttings of ornamental crops are high air temperatures from 25 to 27°C, the temperature of the substrate is 29 ... 30°C and relative humidity is 92-99%. In this case, the callus of green cuttings appears after 10-15 days, and roots after 15-20 days after planting. The number of rooted green cuttings depends from year’s conditions and ranges from 86,6 to 100%. On average during 2 years the percentage of rooting green cuttings was 79,8-93,3%.

Keywords: green cuttings,microclimate, Berberis Thunbergii, artificial fog.

Reproduction of plants by softwood cuttings is one of the most perspective methods of vegetative propagation. Recently, this method has attracted the great attention of scientific and industrial institutions. In the horticulture industry the bulk of seedlings of fruit, berry and ornamental crops are got by this way. Rooting of green cuttings performed in special greenhouses equipped with automatic fogging units.

Huge influence on rooting of green cuttings in the greenhouses provided by species, terms of propagation and the microclimate (humidity, air temperature and the temperature of substrate, light, aeration of the substrate, the chemical composition of water and etc). All of these factors are interrelated and are directly dependent on weather conditions and the mist equipment. The importance of microclimate determined by the fact that it influences on the process of rooting, which depends on activity of physiological processes in the basal part of the cuttings and productivity of the leaf. The temperature regime has the great importance in the first days after planting, it is the period of endogenous formation of primordia of roots.

In 2010 the relative humidity of air in the greenhouse during the rooting ranged from 92.7 to 99.4%. In 2011 the level of relative humidity of air in the same period was within 92 - 98% (Fig. 1).

Figure 1 – The average data of microclimate in the greenhouse with artificial fog. Temperature of substrate,0C – a; temperature of air,0C – b; relative air humidity,% – c.

In the first 10 days after planting, when in planted cuttings the processes of root formation passed more intensive, the temperature of the substrate in 2011 was on average on 2°C higher than in 2010 and ranged 29,1-29,9°C. In 2011 after lowering of the air temperature in early July to 22.8°C, the substrate temperature dropped to 27.1, and then the heating of the air was going faster than the substrate. A similar difference in the warming of air and the substrate was observed in 2010 during the period from the 1st to 5th July. The higher temperature of the substrate related to his higher heat capacity: the substrate, which was heated during the day hours, cooled more slowly than air and its temperature in the morning was higher.

In general, climate in 2011 was more favorable for rooting, due to higher temperatures of the substrate in the first 10 days after planting, because it was the period of the rudiments of roots formations.

Observations in 2010 showed,that the callus formation on green cuttings barberry Thunberg gold forms was observed on the 20th day after planting and it was marked at 23% cuttings, and on cuttings of purple form – on the 15th day, at 7%. In 2011 the callus formation was marked earlier, on the form of golden barberry – on the 15th day (40%), on the form of purple - on the 10th day (20%). Comparing this two years, we can say that callus from decorative species in 2011 occurred more rapidly in comparison with 2010, when the higher temperature of the substrate influenced on this process (Fig. 1).

Regeneration of roots provides the development of the root system and overground part began to develop after germination of cuttings buds [1, 2]. Phenotypic dependence was detected between the level of endogenous growth regulators: in dry and drought years (hydrothermal coefficient 0.5-0.8) in cuttings reduced the level of natural auxins and the level of growth inhibitors increases. Cuttings root is worse than in season with a warm and humid weather [1]. Different species, even varieties of the same species have different regenerative ability of the cuttings. Root formation of both forms of under research barberries in 2011 was marked earlier than in 2010. Roots of golden form of barberry Thunberg were marked on the 15th day (33%), the purple form – on the 20th (20%), this was earlier than in 2011 for 5 days. But the percentage of rooted cuttings in 2011 was higher at the gold form, after 20 day it reached 60%, at the purple form  - 23% on the 15th day.

Based on the data, there must be concluded that the microclimate conditions in 2010 during the first 20-25 days with more low humidity (93-94%), temperature of air (21-29°C) and substrate (22-30°C) were more favorable for callus formation and less - for the rooting process. Despite of the higher percentage of rooted cuttings, climate conditions in 2011 didn’t contribute to getting of a big amount of annual plants 73,3-86,6%, while in 2010 - 86,6-100% (Table 1).

Table 1 – The amount of rooted plants of barberry Thunberg

Percentage

The form

in dependence on planted units

On average per

2010-2011 гг.

2010г.

2011г.

Barberry Thunberg golden form

100

86,6

93,3

barberry Thunberg purple form

86,6

73,3

79,8

The least mean difference

5,7

6,2

 

Under conditions of high humidity, not all rooted cuttings are stored until the end of the growing season. In 2010, a by-product of rooted cuttings was observed only in the purple form of barberry Thunberg – 13.4%. Much greater by-product was observed in 2011 and it reached for the two forms from 13.4 to 26.7%. Such a large deviation can be explained by a fast temperature decrease of the substrate in August, which on average reached to 16,2°C, and together with conditions of high humidity (97%) it caused severe damage by fungal diseases.

In the spring, on the second year after planting, the greenhouse moved on a new exposure, but rooted cuttings left on the same place. At the obtaining of the standard biennial plants influenced the size of annual plants, overwintering conditions and the speed of growth of shoots after a year after rooting. The results of the spring audit showed that annual plants of barberry Thunberg gold and purple forms are extremely unstable to the freezing and the by-product ranged from 48 to 94.7% (Table 2).

The weather conditions in November 2010 affected on the low amount of annual plants, this period distinguished by a large contrast in the weather, for example the anomalously warm in the beginning of the month (+10°C) and abnormally cold in the end of month (up to -27°C), and abundant rainfall – 60 mm (the normal is 26 mm). The average temperature was  -7.3°C. Permanent snow cover was established only by November 8.

Table 2 – The results of overwintering annuals of barberry Thunberg (2010)

Percentage

Form

Number of rooted plants before overwintering

Number of plants after overwintering

By-product of plants after overwintering

Barberry Thunberg golden form

100

5,3

94,7

barberry Thunberg purple form

86,6

38,6

48,0

The least mean difference

5,7

6,3

 

Therefore, despite of the rather high percentage of rooted and stayed before winter plants, the amount of annual plants were 5.3% for the golden form of barberry, and 38.6% - for the purple form.

By the end of the second year the good saplings with a well-developed overground part and root system obtained from the green cuttings. As a result of sorting of biennial plants according to parameters: the root collar diameter, the number of lateral branches, the height of the overground part, the number and the length of the roots of the first and second orders, we have received the amount of saplings in standard sizes. The data are shown in Table 3.

Table 3 – The amount of biennial ornamental plants from green cuttings (2011)

Percentage

Form

Amount of biennial plants, %

Amount of biennial plants in standard sizes

%

an amount from1 m2

Barberry Thunberg golden form

5,3

2,3

19

barberry Thunberg purple form

38,6

38,6

138

The least mean difference

6,3

3,8

 

The data from table 3 show that the total number of biennial plants ranged from 5.3 to 38.6%, the number of standard saplings of the studied species ranged from 2.3 (barberry Thunberg gold form) to 38.6% (barberry Thunberg purple form), the amount of plants obtained from 1m2 ranged from 19 to 138 pcs respectively.

According to the research results we can make the following conclusions:

1. The microclimate in the greenhouse with artificial fog depends on weather conditions. The most favorable conditions for rooting of green cuttings of ornamental plants are: the high air temperatures 25 ... 27°C, the temperature of the substrate 29 ... 30°C and relative humidity of air 92-99%.

2. Under favorable conditions callus formation on green cuttings of barberry Thunberg gold and purple forms observed on the 10-15th day, root formation begins on the 15-20th day after planting.

3. The number of green rooted cuttings depending on the year and ranges from 86,6 to 100%. On average per 2 years the percentage of rooting cuttings is 79,8-93,3%, but the studied forms are not resistant to the conditions of overwintering, so the by-product of annual plants in spring after the audit is 48-94,7%, the number of the standard two-year saplings rages from 19 to 138 pcs/m2.

Literature:

1. Suchotckaja S.G. The reproduction of fruit crops by softwood cuttings in West Siberia: Lecture / S.G. Suchockaja - Omsk, 1990. - 24 p.

2. Tarasenko M.T. Reproduction plants by softwood cuttings / M.T. Tarasenko. - M.: Kolos, 1967. - 352.

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