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THE SOURCES OF ENGLISH PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS AND PROVERNS WITH PROPER NAMES

THE SOURCES OF ENGLISH PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS AND PROVERNS WITH PROPER NAMES
Rahimova Nigora, lecturer, doctoral candidate

Samarkand State Institute of Foreign languages, Uzbekistan

Conference participant

 

Настоящая статья посвящается исследованию источников английских фразеологических единиц и пословиц с именем собственным в структуре. В статье анализируется семантика имен собственных, а также история и культура, которую они передают из поколения в поколение.

Ключевые слова: идиоматическое выражение, фразеологическая единица, пословица, семантика, структура, имя собственное, культура, история, происхождение, национальная специфика.

The article is devoted to the investigation of English phraseological units and proverbs with proper names in the structure. The article analyzes the semantics of proper names, history and culture which they convey from generation to generation.

Key words: idiomatic expression, phraseological unit, proverb, semantics, structure, proper name, culture, history, origin, national specifics.

 

People and places, pets and hurricanes, rock groups and festivities, institutions and commercial products, works of art and shops are given a name [3, P.342]. Naming serves to highlight entities that play a role in people's daily life, and to establish and maintain an individuality in society. English proper nouns include people's names and surnames, geographical names, names of institutions, places in the city, historical and other events, etc. English proper nouns also include nationalities, weekdays, months and other notions, objects and places that are capitalized and used as names.

The actuality of the theme of the present article is clear.There are many idiomatic expressions and phraseological units that contain proper names [1, P.72]. The reason is the following: they came from people's everyday life, folklore, prose and poetry, myths, fairy tales, fables, songs, slang and other sources. Quite a few idioms with proper names are familiar to people of different nationalities, and it's natural that a student of English wants to know how to say those colorful expressions in English. Also, some idioms containing people's names, names of nationalities, cities or countries, may be perceived as offensive stereotypes and clichés, and should be avoided. All this makes the theme of research actual and important among the problems of modern linguistics. It is not less significant than learning grammar, lexical fund and pronunciation.

Moreover, the present article is closely connected with culture of people and explains the origin of a large number of phraseological units and proverbs with proper names.

Considering the names in phraseological expressions, we can note a predominance of personal over place names (unsurprisingly, given the anthropocentricity of language); within the former, a predominance of male over female names, and first names over family names, with a number of hypocorisms [2, P.358]. The very low presence of female names is motivated by social-cultural factors: in society, men played (and still play) a more active role than women. Among them, we find:Alice in Wonderland,Florence Nightingale,Mrs. Grundy,Aunt Sally,plain Jane,Pandora,(Darby and) Joan,Fanny Adams. They are usually employed to convey a negative or not wholly positive evaluation.

With regard to the presence of hypocorisms derived from very common first names (Bob,Dick,Harry, Joe, Jack,Larry, Mike,Mickey,Tom), it seems to be a culture-specific feature of English phraseology; for example, hypocorisms are rarely found in Italian phraseology [4, P.3373]. In particular,MikeandMickeyare now the generic name for an Irishman;Jackhas come to denote any individual person, and also occurs in compounds, denoting types of person (e.g.Jack-in-office,Jack-the-lad), objects (e.g.Jack-in-the-box,Jack-a-Lent,Jack-o-lantern), plants (Jack-in-the-pulpit) and animals (jackdaw).

An overview of the personal names involved in the expressions indicate the following types of sources:

  • - the Bible:doubting Thomas;Judas kiss; the mark of Cain;David and Goliath;like Daniel in the lion's den;old as Adam;
  • - literary texts: internationally known works (Aladdin's cave from The Arabian Nights); famous British works, by Shakespeare (be like Hamlet without the prince), Stevenson (Jekyll and Hide), Carroll (Alice in Wonderland), Mary Shelley (Frankenstein's monster); more marginal works, by James Thurber (Walter Mitty), and Tom Morton (Mrs. Grundy);
  • - classical heritage, i. e. mythology and figures of Greek and Roman antiquity:Pandora's box;Achilles' heel, Nesses’ shirt,Midas touch, rich as Croesus,Damon and Pythias;appeal to Caesar;
  • - popular culture:Darby and Joan(after a couple mentioned in an 18th-century ballad); pleased as Punch(after Mr. Punch, from the traditional children's puppet show 'Punch and Judy');Colonel Blimp (after a character in newspaper cartoons created by David Lowe in the late 1930s);  Aunt Sally (referring to the figure of an old woman's head, used as a target for balls or other objects);
  • - real people, rarely legendary figures:Florence Nightingale (after the famous nurse (1820–1910) who served in military hospitals during the Crimean War); Hobson's choice (after Thomas Hobson (1544–1631), a livery man who gave his customers no choice, but made them take the nearest horse); peeping Tom (after the tailor that, according to legend, peeped at Lady Godiva when she rode naked through Coventry);Morton's fork (after John Morton (1420–1500), who was Archbishop of Canterbury and chief minister of Henry VII; the expression refers to the argument used by Morton to extract loans);the Queensberry rules (after Sir John Sholto Douglas, Marquis of Queensberry, who drew up a code of rules to govern boxing in 1869);according to Hoyle (after Edmond Hoyle (1672–1769), barrister and writer of works on card games);sweet Fanny Adams (after the 8-year-old victim in a famous murder case in 1867; it is often abbreviated in speech tosweet Fanny Adams, which is vulgarly understood to be a euphemism for the taboo phrase all);happy as Larry (probably after the famous Australian boxer Larry Foley (1847–1917));a Potemkin village (after Count Potemkin (1739–1791) who ordered a number of sham villages to be built for the Empress Catherine II's tour of Crimea).

  Also the examination of place names reveals interesting aspects. They refer to:

  • - places in UK: London, with its fog and districts, a London particular, from Dickens'sBleak House;the man on the Clapham omnibus); Newcastle-upon-Tyne, which was a centre of coal-mining (carry coals to Newcastle); Coventry, probably from an old story that soldiers on military duty there were greatly disliked by the people of the town (send to Coventry); Bristol, a major port trading with America in the 17thand 18th century, hence the reference to ships newly painted, with scrubbed surfaces and brass polished (shipshape and Bristol fashion); the Cheshire county (grin like a Cheshire cat, after the character in Carroll'sAlice in Wonderland); the Irish town of Kilkenny (fight like Kilkenny cats); Blarney Stone near Cork (have kissed the Blarney Stone); the Forth Bridge in Scotland (paint the Forth Bridge);
  • - eastern countries related to the British colonial past: India, in like the Black Hole of Calcutta, referring to an event in Calcutta in 1756, when a large number of Europeans were put into one very small prison for a night; in the morning, only a few were still alive; China, in all Lombard Street to a China orange, (not) for all the tea in China, from China to Peru;
  • - places related to classical heritage: fiddle while Rome burns;between Scylla and Charybdis.
  • - A few proverbs with proper names are listed below. Note that proverbs may exist in several variants, for example: I fear the Greeks even when bringing gifts; I fear the Greeks bringing gifts; I fear the Greeks bearing gifts. Because proverbs are widely known, people often say just part of a proverb, like an idiomatic expression, for example: Greek gifts; Greek gift (i.e. a gift from an enemy may be dangerous). Russian translation of the proverbs below is approximate, and in some cases a corresponding Russian proverb is given instead.

All roads lead to Rome. Все дороги ведут в Рим.

All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. Работа без отдыха отупляет человека.

An Englishman's home is his castle. Домангличанина- егокрепость.

April showers bring forth May flowers. Ливни в апреле родят цветы в мае.

Caesar's wife must be above suspicion. Жена Цезаря должна быть выше подозрений.

East or West, home is best. В гостях хорошо, а дома лучше.

I fear the Greeks even when bringing gifts. Боюсь греков (данайцев), даже приносящих дары.

If the mountain will not come to Mahomet, Mahomet must go to the mountain. Если гора не идет к Магомету, Магомет должен идти к горе.

Jack of all trades is master of none. Тот, кто умеет все, ни в чем не специалист.

March comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb. Март приходит как лев, а уходит как ягненок.

Rome was not built in a day. Рим не за один день был построен.

Too far East is West. Противоположности сходятся.

When in Rome, do as the Romans do. В чужой монастырь со своим уставом не ходят.

Thus, we can conclude that the English languages is rich in phraseological units and proverbs with proper names which convey specific national culture and refer to historical events of people ad countries. Learning them we can reveal rich potential of knowledge of language history. 

 

References:

  •   1. Кунин А.В. Курс фразеологии современного английского языка. – 2-е изд. переработанное. – Москва: Высшая школа, 1996. – 156 с.
  •   2. Anderson John M. On the Structure of Names.// Folia Linguistica. – 2003. - №7. – Р. 347–398.
  •   3. Carroll John M. Toward a Functional Theory of Names and Naming.// Linguistics. – 1993. - № 2. – Р. 341–371.
  •   4. Lehrer Adrienne. Proper Names. Linguistic Aspects. In: Asher R. E. (ed.):The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. – Vol. 6. – P. 3372–3374.
Comments: 4

Michael Lukashchuk

Еще одно интересное исследование посвященное такому важному слою лексики как фразеологизмы, проведенное через призму собственные имен. Спасибо и желаю дальнейших успехов.

Olena Nazarenko

Уважаемая коллега, спасибо за глубокое и интересное исследование! Имена собственные продолжают оставаться актуальными для изучения. Желаю дальнейших профессиональных успехов! С уважением, Елена Назаренко.

Kobyakova Iryna

Ваш доклад характеризуется проникновения в исследуемую тему, новизной выводов. Читается легко и все на одном дыхании. Творческих Вам успехов! С уважением Ирина.

Hamze Dimitrina

Уважаемая коллега! Благодарю Вас сердечно за интересный и познавательный доклад! Фразеология неиссякаемый источник когнитивной продуктивности языковой личности и динамическое отображение лингвокултуры данного этноса. Сердечно, с уважением и наилучшими пожеланиями! Димитрина
Comments: 4

Michael Lukashchuk

Еще одно интересное исследование посвященное такому важному слою лексики как фразеологизмы, проведенное через призму собственные имен. Спасибо и желаю дальнейших успехов.

Olena Nazarenko

Уважаемая коллега, спасибо за глубокое и интересное исследование! Имена собственные продолжают оставаться актуальными для изучения. Желаю дальнейших профессиональных успехов! С уважением, Елена Назаренко.

Kobyakova Iryna

Ваш доклад характеризуется проникновения в исследуемую тему, новизной выводов. Читается легко и все на одном дыхании. Творческих Вам успехов! С уважением Ирина.

Hamze Dimitrina

Уважаемая коллега! Благодарю Вас сердечно за интересный и познавательный доклад! Фразеология неиссякаемый источник когнитивной продуктивности языковой личности и динамическое отображение лингвокултуры данного этноса. Сердечно, с уважением и наилучшими пожеланиями! Димитрина
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