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Kazakh Leading Academy of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Kazakhstan
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Residential buildings of the Stalin era before the war and postwar periods in Almaty, built in neoclassic style, despite the fact that they are already more than half a century, are still expensive and comfortable housing in the real estate market. This article is devoted to one of these houses. House of Scientists has a unique planning organisation, inspired by the "non-socialist ideas of a comfortable house"
Keywords: architecture, elite house, idea of ??the elite house in the Stalin period, neoclassicism, Kazakh ornament.
House of Scientists was built specially for the elite Soviet scientists designed by the architect A.B. Bobovich in 1951 on Zhibek Zholy Street. The house consists of five 2-room sections; all are 5-bedroom apartments, in the house thirty apartments only. According to the project, it has five separate sections of semi-detached blocks, separated by anti-seismic joints, which form an axial symmetrical composition with a half-open courtyard. At each porch are two staircases that are not connected to one another, a grand, wide, bright, luxuriantly decorated, the second - the 'black', economical, visually hidden staircase, the purpose of the two ladders is determined by a way of life of its inhabitants, two staircases or two entrances to one apartment conduct a visible distinction between owners and servants.
The stairs are climbed by owners - the scientists, and from the backdoor - uneducated servants, maids, or workers who are included in the service area - the kitchen and aucillary. Apparently, Stalin’s socialism still could not imagine a comfortable house without the attributes of the old capitalist system - the workers, who at that time became known as a maid. The elite of Soviet scientists in the Stalin’s period received 5-bedroom apartments of 180 square metres, regardless of the number of family members, and it was assumed that the service will be provided to a maid. In the Stalin’s period, the scientists received high salaries, they were able to pay for their labour, but such a luxury was permitted to the elite only. In the troubled times of Stalin’s period laws did not act equally for all, so there used to happen that an allocated apartment could be divided into two parts, so in this case a family had to use the backdoor only. So there were redevelopment and changes in the architecture of the building. The responsibility of the housekeeper included cooking, cleaning houses, babysitting. Maids were paid by the owners, the status of workers has been officially recognised, like all citizens at retirement age, they received the pension for their job. Each apartment, in addition maid’s room, had a hall, living-room, three bedrooms and a study. All thirty five-bedroom apartments had geniune fireplaces that were installed in living rooms. In the central part of the house at ground level was built a shop, so it was a prototype of a residential complex with a value of urban services.
The northern main facade consists of three sections located along the Zhibek Zholy Street, and flanked by two sections of the house, turning at right angles to the Pushkin and Valikhanov Streets. The central section is more advanced towards the street, as well as flanking sections, thereby creating a rhythmic plastic in the architecture of the house, reminiscent of the palace buildings. The central projecting section of the main fa?ade is higher in terms of altitude than the rest building of the house and split into two parts: the level of the ground floor, where the store is arranged, and the upper floors, which are compositionally combined by tremendous warrant at the corners of the section. The angles of the central projecting part are cut by deep arched loggias at the height of the second and third floors. The architecture of the main facade is construed in the classic proportions, giving the building monumentality - heavier rusticated lower and lighter than the top. The plane of the main facade is divided intercommunication belt - the cornice, which allocates two parts: the larger division of the first floor window openings and smaller apertures of the upper floors. Massive lancet window frames form of the first floor contrastly stands out with the plane of the rusticated base and walls of a higher first floor.
The main entrance to the residential section - a staircase separated vertically striped various openings: the arched portal of the entrance door on the second floor - one-stop portal with a wide ornamented with a keystone at the center and two twin lancet windows on the third floor of the species. Interwindow pier paired windows of the upper floor is decorated with capitals. The third floor windows have lancet shape, more lightweight in form than the openings of the lower floors. At first floor level on the corners of the central projecting section of the input are arranged, designed in the form of portals with pointed arches, which are used around the massive columns with a unique small-caps. This cheerful capitol radiates healthy, it is made of apples and grapes, "stacked" in the basket.
In the decoration of a residential building along with the motives of classical order system are used Kazakh national ornaments. The building is completed in the entablature over the protruding part of a lush than the entire building; balconies are used with decorative supporting crackers, also different orders of scale, huge balconies on the order of two storeys in height and tiny Doric columns - the balusters on the second floor balcony. On the main facade of the front of the projecting part of the building is arranged terrace with the height of six steps, which creates a cozy area in front of the store and arrange a place for rest in the shadow of the building, raised on a pedestrian walkway. Careful landscaping is organised not only from the main facade on the Zhibek Zholy Street, and around the entire house and yard, which means care for life shown by the houseowners.
In the courtyard of a residential building are built quite spacious garages, in the architecture of which was used by the national ornamental decor, consistent with the architecture of the house. From the Krasin and Pushkin Streets the yard is fenced off by a massive brick walls, executed in a single stylistic solution to the architecture of the house. Special project of a residential building considered in details and carefully designed for the Soviet scientists, eventually lost its social homogeneity and prestige. External attributes of a highly comfortable house on the external facade prior to its layout was not confirmed by the stability in the troubled life during Stalin's period, and eventually, for instance, a cozy fireplace hearth pawned and disappeared from the layout of the house, as the very idea of ??a demonstration of a high level of scientists’ life. Great ideas for a comfortable dwelling, built into the project of the house, were not viable during the period of socialism. Eventually, the architecture of the palace-house for Soviet scientists came to a complete inconsistency with the lifestyle of its inhabitants, as the state in 60-70 years were not able to maintain the status of the scientist and the real salary could not be supported by, could not maintain the desired level of 50years. The story of a unique House of Scientists shows that building expensive is advantageous, because after 61 year since its construction, the house has not lost its attraction for city residents.