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MODERN RUSSIAN SOCIETY IMAGE IN LANGUAGE OF RUSSIAN FABLES OF XX-XXI CENTURY

Автор Доклада: 
S. Mikova
Награда: 
MODERN RUSSIAN SOCIETY IMAGE IN LANGUAGE OF RUSSIAN FABLES OF XX-XXI CENTURY

MODERN RUSSIAN SOCIETY IMAGE IN LANGUAGE OF RUSSIAN FABLES OF XX-XXI CENTURY

Svetlana Mikova, assistant professor
Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

 

The article describes ways of presenting cultural information in the language of modern Russian fable. Different linguistic means are combined in Russian fables of the XX-XXI st centuries to form an image of modern Russian society.

Keywords: equivalent-lacking words, Russian fable, language image.

There were great changes in the life of modern Russian society in the 1980s- 2010s. Scientific research has revealed features of spiritual crisis, significant changes in traditional cultural values, way of thinking in Russian society. These changes were reflected in Russian literature and they are shown in modern Russian fables, especially extremely popular internet-fables that appeared in the end of XX century.
Significant political changes and first of all dissolution of the USSR and formation of new national states evoked great interest to political science of Russian people. In the language of Russian fable this tendency resulted in a lot of political terms, concepts. Many of such words appeared in mass media and everyday speech and so turned into stamps: democracy, publicity, equality, reforms, etc.
Life in the USSR is assessed negatively in modern fables. As a means of negative assessment authors of fables use quotations of marksism- leninism writers in ironical context, e.g. “Belief in “opium for people” (N.A. Bukharin “Lenin and God”). There are some similar examples in E.N. Belyaev’s fables: “People lie that an animal was turned into a man thanks to labour. <…> Here Marx makes a mistake: // A conveyor turns people in apes” (“Theory and Practice”); “He [a drinker] knew Marx’s ideas perfectly: // Entity is primary, senses are second” (“Entity and Senses”).
Russian fables of the 1980-2010-s contain a lot of realities of modern Russian life. Among them we find:
- names of popular brands: snickers (“Azura with Her Russian Soul…”), stimorol (“Egor and Barnyard”);
- new everyday objects: sauna (A.I. Makarov “Bear, Wolf and Reforms”), dublenka (A.I. Makarov “Wolf-cooperator”), dacha (A.I. Makarov “Phedot’s Freedom”).
Words denoting property objects which are status signs in modern fables show “progressive process of turning society into consumers’ one” [6: 188].
It is interesting to mention that in the fables that were written after the dissolution of the USSR mainly foreign realities are used as names of luxury objects, symbols of rich life: martini, the Canary Islands (A.I. Makarov “Wolf and Sheep”); limousine (K.B. Trofimov “Cat-Lovelace”); the Bahamas (E.N. Belyaev “Husband and Wife”); Mercedes – 600 (E.N. Belyaev “Tradition”); villa (E.N. Belyaev “Drugs and Bribes”). According to O.A. Semenyuk, this “in an indirect way demonstrates the real fact of extrusion home goods by foreign ones, wane of national industry, shift in values to prevailing not only foreign words and concepts but also “western”, materialistic way of life” [Ibidem].
Popularity of foreign, mostly American, culture is reflected in a big amount of English borrowings. The most frequent among them are OK (E.N. Belyaev “Demand and Offer”), baby (E.N. Belyaev “Hawk and Tit”), image (E.N. Belyaev “Wolves and Sheep”).
- political realities: sovereignty (“Three Wild Boars”), fractions, committees (“Cat and Mice”), prime-minister (A.I. Makarov “Sovereignty”);
- names of posts and ranks: Honoured Monkey (“Lion and Monkey”), safeguard (“Fight of Bulldogs”);
- social phenomena: privatize (“Egor and Barnyard”); criminal protection racket (“Crow and Cheese”); vaucher (N.A. Bukharin “Animal Privatisation”);
- names of modern singers, political leaders, sportsmen, etc.: Vitaly Scherba (“Crow Which Lived in the Mountains…”); “your voice may be like Alla Pugacheva’s” (“Crow and Fox”). Here we may mention lexical units formed of these names. For example, we have “bryntsalovka” – vodka named after V.A. Bryntsalov, Russian politician, presidential candidate in 1996.
Some proper names are used as culture signs due to their associations with historical events: Winter Palace (N.A. Bukharin “Bolshevists of 1917”). There are also names of monuments (the Mausoleum (N.A. Bukharin “Lenin and God”), names-symbols having constant associations (Petrovka – N.A. Bukharin “Taras – Lovelace”).
As satirical objects the authors of internet-fables often choose the peculiarities of appearance, language, traditions of the representatives of other nations, this can be clearly seen in the so called “Georgian fables”. The main means of conveying cultural information are different speech mistakes of foreigners speaking Russian.
“Georgian” fables demonstrate specific pronunciation and word usage of Georgians, their phonetic mistakes, for example, soft pronouncing of sounds [ж], [ш] or pronouncing hard consonants before non-anterior vowels, misusage of case, gender and number forms.
Technization of modern society replaced real communication with virtual one, real life with computer images. That is why we new fable heroes – hadgits, ogrs, bosmers, Bretons, assassins (heroes of a popular computer game “Tamriel”), appropriate toponyms (Morrowind, Morihold), names of drinks (matst, sudjamma), etc.
Active influence of computer and internet language on modern Russian language is reflected in widely-spread computer terms and jargons in the speech of modern teenagers which is also revealed in internet-fables: tracks, comments, feedback, promorank, to ban (“Brock and Plagiarism”); Sleeping mode, Bug it (“Tamriel Fables”).
On the whole, internet-fables demonstrate general descent of modern speech culture which is shown not only in jargonisation of speech because of computer slang, but also in the frequency of unquotable and colloquial words and criminal jargon: “babki” (‘money’) (E.N. Belyaev “Three opinions”); “stvol” (‘gun’) (G. Babakhanov “About a Cock”); “maza” (G. Babakhanov “About Sense of Proportion”), etc.
To conclude, the language of modern Russian fable demonstrates changes in modern Russian society, features of spiritual crisis such as descent of speech culture because of jargonisation and argotisation of speech and also replacing real life and real communication with virtual reality.

References:
1. Belyaev E.N. 200 Fables. – Moscow, 2000 – 107 pp.
2. Bukharin N.A. Fables. – Moscow, 1999 – 237 pp.
3. Georgian Fables – http:// forum. mytischi.ru
4. Makarov A.I. Fables. – Orel, 1999 – 159 pp.
5. Romanov V. N. 100 Fables. – Moscow, 2001. – 101 pp.
6. Semenyuk O.A. Epoch Language and Its Reflection in Satiric and Humorous Texts. – Kirovograd, 2001
7. Svischev V. N. Fables of XXI century. – Sergiev Posad, 2008. – 64 pp.
8. Tamriel Fables http: // elderScrolls.net
9. Trofimov K.B. Fox, Wolf and Kashpirovsky. – B.M., 1998. – 16 pp.
 

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Оригинальная статья, в

Оригинальная статья, в которой показано, как жизнь современного общества отражается на его творчестве. Интересно бы выделить эти особенности, взяв в качестве примера одну или две народные басни.

Данная статья представляется

Данная статья представляется актуальной и отличается новизной, т.к. анализ басен вообще, а современной Интернет-басни – в частности, - явление редкое. Обращение к языковой составляющей классического жанра, наполненного политическим содержанием с исторической основой, отражает современные тенденции филологического анализа и речевой культуры «паутинного» сообщества и реального социума. Однако следует заметить, что приводимые в статье примеры являются не собственно басенной лексикой, а появившейся в СМИ, первоначально – печатных, а затем – в кинофильмах и телепередачах соответствующего периода. Не вызывает возражения положение об арготизации/жаргонизации и вульгаризации современной русской речи, подтверждённое подробным анализом семантики и употребления таких слов. Непонятным осталось обращение автора именно к «грузинской» басне. Это связано с доступностью материала? Историческими событиями? Отсутствием басен «не-грузинских»? «Вопрос» усугубляется тем фактом, что данному материалу отведено 3 – 4 строчки статьи. В целом статья оставляет положительное впечатление, хотя объём и более подробный функционально-семантический и синтагматический анализ языкового материала могли бы это впечатление усилить.
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