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TO THE QUESTION OF FUNCTIONS OF PARENTHESIS IN MODERN RUSSIAN

Автор Доклада: 
V. Antonova
Награда: 
TO THE QUESTION OF FUNCTIONS OF PARENTHESIS IN MODERN RUSSIAN

 

TO THE QUESTION OF FUNCTIONS OF PARENTHESIS IN MODERN RUSSIAN

Valeriya Antonova, postgraduate
Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia


The article deals with the questions of modern syntax in Russian language. The issue of functioning of parenthesis is in the main focus. It gives some hints on the problem of right usage of parenthesis and dwells upon the questions of its ability to make expressions more informative and emotionally colored. Some aspects of developing a linguistic norm are touched in this article as well.
Keywords: parenthesis, norm, fillers, prosody, pause, dialogism, colloquial speech.


The pragmatic aspect is the most topical in the sphere of linguistic research nowadays. Linguists raise questions of urgent problems of Russian language at scientific round tables and conferences. Among them are the problems of functioning this language in mass-media and in the teaching process. Literary language is constantly regenerating with new colloquial and bookish lexemes and constructions. This happens both in oral and written forms of speech. Forming and correction of linguistic picture of the world can depend on intensive usage of rather a limited number of lexical units. At the beginning they are not of the first priority, being used as a background for the main idea, but with years they become more and more frequent and gain (at least for a while) the status of key words in different phrases and constructions. [Vasilyev, 91].
The objects of the scientific interest in the spheres of journalism and theory of teaching languages are constantly changing. They brightly show the realization of the two main tendencies in evolution of a language, which are democratization and Europeanization. “The originality of the modern situation is that both tendencies are implemented freely, widely and rather intensively” [Sarkisova, 168]. Mass-media nowadays not only promotes the shaping of social opinion but also influences on forming of linguistic tastes. The language of media has become “the source of innovations, that to some extent define the direction and the speed of development” [same]. Europeanization becomes apparent in adoption means from foreign language. Democratization shows itself in introduction into speech the units that has recently come into usage or that were previously considered to be substandard (such as using colloquial language in a function of implementing the category of dialogism in a monological speech). There is also a question of no small importance which is the establishment of the norm in modern Russian that is going on under strong influence of existing colloquial speech.
According to Ms Lapteva the transformation processes in language can be named in different ways, depending on their dividing on three groups. Active processes are both the processes that continue the direction of the previous changes and those that are coming to life right now. The main importance is that they both are productive. In case when an active process goes by the existing route, making some changes in it and including some new means of expression, it can be characterized as a living one. A new living process forms its own mechanisms of development which were unknown previously. It attracts those linguistic means that has just appeared in the speech. At the same time they can be combined with the old ones and complement them. Both the extension of possibilities of the old processes and creation of the new ones transform the system of coordination of elements and the structural table at this sector of linguistic system which inevitably changes the character of linguistic norms. During all the processes any small change – either formal or semantic – starts in the discourse, in the living usage itself. And because the stretch feature of literary language is stable throughout all of the periods of its existence all the changes happen not in the whole language itself but only its “critical points” in some periods. It helps to increase the number of variants in a language. Still only the wide usage forms and shapes the norm that provides the development of a language [Lapteva, 15-16].
The pragmatic approach towards texts from the spheres of journalism and language teaching produces interest to functioning of some units and their importance in constructing the whole picture. It also explains the basis for choosing the best means to influent the object of speech.
One of such units is parenthesis which is divided onto two groups in Russian. Still it has much similar to English. Both groups are considered to be syntactic and stylistic features of language. After Ms.Kostyuk the main syntactic function of such constructions is in their ability being inserted into any part of expression and breaking all the types of syntactic relations to extend the structure of sentence and to create a new form of speech which is similar to the main one but which is independent in some way. This is obvious in predication, in dividing the theme and the rheme and also in providing the unity of the parts that are important for the act of communication. The function of parenthesis commonly depends on a place in sentence. Being in preposition “inserted” elements can be a start for the whole expression. In this case they will be followed by more informative parts. Placed in the end of a sentence this elements becomes more important and informative. [Kostyuk, 16].
To underline the idea of realization of the democratic tendency we have to stress the fact that “inserted” and “implanted” words and expressions are definitely the means of internal dialogism in speech of a journalist or a teacher. That is why parenthesis with deictic meaning that show the source of information are the most widely used elements in different articles. They help to assure a reader in the truth of the information in the text, to show the bare facts in it. Remember those commonly used parenthetic elements in speech of a teacher that sound like “да?” in Russian and can be translated like “yeah?” or “am I right?”. This can be partly explained by the very nature of such forms of speech. In particular this can be explained by the fact that being monological by its form it is polylogical per se. it usually contains 3 contexts, which are narrative, argument and description. The need to change these contexts with each other is one of the most important conditions of keeping an addressee’s attention in focus. Being stretch in aspects of style and syntax, parenthesis is a very effective tool to form such a change. Thus participation of parenthesis in implementation of changing the units of composition can be regarded as its ability to form a text. Therefore, a strong skill to use it properly in speech doesn’t just help us to express our thoughts but also to keep attention of a numerous audience.
However, there are interesting cases erroneous use of parenthesis, that are widely represented, in particular, by fillers. In Russian they are known under a semi-scientific term “linguistic parasites” (“words-parasites”). In cases of frequent and inappropriate use of parenthesis (sometimes - every other word), the speaker runs the risk to overload the statement so that the recipient loses the thread of narration.
The relevance of research in this area was raised back in 70th years of the twentieth century. In particular, one of the editors of the journal "Problems of Linguistics", Ms Nikolaeva, pointed to a number of activities and experiments conducted on the material of the English language, related to the mechanisms of generation of speech, including spontaneous. In her article she focuses her attention at the need for similar studies in the Russian language, inflectional nature of which could yield interesting results for the study of grammatical relations. Current study of prosody is seen accompanying pause hesitations, that come to life in cases of using parenthesis. According to the work of Ms Nikolaeva, "there are two fundamentally different functional types of psycholinguistic phenomena, expressed in real speech by hesitations" [Nikolaeva, 120-121]. One of these phenomena associated with so-called “gropping” of the future structure. In such a situation a speaker has problems with changing theme or structure of his utterance without losing its correctness and logic. In this case he interrupts himself, pauses and starts again. This phenomenon is associated with introduction of filled and unfilled pauses. Another phenomenon associated with self-correction. When a speaker has said something that he considers incorrect, unsuccessful he has a strong subconscious need to correct himself. Such a psycholinguistic phenomenon has more to do with replays and false principles, not pauses. It is in cases of filled pauses is high probability of occurrence of words-parasites.
Relationship between prosody, pauses, and parenthesis is under scientific interest of Ms Kostyuk. In particular, she underlines diversity of functions performed by parenthetical elements. Particularly noted the ability to express the "different shades of meaning from a deliberate dryness and detachment to an extreme emotionality" [Kostyuk, 18].
Thus, it is possible to conclude that parenthesis has a bright ability to form text, being highly expressive and informative in modern Russian. The study of this issue can get closer find the clue to the question of generation of speech, its manifestation in different situations, as well as to find solutions for many problems associated with the emergence of norms of literary language. Russian language has a vast amount of material illustrating the need to distinguish between inserted and implanted constructions (in English, such a need is seen not feasible), the importance of study of semantically empty syntactic structures that have received a semi-official title of "words-parasites", as well as the development of the question of prosody and related mechanisms of generation of speech.

Литература:
1. Vasilyev A. Word in Russian TV-media. – М.: Flinta: Nauka, 2003.
3. Lapteva O. Self-organization of language // Questions of Linguistic, М., 2003, №6.
4. Kostyuk N. Syntactic-stylistic functions of parenthesis in fiction. М., 1985.
5. Nikolaeva N. A new tendency in studying spontaneous speech // Questions of Linguistic, М., 1970, №3.
 

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Статью отличает актуальность

Статью отличает актуальность поднятых вопросов. Заявленная тема корректно рассматривается в контексте глобальных языковых трансформаций. Внимание автора к современным языковым реалиям, прагматическим аспектам, которые проблематизируют традиционные подходы к нормализации языка, предполагает осторожность в их квалификации как ошибок, в том числе и синтаксических. Можно только приветствовать интерес автора к “words-parasites”, среди которых могут оказаться не только семантически пустые конструкции, но и языковые артефакты глубинного непроявленного смысла.

Синтаксиис

Изучение диалогичности, синтаксической наполненности диалога и средств текстообразования является актуальным в современной лингвистике. В статье, со ссылкой на исследования Н.Костюк, рассматривается современная реализация способов организации разговорной речи. Однако, на наш взгляд, исследование таких языковых явлений не ограничивается только компетенцией Н,Костюк, хотя трудно возрастить приводимым интенциям исследователя.
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