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Samtskhe-Javakheti Region - Some Aspects of Development: Problems and Perspectives

Samtskhe-Javakheti Region - Some Aspects of Development: Problems and Perspectives
Chiladze George, doctor of jurisprudence, full professor

Eka Gegeshidze, ph.d. of economics, full professor

Georgian University, Georgia

Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Georgia";

the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;

In one of the regions of Georgia - Samtskhe-Javakheti, since the Soviet period to the present day, it has accumulated a sufficient number of problems.
Samtskhe-Javakheti shares a border with Turkey and Armenia. It sharply raises the problem of poverty, there are contradictions between different ethnic groups.
The paper analyzes economic indicators from a variety of authoritative sources.
The authors of a case study was conducted.
Despite the fact that the state invests some money in the development of the region, it is ineffective. Therefore, we need more efficient, radically new approaches.
According to the authors need to pursue a policy of development for several strategic areas: infrastructure, education, development of skills for the profitable household and the use of specific network programs.
Keywords: Samtskhe-Javakheti region, Economic Development Policy, Law regulation, Case Study, Poverty redaction, Conflict resolution.

В одном из регионов Грузии - в Самцхе-Джавахетии, начиная с Советского периода до сегодняшних дней, накопилось достаточное количество проблем.
Самцхе-Джавахетия имеет границу с Турцией и с Арменией.  В нем остро встает проблема бедности населения, имеются противоречия между различными этническими группами.
В работе анализируются экономические показатели, полученные из различных авторитетных источников.
Авторами работы было проведено социологическое исследование.
Несмотря на то, что государство вкладывает определенные средства в развитии региона, это малоэффективно. Поэтому, нужны более эффективные, кардинально новые подходы.
По мнению авторов необходимо проводить политику развития по нескольким стратегическим направлениям: инфраструктура, образование, развитие навыков ведения прибыльного домашнего хозяйства, а также использование специальных сетевых программ.

 

Problems of Poverty 

In the region Samtskhe-Javakheti of Georgia in the Soviet time was the border only with Armenia. The Border with Turkey was closed and Armenian and Soviet population (back in the Soviet period, Armenians were part of the Soviet population) was not in Communication with them. After that time many things changed - Armenia and Georgia became independent and Georgia opened the border with Turkey, but conflicts is not finished yet just softened in surface. There are full of problems in Samtskhe-Javakheti region, with Armenia and Turkey in 1915-1918 were conflict situations  and from that time Armenians is not in good relation to Turkey. Also ethnic Armenian population which are living in the territory of Georgia are not in good relation with Turkey population. All of that snoozing regional development and poverty redaction process.

In January 2013, Samtskhe - Javakheti population of 213.5 thousand people, 31% of the region's population (66.5 thousand people) live in cities, 69 % (147 thousand people) – in villages. In the region is high birth rate. According statistics in the Samtskhe - Javakheti unemployment is 7.5%, this is due to the fact that a large part of the population is engaged in agriculture. In addition, the region's labor force that is unemployed, is disqualified and needs vocational training in most case. In 2012, the average annual number of employed 9750 people was in the hired labor, it is one of the lowest share (13 %) in the Georgian regions and other 65000 persons are self-employed and small farms. If we take in the consideration the information about “population below the poverty line health insurance program” in Samtskhe - Javakheti insured up to September 2012 was more than 17 700 people (6261 families), which is almost 10% of the population.

The Government of Georgia is duing best of its posibilities, but country is too poor, with more than 200 000 IDPs, spending 1.5 billion, nearly 20% of the budget only for social service. At same time adults education programs in the informal direction is very poor.

According of that for Georgia is new opportunities, new challenges and less capability for becalming leader economic player, because all of that the cross border regions of that three countries are very poor and also other two would not like to be in communication each other, but Georgia is in communication both of them. Georgia can create special regional development policy which lead  in Economic activity Concentration in Samtskhe-Javakheti reduce poverty and increase well being in region.

In the work by Case Study will be shown the Policy ways and strategies of the explore opportunities for Georgia.

Economic indicators and problems of development 

The Soviet inheritance of Georgia is causing many problems and giving opportunities  for development. There have been very blocked political and economic relation in soviet time with non socialist countries, among them was Turkey. The borders from Georgia side was closed and border line was settled by ethnic Armenians, the nation with big conflicts with Turkey. That was the key policy of the Soviet time, no relation with non Socialist countries because they were “wolfs”, there were being spread perception that in the capitalist society, human attitude to human is us lupine. In the region Samatkhe-Javakheti of Georgia in soviet time was a border only with Armenia. Border with Turkey was closed and Armenian and Soviet population was not in Communication with each other. After that time many things changed Armenia and Georgia became independent and Georgia opened the border with Turkey, but conflicts is not finished yet, just softened in surface. There are full of problems in Samtskhe-Javakheti region, with Armenia and Turkey in 1915-1918 were conflict situations and from that time Armenians is not in good relation to Turkey. Also ethnic Armenian population which are living in the territory of Georgia are not in good relation with Turkey population. All of that snoozing regional development and poverty redaction process. Let looking more deeply to the countries.

Armenia’s economic indicators are following GDP of US$ 3,870, Armenia is a lower middle-income country. Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty line (% of population)32.4%,CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)1,4 School enrollment, primary (% gross)102%, Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access)100%, Life expectancy at birth, total (years)74, GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)US$ 3720, Annual GDP Growth (%)3.2% (2013), Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) (modeled ILO estimate) is 18.5%, Current account balance as a percentage of GDP for the year -8 %, Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) 2.6 (2012), CPIA transparency, accountability, and corruption in the public sector rating (1=low to 6=high) – 3.5.“Remittances from migrant workers play an important role in Armenia’s economy. Gini Coefficient is 30.9. The growth of household deposits is strongly supported by an 11 percent growth in remittances as of June 2013. With exports and remittances dependent on international prices for commodities, the Armenian economy is vulnerable to adverse shock to terms of trade from global developments” (Worldbank, 2014). Human Development Index is 0.729- in the high human development category- positioning the country at 72 out of 187 countries and territories (UNDP, 2014). 

Georgia’s economic indicators are following GDP of US $ 3 503, Georgia is a lower middle-income country. Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty line (% of population)14.8 %, CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)1,4 School enrollment, primary (% gross)106%, Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access)97%, Life expectancy at birth, total (years)74, GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)US $ 3290, Annual GDP Growth (%)2.5% (2013), Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) (modeled ILO estimate) is 15%, Current account balance as a percentage of GDP for the year -7.5, Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) -0.9 (2012),  CPIA transparency, accountability, and corruption in the public sector rating (1=low to 6=high) – 3.5. Gin Coefficient is 41.3. “Located on the shortest route between Europe and Asia, Georgia’s transport system is a key link in the historic “Silk Road.” The Government’s commitment to rehabilitating main, secondary and local road networks has intensified in response to the global economic down-turn, as road rehabilitation will improve access to markets and services, and create short-term employment through civil works” (World Bank, 2014). Human Development Index is  0.745—in the high human development category—positioning the country at 72 out of 187 countries and territories (UNDP, 2014). 

Turkey economic indicators are following GDP of US $ 10666, Turkey is an upper middle-income country. Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty line (% of population)18.1%, CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)4.1, School enrollment, primary (% gross)102%, Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access)99%, Life expectancy at birth, total (years)75, GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)US$ 6220, Annual GDP Growth (%)4.3% (2013), Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) (modeled ILO estimate) is 9.19%, Current account balance as a percentage of GDP for the year -6.14%, Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) 7.5% (2012), Gini Coefficient is 39 (World Bank, 2014). Human Development Index is 0.722—in the high human development category—positioning the country at 90 out of 187 countries and territories (UNDP, 2014). 

From brief statistics above there can be made some conclusions, among Armenia, Georgia and Turkey, Georgia is most develop country, with Human Development Index 0.745 positioning the country at 72 out of 187 countries and territories, Turkey has most of all high GDP per capita, life expectance is nearly same in the conries, most problematic poverty line has Armenia, then Turkey and the best Georgia. Also by the indicator mean of Schooling years Georgia has 12.1, Armenia 10.8 and turkey 6.5. So it means that Georgia has comparative advantage of schooling (see table #1).

Table #1

Components of HDI

Name

2012 HDI Value

2012 Life Expectancy at Birth

2010 Mean Years of Schooling

2012 Non Income HDI Value

Georgia

0.745

73.9

12.1

0.845

Armenia

0.729

74.4

10.8

0.808

Turkey

0.722

74.2

6.5

0.72

Source: (Human Development Report, 2013)

State politics, regulation and development’s perspectives 

Armenia, Georgia and Turkey, nowadays have cross borders: Samtskhe-Javakheti (Georgia), Ardahan, Kars (Turkey) and  Shirak (Armenia), they are poorest regions in the courtiers. In Shirak region Boyajyan lives was devastated by an earthquake in 1988, and has the highest poverty level in the Armenia. In its current economic strategy, the government pledges to cut the proportion of the population living and the economy ministry says 45 per cent of government expenditure goes on welfare payments, and officials say this has prevented poverty from reaching catastrophic levels (Melkumyan, 2011). Shirak province also has quite high density of population 94 person per km. Kars is one of the poorest region of the Turkey,GDP per capita in Kars is nearly 1/3 of the GDP turkey.

At the same time Samtskhe - Javakheti population of 213.5 thousand people, 31% of the region's population ( 66.5 thousand people ) live in cities, 69 % (147 thousand people) – in villages. In the region is high birth rate. According statistics in the Samtskhe - Javakheti unemployment is 7.5%, this is due to the fact that a large part of the population is engaged in agriculture. In addition, the region's labor force that is unemployed, is disqualified and needs vocational training in most case. In 2012, the average annual number of employed 9750 people was in the hired labor, it is one of the lowest share (13 %) in the Georgian regions and other 65000 persons are self-employed and small farms. If we take in the consideration the information about “population below the poverty line health insurance program” in Samtskhe - Javakheti insured up to September 2012 was more than 17 700 people (6261 families), which is almost 10% of the population.

The Government of Georgia is doing best of its possibilities, but country is too poor, with more than 200 000 IDPs, spending 1.5 billion, nearly 20% of the budget only for social service. At same time adults education programs in the informal direction is very poor.

Very important issue that in the region of the Samtskhe-Javakhetyare very famous resorts and destinations, among them area: Borjomi, Bakuriani, Abastumani, Likani and Tsaghveri. The region also reach by land resources 6 421 square kilometers. In the region of six self-governing unit, 353 settlements and Five City: Akhalkhalakhi, Akhaltsikhe, Borjomi, Vale, Ninotsminda. Region passes through the Baku - Tbilisi - Ceyhan oil pipeline, the Trans-Caspian gas pipeline, Marabda - Akhalkhalakhi - Kars railway. According of those circumstances the region should not poor and JA Georgia with Samtskhe-Javakheti State Teaching University holds a Social survey about reasons of the problem: “Why Samtskhe – Javakheti is poor”. The results are following: Poor education of the population, poor networking, ethnic minorities (54% of the population is Armenian, 43% - Georgian, 3% - other), their Georgian language skills is poor, lack of access to modern technology and old-fashioned agricultural farming traditions, availability of financial resources and lack of the business and entrepreneurship education (Gegeshidze Eka, Chiladze George, 2014).

According results of the Social survey the population are very active and would like obtain skills for employment, starting farming or find some jobs, they also have problem of the finding some jobs in local self government unit or making some advocating activity, because of the poor Georgian language skills. Also very important issue with the problems mentioned above is that in the border countries near Samtskhe - Javakheti in Armenia and in Turkey there is problem lack of education.

All of the three countries governments has nearly same troubles of development and poverty, and it can be said that somehow the problems are interdependent among the country’s populations behavior, economic situations and past and present policy. The trap of ethnic disgust is blocking economic networking incentives which is leading unrealized economic well-being in cross border neighborhood area.

Compeering each other Georgia have several advantage: Georgian population is friendly with both of the country Turkey and Armenia, and same time has highest schooling and development indicators.

According of that for Georgia is new opportunities, new challenges and less capability for becalming leader economic player, because all of that the cross border regions of that three countries are very poor and also other two would not like to be in communication each other, but Georgia is in communication both of them. Georgia can create special regional development policy which lead  in Economic activity Concentration in Samtskhe-Javakheti reduce poverty and increase well being in region. But Georgia can became anchor of the Economic growth boost in the cross border, which will be transformed with high economic boost in Georgia. The policy should contain several development strategies:  Infrastructure, Skills Development education with transferring household income generating activity and Special Networking Programs. About last two directions:

1.Skills Development education with transferring household income generating activity: Entrepreneurship and social Business incubators establishment and operating in the difference agro and creative directions, by that  will be created strong pillars of the skills development and vocational education and training, by education and training spreading, in region will be more educated people, with proper financial reassures they can start their farming or businesses, or enlarge farming, build green houses, employee other population, create value chain and generate personal and regional income. So there will be improved of livelihood of vulnerable groups such as women, children, youth, IDPs, disabled and elderly persons. By business education there will be promoted of productive employment, will be created social cohesion, value chain and reproduction clusters with the high level expertise consultation and accounting administration helping systems.

2. Special Networking Programs: In the Samtkhe-Javakheti there is The Samtkhe-Javakhety State University with campus of Akhalkhalakhi and Akhaltsikhe. Government of Georgia should spread the 1 plus 4 program (that program of the Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia, according of that ethnic minorities in first year are studying Georgian language and then in the bachelors program without any charge) for Armenian and Turkey population from that cross border population and Same time in that regional University especially Akhalkhalakhi campus studying should be free of Charge for ethnic Georgians from, also can be done some Georgian students mobility program, for example Georgian student can take a semester in Akhalkhalakhi without any charge, and studying credits will be recognition by the University where the student is studying.

Georgia should rapidly use the opportunities and challenges, making economic development shocking programs in region, which will lead Georgia becoming, more powerful economically in the Caucasus.

 

References:

  • 1. Human Development Report. (2013). Human Development Report 2013, Khalid Malik, Maurice Kugler (Head of Research), Milorad Kovacevic, Subhra Bhattacharjee, Astra Bonini, Cecilia Calderón, Alan Fuchs, Amie Gaye, Iana Konova, Arthur Minsat, Shivani Nayyar, José Pineda and Swarnim Waglé. New York: UNDP.
  • 2. FATMA DOGRUE and FATMA NUR KARAMAN. (2008). THE ROLE OF INVESTMENTS IN UNIVERSITIES AND IN AIRPORTS ON THE REGIONAL CONVERGENCE. Istanbul, TURKEY.
  • 3. Gegeshidze Eka, Chiladze George. (2014). “Why Samtskhe – Javakheti is poor”. Tbilisi: JA Georgia.
  • 4. Melkumyan, N. (2011, Aipril 1). Armenia Sinking into Poverty. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from Institute war & peace and reporting : http://iwpr.net/report-news/armenia-sinking-poverty
  • 5. Michael P. Todaro and Stephen C. Smith. (2011). Economic Development. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
  • 6. Philip Stevens and Martin Weale. (2003). Education and Economic Growth. London : National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
  • 7. UNDP. (2014, May 20). Human Development Reports. Retrieved May 20, 2014, from UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME: http://hdr.undp.org/en/data
  • 8. Worldbank. (2014). Worldbank mata data. Retrieved from offical web site of the World bank: http://data.worldbank.org/
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Comments: 19

David Guti

Весьма специфический вопрос и не каждый ученый взялся бы за данное исследование. Обширные знания и профессионализм авторов заслуживает высокой оценки.

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемая Коллега! Большое спасибо за Ваш комментарий и высокую оценку моего труда. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.ЧИЛАДЗЕ

Gudadze Megi

Вопрос развития стратегически важных регионов заслуживает пристального внимания Грузинского правительства и общественности. В работе, с знанием дела, на высоком профессиональном уровне дан анализ проблемы и представлены пути их решения. Труд авторов заслуживает весьма высокой оценки.

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемая Коллега! Большое спасибо за Ваш комментарий и высокую оценку моего труда. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.ЧИЛАДЗЕ

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемая Татьяна Леонидовна! Спасибо за четкое понимание действительно насущней проблемы и высокую оценку моей жизненной позиции. Всегда ценю Ваше мнение. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.Чиладзе

Korolev Evgenie Sergeevich

Дорогой Георгий Бидзинович! Выдвинутые Вами в высоконаучной статье аспекты проблем региона Грузии это показатель не только этого региона, но и мы можем применить некоторые институты и для характеристики регионов многих государств. Поэтому считаю Вашу со авторскую работу поистине высокоёмкой и заслуживающей высоких похвал.

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Большое спасибо за Ваш комментарий и высокую оценку моего труда. Всегда рад деловому сотрудничеству с Вами. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.ЧИЛАДЗЕ

Vykhodets Aleksander Mihaylovich

Эта работа свидетельствует о том, что государственное развитие начинается с развития регионального. В этом научная ценность и перспективы использования результатов. Автору следовало бы расширить фактологический материал. А.Выходец

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемый Александр Михайлович, большое спасибо за высокую оценку статьи. Во время научного исследования был накоплен и проанализирован обширный материал, который должным образом отразится в последующих наших публикациях. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.Чиладзе

Kazbekov Beket

Уважаемые авторы! Выполненное Вами актуальное исследование вызывает не только большой научный, но и вполне объяснимый практический интерес. Сформулированные предложения (развитие инфраструктуры, образования, навыков ведения прибыльного домашнего хозяйства, а также использование специальных сетевых программ), сопровождаемые результатами социологических опросов усиливают комплексность, системность исследований, а со знанием дела применяемый исторический подход усиливают научную обоснованность Вашей работы. Дальнейших Вам результатов! beket

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемый профессор, большое спасибо за ценные высказывания, творческий подход и комплексность научного суждения при оценке статьи. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.Чиладзе

Lyudmila Moroz

У Вас интересная и познавательная статья с проведенным социологическим исследованием. Желаю дальнейших успехов! С уважением, Л. Мороз

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемая Людмила Ивановна! Большое спасибо за Ваш комментарий и высокую оценку моего труда. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.ЧИЛАДЗЕ

Baran Mariya

Автором актуализирован важный вопрос - исследование проблем и перспектив развития Самцхе Джавахети . Поддерживаю видение ученого Георгия Чиладзе по приоритетности развития образования для повышения экономического роста региона. Актуальная , информативная , интересная работа . Успеха. С уважением Мария Баран.

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемая Мария Баран! Большое спасибо за Ваш комментарий, высокую оценку моего труда. Всегда буду рад сотрудничать с Вами при осуществлении совместных научных проектов. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.ЧИЛАДЗЕ

Toivo Tanning

В практическом и в теоретическом плане интересная и актуальная статья. Желаю успехов. С уважением Тойво Taннинг

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемый д-р Тойво Taннинг, спасибо за оценку научного труда и высказанные Вами любезные пожелания. С уважением, проф.Г.Б.Чиладзе

Korotkova Tatyana

Уважаемый, George Chiladze! Ваше исследование говорит о Вас как об ученом-патриоте и человеке с активной жизненной позиции. Желаю успехов. Т.Л.

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемая Татьяна Леонидовна! Спасибо за четкое понимание действительно насущней проблемы и высокую оценку моей жизненной позиции. Всегда ценю Ваше мнение. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.Чиладзе
Comments: 19

David Guti

Весьма специфический вопрос и не каждый ученый взялся бы за данное исследование. Обширные знания и профессионализм авторов заслуживает высокой оценки.

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемая Коллега! Большое спасибо за Ваш комментарий и высокую оценку моего труда. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.ЧИЛАДЗЕ

Gudadze Megi

Вопрос развития стратегически важных регионов заслуживает пристального внимания Грузинского правительства и общественности. В работе, с знанием дела, на высоком профессиональном уровне дан анализ проблемы и представлены пути их решения. Труд авторов заслуживает весьма высокой оценки.

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемая Коллега! Большое спасибо за Ваш комментарий и высокую оценку моего труда. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.ЧИЛАДЗЕ

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемая Татьяна Леонидовна! Спасибо за четкое понимание действительно насущней проблемы и высокую оценку моей жизненной позиции. Всегда ценю Ваше мнение. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.Чиладзе

Korolev Evgenie Sergeevich

Дорогой Георгий Бидзинович! Выдвинутые Вами в высоконаучной статье аспекты проблем региона Грузии это показатель не только этого региона, но и мы можем применить некоторые институты и для характеристики регионов многих государств. Поэтому считаю Вашу со авторскую работу поистине высокоёмкой и заслуживающей высоких похвал.

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Большое спасибо за Ваш комментарий и высокую оценку моего труда. Всегда рад деловому сотрудничеству с Вами. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.ЧИЛАДЗЕ

Vykhodets Aleksander Mihaylovich

Эта работа свидетельствует о том, что государственное развитие начинается с развития регионального. В этом научная ценность и перспективы использования результатов. Автору следовало бы расширить фактологический материал. А.Выходец

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемый Александр Михайлович, большое спасибо за высокую оценку статьи. Во время научного исследования был накоплен и проанализирован обширный материал, который должным образом отразится в последующих наших публикациях. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.Чиладзе

Kazbekov Beket

Уважаемые авторы! Выполненное Вами актуальное исследование вызывает не только большой научный, но и вполне объяснимый практический интерес. Сформулированные предложения (развитие инфраструктуры, образования, навыков ведения прибыльного домашнего хозяйства, а также использование специальных сетевых программ), сопровождаемые результатами социологических опросов усиливают комплексность, системность исследований, а со знанием дела применяемый исторический подход усиливают научную обоснованность Вашей работы. Дальнейших Вам результатов! beket

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемый профессор, большое спасибо за ценные высказывания, творческий подход и комплексность научного суждения при оценке статьи. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.Чиладзе

Lyudmila Moroz

У Вас интересная и познавательная статья с проведенным социологическим исследованием. Желаю дальнейших успехов! С уважением, Л. Мороз

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемая Людмила Ивановна! Большое спасибо за Ваш комментарий и высокую оценку моего труда. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.ЧИЛАДЗЕ

Baran Mariya

Автором актуализирован важный вопрос - исследование проблем и перспектив развития Самцхе Джавахети . Поддерживаю видение ученого Георгия Чиладзе по приоритетности развития образования для повышения экономического роста региона. Актуальная , информативная , интересная работа . Успеха. С уважением Мария Баран.

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемая Мария Баран! Большое спасибо за Ваш комментарий, высокую оценку моего труда. Всегда буду рад сотрудничать с Вами при осуществлении совместных научных проектов. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.ЧИЛАДЗЕ

Toivo Tanning

В практическом и в теоретическом плане интересная и актуальная статья. Желаю успехов. С уважением Тойво Taннинг

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемый д-р Тойво Taннинг, спасибо за оценку научного труда и высказанные Вами любезные пожелания. С уважением, проф.Г.Б.Чиладзе

Korotkova Tatyana

Уважаемый, George Chiladze! Ваше исследование говорит о Вас как об ученом-патриоте и человеке с активной жизненной позиции. Желаю успехов. Т.Л.

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Уважаемая Татьяна Леонидовна! Спасибо за четкое понимание действительно насущней проблемы и высокую оценку моей жизненной позиции. Всегда ценю Ваше мнение. С уважением, проф. Г.Б.Чиладзе
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