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Azerbaijan State Marine Academy, Azerbaijan
Appropriating this problem, this article deals with motivation of theory, as a point of view, which is fixed, as an understanding take into consideration to be guided by predisposition of fellow for everyone’s activity, as an education, across positive direction only. This activity arises mutual advantageous each time in the presence of two situations, outer, objective reality, surroundings which being to obtain complete satisfaction either this or that requirement and inner, subjective – one’s requirement which is obtained by one under certain conditions. In teaching process activity of subjective factor is the requirement of subject (fellow) knowledge, its desire to catch it, but objective factor is the teaching process, its methodical treatment of teaching material.
Keywords: approaching to the problem of motivation ,as a point of view, a theory of fixed,activity,mutual,education,subjective factors.
Подходя к проблеме мотивации,в статье рассматриваются с позиции теории установки, как она сформулирована, включает в себя предрасположенность субъекта ориентировать свою деятельность, в том числе учебную, в определенном направлении. Эта деятельность возникает всякий раз при наличии и взаимодействии двух моментов; внешнего, объективного, т.е. среды, в которой должна удовлетворяться та или иная потребность, и внутреннего, субъективного – самой потребности, которая будет удовлетворяться в определенной среде. В учебной деятельности субъективным фактором является потребность субъекта в знаниях, желание получить их, объективным же фактором является учебный процесс, методически обработанный учебный материал.
Ключевые слова: Подходя к проблеме мотивации, теории установки, деятельность, взаимодействии,образование,обоих факторов.
Dividing all the factors that determine the success of learning a foreign language, the methodology, general psychological and individual-psychological, the researchers believe the most important motivation for learning among the general psychological factors. According to the apt remark D. Diza, motivation is energizatorom behavior and guide in training.
This problem has recently attracted the attention of more trainers of foreign language. However, when applied to the study of foreign languages at secondary school, the problem of motivation is far from being resolved. An indicator of this unresolved problem may be at least the fact,that the majority of respondents M.A.Kudashovoy students (69%) interest in a foreign language lesson.The fact that a very small number of students engaged in a foreign language is optional, as evidence of the unpopularity of the foreign language as a school discipline.
To address the problem of motivation can go different ways. In this article we will address issues related to the role of educational materials to maintain motivation when learning a foreign language at school. We're talking about maintaining motivation, because, supposedly, the vast majority of students begin to study a foreign language with great enthusiasm and desire to succeed. For this fact provides a strong emotional charge, laying a solid motivation and a positive attitude towards foreign language as an academic discipline. But such an attitude towards the ultimate goal of education is not enough to guarantee success if students throughout the learning does not create an emotionally positive attitude to the process of mastering a foreign language, to the regular practice of this subject.
We know that positive emotions, increasing the susceptibility of the analyzers and the excitability of the nerve centers in the cerebral cortex, have a beneficial effect on the absorption of any school subject. It seems, however, that the problem of emotional appeal of a foreign language training is particularly acute, that distinguishes this object from all other disciplines the school cycle. "The teacher of a foreign language - writes A.A.Leontev - more than any other teacher of the subject must actively intervene in the emotional atmosphere of the lesson and provide opportunities for the emergence of students' emotional states conducive to their learning activities."
Note that recognition of the need to create a positive emotional atmosphere in the process of learning a foreign language has become such statements give rise to the Methodists, for example, the statement S.Kordera that students should want to learn a foreign language, because language learning - fun, not because what they need to know the language. It seems that in this statement for all its paradox and some shift in emphasis is an important grain of truth.
In the overall structure of incentives usually are the main motive (or external motivation) and private motives (or intrinsic motivation). We are interested in private motives - motives that arise during the actual training activities, and according to researchers who have the highest level of educational activity. It should be noted that the emotional appeal of the educational process, promoting students' interest in episodic, of course, has a positive effect on the formation of a stable process to study a foreign language, making a positive emotional reaction to a stable tendency.Thus, if we agree with the fact that one of the most effective means of dealing with emotional hunger in the classroom foreign language teacher is to use a variety of educational materials, filled with positive emotional charge, the training materials, as a fully controllable factor (in terms of motivation ), have an impact on the subjective factor, thereby contributing to the emergence of the installation.
Talking about the various training materials that can have a positive emotional impact on the learning process, we primarily have in mind the audio-visual teaching aids such as filmstrips voiced, kinokoltsovki, kinofragmenty and movies. Continued use of only one textbook, the same types of exercises, one way or another connected with the textbook, originally perceived as a new kind of educational activity, weakens the positive emotions, and often eliminates them as students gradually develop stereotypical reaction. As a result of incoming information and monotonously similar exercises of the students active participants in the learning process to become passive contemplators. This template presentation of information based on the wingless practicality, in the end, kills students' desire to accept and assimilate this information. It should help teachers and audio-visual teaching aids, especially as modern foreign language teaching is largely dependent on the training materials, which dictate the use of various methods of teaching.
It is difficult to overestimate, in terms of motivation role of audiovisual teaching aids, which are not only helping to organize the field of perception (vision and hearing), but also give the student the freedom to interpret their own situations, depending on its overall level and degree of language acquisition.
Thus, by using a variety of audiovisual training situation, making a fascinating educational activity, contribute not only to intensify the learning process, but also to maintain a high level of motivation.
One of the reasons that the audio-visual training aids are not used in the practice of teaching foreign languages in school, is that their use is to some extent, is a violation of the customary course of the learning process: a student switches to a new kind of work is very different from all others. Many teachers believe that this is a very high price for the result, which in the end, it turns out. It seems that the proponents of this view ignore the positive impact that audiovisual training not only in the foreign language, but also on motivation. Before we address the use of audiovisual material, you need to convince the teacher that is a "violation" of the educational process is justified.
Of all the wide range of issues arising out of this problem, we will focus on the use of voiced story filmstrips, and movies kinofragmentov to use students' acquired knowledge and skills. We address this issue because his negative attitude to the study of foreign language learners are often attributed to the fact that they see in the target language of practical value.
The results of research psychologists have shown that by the interests of class V children are becoming more conscious and differential. Of great importance in the formation of interest in the subject is a subjective perception of the students the importance of the acquired values. One can presume that the education and educational effectiveness of the principle of relevance is determined by the number of objective and subjective reasons, which include: the authority of teachers, availability of promising lines, the practical application of acquired knowledge, the presence of the target set in the classroom and understand its significance. One of the main factors contributing to the formation of the importance of the principle of acquired knowledge and interest in learning a foreign language in high school, is probably the person and the teacher's authority, his ability to teach the subject interesting. This is confirmed by the first factor is well known to all teachers of foreign languages: decline of interest in studying foreign languages in VII - VIII high school, when the principle is the importance of knowledge acquired is less determined by the individual and the authority of the teacher, although in these classes, the influence of the latter on the pedagogical effectiveness of the principle can be quite substantial. At the same time increases the importance of such factors as the availability of promising lines and practical use of knowledge.
The decline in interest in the study of foreign languages at the secondary level for several reasons, one of which is, in our opinion, to ignore these factors. We believe that the sooner the teacher will use them, the more efficient the process will proceed foreign language teaching. "Children aged 11-12 years can not understand the need for foreign language skills - rightly observes G. Rogoff. - The task of the teacher is to not only tell you how important foreign language for any educated person, but to be able to maintain an interest in language learning, to stimulate a desire to learn the language ... Students need to feel that the language they are studying, is a communication tool, a means of getting information when they listen, speak and read in that language. "
Students need to explain where and how they can practically apply their knowledge. (Yes, and life gives them examples of how the future they will be able to use them.), But the benefits of such interviews will be small if the student himself, on his personal experience does not experience the satisfaction of the specific opportunities presented itself to him to apply their knowledge and skills . As rightly remarked by EA Vertogradsky, "function as a link motives, impelling and directing the activities will be intensified in the event that the needs will be available during training and during training."
There is no doubt that one form of motivation - is the satisfaction that students are successfully mastering the knowledge, skills and abilities. If a student feels that the subject him to "give", he will teach him with even greater interest. However, we know: what is the success of one student may not be so for another. Excellent assessment, resulting in a well-learned material will be a success for many students, but close is not for everyone, for the complete satisfaction of students of all ages brings only the realization that the knowledge and skills can be immediately put into practice, as well as the opportunity to make it. "The teachers of a foreign language - writes B. Dutton - always jealous of faculty of exact and natural sciences, because these things at once attracted by his appearance, at least the boys are always under the spell of things real and concrete, while the poor are so few linguists lures (gimmicks ) for which they could rely on! The student must receive a tangible reality for the work, which he spent, he must feel that he goes to a goal, getting something that can be used immediately. " And speaking of putting into practice the knowledge obtained by a student, skills and abilities, B. Dutton believes that it should be a joyful, triumphant moment of free creativity, which have all been waiting so eagerly.
We believe that the use of talking story filmstrips, kinokoltsovok, kinofragmentov and movies well corresponds to the festive nature of knowledge, of which B. Dutton said. In addition, with slide shows and voiced particular film, the language in the minds of students from an abstraction into a lively means of communication. Because students in the film feel a real need and opportunity to use the acquired knowledge, it gives them satisfaction and, consequently, increases the interest in learning a foreign language.
An interesting experiment was conducted Polish teacher S. Yantsevich in high school. Faced with a complete lack of interest in learning a foreign language, S. Yantsevich through the use of educational films for a short time was able to radically change the attitude of students to the subject. We note here that the author of this article conducted an experimental study using a different audio-visual means - kinokoltsovok - in several Moscow schools have also demonstrated the growing interest of students to study a foreign language, especially in the so-called "average" students. This exercise also helped with the reception dramatization, finalizing kinokoltsovkami.
Here we must focus on two aspects of motivation stemming from the fact that information comes to modern students by significantly large number of channels than ever before, and many of these channels are known to them from everyday life. Modern technical audio-visual teaching aids have historically outside the school before they become teaching aids, and this applies to the cinema more than any other textbook. This is the origin of the educational film makes some Methodists wary, and sometimes a negative attitude toward him. Thus, R. Lado in a lecture delivered by the Soviet teachers at Georgetown University in Washington, noting at the beginning of the movie is "a powerful visual aid," nevertheless stressed their opposition to the use of film to study foreign languages as one of the reasons described the following: "People used to the fact that the movie - entertainment, so students do not relate to the training film seriously." The point, apparently, is that when using the movie on foreign language lessons for school children may have two types of motivation: on the one hand, self-motivation, when the film is interesting in itself (as is well said S. Corder, «language or no language» ) and on the other hand, the motivation is due to the fact that the student can understand the language, which he studied and spoken by the characters in the film. This will give him a sense of satisfaction, inspire confidence in their abilities and desire for further improvement.
In today's educational literature, the problem of psychological activity is often considered in two aspects: the so-called personal level (ie by motivation) and in terms of flow of the learning process (ie, from the student's mental activity). The successful organization of the educational process, the very methods and materials contribute to the formation of positive learning motivation. Nevertheless, students should begin as early as possible to apply their knowledge in practice, because if the motivation is based only on the fact that learning is interesting, then this is far from enough to solve the problem.
The use of filmstrips and movies dubbed allows us to approach the problem of motivation in two ways simultaneously: on the one hand, the audio-visual teaching themselves laid motivation (they are interesting in themselves, and enliven the learning process), on the other hand, they are an area where
Students can apply their knowledge and skills they obtained during the training, which also in turn supports the motivation.
In conclusion I would like to note the importance of audio-visual material that contains elements of humor.
The problem of the positive impact of humor as an emotional factor in the study of foreign languages is one of the least studied and methodical, and in psychological terms. I must say that this problem is quite extensive.
It includes the important questions and fostering a sense of humor and use humor as a psycho-physiological relaxation factor, and as an added incentive that can help learning, memorization. However, the very recognition of that humor should be an integral part of learning a foreign language, is very rare. (As an exception may be to quote G. Horn, in which one of the four main qualities required of a foreign language teacher is the courage to work with good humor and pleasure.)
It seems that the audio visual, tasteful, pedagogical tact and gentle humor, must contribute to the creation in the classroom a pleasant atmosphere, which, in turn, should create the mental attitude, which is essential to any beneficial work on mastering a foreign language. Of course, some teachers, as noted D. Flemming, might say: "How can I bring humor into the class, if I myself find it difficult?"
In this case, in our opinion, to help the teacher should come Methodists involved in the creation of training materials, giving the teacher a material in which the humor would have been its integral and natural part of, and thus would be an incentive not only for the class, but also an incentive for teachers to improve their lesson in this regard.
However, this audio-visual materials to become such a stimulus, it is essential to their artistic side was at a high level, and their artistic taste is impeccable, because as soon as the cease to act in an element of novelty, the increasing role will belong to the quality of an educational material. Therefore, the external entertaining (of course, the inherent qualities of each allowance) must necessarily lead also to the education of good taste, to promote aesthetic education. All this, of course, should help solve the problem of motivation in learning a foreign language in high school.
Approaching the problem of motivation from the perspective of set theory, as formulated, includes the disposition of the subject to focus its activities, including training, in a certain direction. This activity occurs whenever the presence and interaction of two factors, the external, objective, ie environment in which to be satisfied or that the need for, and the internal, subjective - the requirements to be satisfied in a particular environment. In the study of the subjective factor is the need for subject knowledge, a desire to obtain them, the objective factor is the learning process, methodically crafted educational material. This psychological condition ultimately determines the success of the training. However, because the subjective factor is not fully controlled, we must try to ensure the coincidence of two factors, the most fully controlled using an objective factor.