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FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER GEOGRAPHY

Автор Доклада: 
Nabiyev A. A.
Награда: 
FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER GEOGRAPHY

FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER GEOGRAPHY

Nabiyev Alpasha, doctorant
Baku State University

 

The computer geography (COMGEOGRAPHY) is new science of geographical knowledge, which is engaged in measurement of the characteristics of geographical objects by electronic devices (space ships, artificial satellites, planes, helicopters and probes), preservation of geoinformation on electronic (floppy diskettes, hard disks, magnetic tapes) and laser carriers of the information (laser disks - CD), development of algorithms and software packages for the analysis of the geoinformation (photogrammetric, geostatistical, geoinformation and other software packages) and description of terrestrial surface on the computer as a video animation and as a digital maps which have cartographical projections an geographical coordinates.
Besides, the computer geography is engaged in development of methods of remote training of geographical disciplines, drawing up of the electronic textbooks on geography (geomultimedia of processes, conditions and phenomena; speaking maps; audio and video textbooks on geographical disciplines of higher Educational establishments and general educational establishments and others).
Key words: Geography,GIS,Comgeography,Geoinformation map,Geomedia

I INTRODUCTION

Comgeography, as distinet from traditional "paper geography ", opens wide ways of application of new methods of adjacent sciences for the cause and effect analysis of change of elements of geosystems and of it as a whole (for example, for definition, of emergent features the algorithms of cybernetics etc. are used).

Comgeography opens access to use of the early developed mathematical-statistical and physical-chemical methods for all geographers, as earlier these methods were accessible to those who owned even average level of mathematical, physical and chemical methods of research.

II METHODS

Comgeography uses these methods in the automatizezed kind (software packages, utilities, program procedures), which requires only data input, then the results of the analysis of geographical researches are deduced. Use of the new equations or procedures in this case is not excluded. For this purpose it is necessary only to bring in the new formulas or procedures of algorithms to used packages as the appendices.

Mainlythis property of softweare, carried out by the geographical software packages (GIS, GPS), allows use them even in general educational processes. For example, GIS package is now used by the schoolboys of V-XI forms. The company ERSI (USA) annually will carry out measures " GIS DAY " for the schoolboys. The simplicity of use of GIS is connected with nice appearance of working tools and geographical marks for construction of cards and plans.

III TASKS

At present the following tasks of comgeography are automatized in quite high level.

Automatical recognise of geographical objects on space images with the help of the software packages - ERDAS, ARC/INFO, INTERGRAPH etc.

Automatic classification of geographical objects (IDRISI etc.)

-Mathematical - statistical processing of the geographical data (packages STATISTICA, STATGRAF, STATWIN etc.)
Automatic construction of izoline of meanings of geographical objects. (package SURFER and other.)
Creation of electronic cadastres of natural resources (GIS - ARC/INFO, AUTOCAD, etc.).
Creation of multimedia of geographical processes and conditions (packages ILLUSION, COOL EDIT PRO, ADOBE PREMIERE, 3DMAX, etc.)
Creation of digital geographical maps (GIS -MAPINFO, ARCVIEW, etc.)
Creation of digital topographical maps (package R2 etc.)
Creation of INTERNET maps of regions, countries and districts (package ERSI ArcIMS etc.)
The automatized collection and management of the spatial data (package INTERGRAPH GEOMEDIA PRO, etc.)
Automatizaton of measurements of heights of relief (GPS program -TRIMBLE, GEOMATICS, etc.). 

IV BASIC SECTIONS

Now are advanced the following sections of comgeography:

-The computer cartography (comcartography) - is engaged in theoretical and applied questions of drawing up of digital geographical or other maps with the help of geographical information systems (GIS). For today the majority of cartographical projections are included in GIS the program and are supplied with the utilities of transformation from one in another. To the most widespread packages on GIS concern to MAPINFO, ARCVIEW, etc.

-The computer geomorphology (comgeomorphology) - is engaged in drawing up of models of surface of relief 3 dimensions space on the basis of the space and satellite images, also studies the dynamics of moving of layers of Eartl`s crust, lose rocks, formation of landslips etc. with the help of packages IDRISI, ERDAS, TERRAIN etc. Besides, the drawing up of topographical surfaces of relief as the 3D of the image also concerns to tasks of comgeomorphology.

-The computer hydrology (comhydrology) - is engaged mainly in measurement and calculation of volume and speed of movement of flows of surface waters, stocks of snow cover on the basis of the automatized stationary stations and space images with the help of the program ERDAS etc.

-Computer climatology (comclimatology) is engaged increation of the automatized method of choice of the suitable script of formation of various types of climate with the purpose of study of global rise of temperature. Now such programs are made in the language of FORTRAN. After calculation of parameters of climatic conditions are created animational files of the climatic scripts with the help of packages ADOBE PREMIERE, ILLUSION, 3D MAX etc. On this direction some reference laser disks about the various atmospheric phenomena are issued.

The computer geography of soil (compedology) is engaged in creation electronic soil cadastre of regions, countries, provinces and farm with the help of packages ARC/INFO, ARCVIW, AUTOCAD etc.

And now is listed the poorly automatized branches of modern geographical science:

Computer biogeography (combiogeography) - computer video catalogues of vegetation and animal kingdom on natural zones and for separate geosystems as textual materials and videofiles -are worked out. In this direction especially an important role is played by the organization of NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. This organization regularly lets out the video cassete on geography of vegetation and animal kingdom of the Globe, and in parallel to this direction they develop computer multimedia films of vegetation and animals of ancient natural conditions of the Earth.

Computer geography of industry (comgeography of industry)- the reference electronic encyclopedias about the development of industry of continents, regions and countries are developed.

Computer geography of agriculture and farms(comgeography of agriculture and farms) -electronic compakt disks(CD) about the development of rural and farmer economy of the countries and regions are developed.

The computer geography of nature(comgeography of nature) - develops the micromultimedia encyclopedia of nature of the Earth.

Computer geography of tourism and mass rest(comgeography of tourism and mass rest) - laser disks are issued and INTERNET resources are created .

Computer geography of cities(comgeography of cities) - the urban geoinformation systems of various cities of the World are developed and the electronic plans of the large cities of the World are issued.

Computer geography of municipalities (comgeography of municipalities) - geoinformation systems of municipalities (bodies of local self-management) are developed.

Computer geography of the seas and oceans(comgeography of the seas and oceans) - various multimedia enciclopedia about the nature and economy of seas and oceans are worked out.

Computer geomedia (comgeomedia) -is engaged in the development of multimedia of files of geographical processes (erosion, weathering, raising and lowering the Earth`s crust, formation of the catastrophic phenomena -thunder-storm, mud-streams hurricanes, flood, etc.) and conditions (three-dimensional (3D) videofiles of mountain ranges, cities, underwater landscapes, etc.) have sat

V BASIC PRODUCTS OF COMGEOGRAPHY

A Geoinformation maps.
Now in geographical researches the geoinformation technologies for operative drawing up of natural and socio-economic thematic maps of areas, regions and republic are successfully used which frequently require changes, in connection with the character of resource management.

The geoinformation maps are capable to bechanged at any time as distingtion from the traditional "single used maps" maps. This feature of geoinformation maps allows to decide solve operatively problems of resource management, with the purpose of timely working out of engineering, social-economic, and administrative measures and projects.

Taking into account of importance of creation of electronic maps with the dynamically varied statistical data in space and in time the centre of " Geoinformatics and the Computer Geography " ar the Baku State University is created by us a digital database of natural resources and socio-economic parameters of administrative-territorial areas of Azerbaijan with the help of geographical information system (GIS) MAPINFO Prof.5.

The created GIS allows to display the quantitative characteristics of the very important natural resources, such as soil-vegetation resources, climatic resources, mineral resources, water resources etc. besides, created GIS allows to display social-economic parameters of the given area, with help of wich it is possible to find out the reasons of exhaustion or abundance of natural resources. The social economic parameters are taken from the statistical directories of State Committee on Statistics. They basically are subdivided into the following groups:

The data of the population of area on census 1999;
-National structure of the population;
-Social parameters of the inhabitants of area;
-Economic parameters of industrial objects;
-Economic parameters of agricultural objects;
-Parameters of tourism and mass rest etc.

For use of the created system, as compact disks (CD) we develop the special programs in language VISUAL BASIC, which allow to choose the necessary natural resources and social-economic parameters for creation the script of acceptance of the decision.

B. Multimedia of geographical Processes and condition
For a long time the description of various features of natural processes was carried out by estimation of sight(by eye measuring) or partially automatized methods, which have not given definitions of emergent features (own characteristics of behaviour) animation of natural processes and phenomena. Now the geography used various methods of computer animation by the help of satellite records the conditions and development of natural processes and phenomena. This methodology is called multimedia, which describes the processes by combination of sound records, photos of various condition and animational video files of movement of processes[1]. This complex technology enables to characterize the natural phenomena and processes with the very important properties. On this fiel we composing audio and video text books all geographical disciplines for secondary schools (5-11 clases)[2]. Examples for this products are localed on the web page http://www.ali-nabiyev.narod.ru.

VI ECOGEOINFORMATION MAPPING
A.ECOGEOINFORMATION MAPPING OF NATURAL LANDSCAPES OF THE AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

For the period of time more than 1.5 million years ago as the 1-st man became the resident of this region. They could be changed on the structures of natural landscapes. But the geoecological crises at these regions begins from the second half of XX-th c. Some of the components and in the whole the majority kinds of a landscape entered into the belts of geoecological crises. The aim of this GIS pursues the object of exposing the level of anthropogenic transformations, determiming the regions having a serious geoecological problems during the transition period into a new social system may promote to more regrettable geoecological crises. That is why realisation of this GIS may serious significance in future. If we consider that this GIS has a special value on the landscape level and it was never shown in scientific literature then may agree with the fact that realisation of this GIS directed to a deep landscape analyses of the geoecological crises will prove its nececcity for now. It is known that gradual or an uneven changes of landscape structure under the influence of a cosmic and the endogenous factors will become as the function of their dynamic state. An anthropogenous influence into this complex and the continious process depending on the character and the intensity of this influence may bring to a more qualitative changes as the components of landscape, or the landscape complex as a whole. In this case we have been composing GIS above mentioned problems using more cartographical materials and archive materials about anthropogenic influence to the natural complexses of the Azerbaijanm Republic. All digital maps and data base composing with MAPINFO GIS. Plese see WWW.ali-nabiyev.narod.ru//azamaps.htm

Reference:

  • 1.Nabiyev A.A. -Geoinformatics and formation of computer geography.//Proceedings -V European Conference on GIS, EGIS/MARI"94, volume 2 , Edition:Utrecht University,The Netherlands,1994 ,
  • Paris,FRANCE, March/Mars, 29-April/April1, 1994 page 2009-2011
  • 2.Nabiyev A.A. Innovation of geographical education by methods of computer geography(on example of physical and economical geography of Azerbaijan).//Journal- “In the world of scientific discovery” serials- “ECONOMY AND INNOVATION EDUCATION”, №3.1(15) ,Centre of Scientific Innovation, city of Krasnoyarsk,2011, page 532-539, Russian Federation.
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Absence of novel propositions

The article no contains FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER GEOGRAPHY but only general owerview of the compgeography is given.

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