facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley
Wiki

SPACE AND TIME AS STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF REALITY

Автор Доклада: 
A. Kosyuga
Награда: 
SPACE AND TIME AS STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF REALITY

SPACE AND TIME AS STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF REALITY
 

Kosyuga Alexandra, aspirant
Odessa National Polytechnic University


This article tells about the problem of determination the category “time” in humanities (arts) and natural sciences. The author rises up the question how we can investigate these categories. The author tries to compare the methods of space investigations with methods of time investigations.
Key-words: “time”, “space”, “conceptual”, “perceptual”, “real”.

The most basic scientific worldvision were changed from the time of science birth, but sometimes this changing made a revolution in scientific world. If we want to consider the view evolution of space and time categories we find that the understanding of them were changed only two times in the scientific way: for the first, after the crossing from mythological views on space and time to the first scientific imaginations of them , and for the second after the theory of relativity. In the humanitarian world we have a richer picture – we can find so many theories, hypothesizes, variations, interpretations of these categories, discussions.
Always the most part of scientists were interested in the problem of space and time. We can explain it because of these two categories were central parts of human world-understanding. They are inseparable characteristics of ay picture of life, but this picture is not steady.
Our culture predetermines our model of world in high degree. For example, so many investigations show that people of East and West perceive space in general and every object separately in different ways. The Asics pay their attention to the space between the objects, but representatives of West world look on the every object. We can find the absolute universal picture of the world, but every model of it has some steady elements; that’s why it can’t exist without them as an integral system.
Every year we can read thousands articles of space and time; they investigate these categories, but it can’t help us to know something more about them. Nowadays, we have not one theory, explaining what space and time are.
The most part of sociological directions and all science consider space and time as objective characteristics of world (objective space and objective time). But some philosophers tell that they are only subjective characteristics of human consciousness (Berkley, Hume, Kant) or pay more attention on the inside reliving of these categories (the life philosophy, Bergson, existentialism, Heidegger). The subjective conceptions of space and time stimulate the discussions of its problem.
The modern problems of space-time understandings (that we consider in the natural-scientific-philosophical frame) consists of either traditional problems or new problems, appeared in the XX century. At last, they are: the problem of substational or relational nature of space and time; the space-size problem; the problem of time direction (returning time); the problem of Universal limit; the problem of ultimate space etc. All these problems have no decisions yet and now they are subjects of scientific discussions. The International Society for Study of Time shows us the variations of time conceptions and difficulty of the one time model. We can tell of space the same.
The most important aim of our investigation is to show how the space-time visions were developing and what kind of problem they have now. We want to show the necessity of time-space investigation in the systematical way but not without human life. This article is not the answer, but the question.
In one theory of human brain [2] we can read the all information, getting into our brain, goes there as a space or time signal and transmits there on axons (axon is a “way” of cell [2; P.32] ). The space signals are the signals, coinciding in time, but time signals coincide in space. The first ones appear when several receptions of the same organ are stimulated in the same time. The second ones, when the same reactions appear in the different time. Nevertheless we can perceive only one part of the outside world in the same time: we can be only in one room of our house and look only in one direction.
Some investigators (for example, Potemkin V.K., Simonov A.L.) separate the space on three types to investigate it easily. They are real, conceptual and perceptual space. Real space is identified with objective, conceptual and perceptual are the parts of subjective space.
Real space is the space “in reality”. Conceptual space is some scientific vision of real space. Perceptual space is the space, perceiving by our feelings (eye-sight and sense of touch). Perceptual space is a middle space between real and conceptual.
Perceptual space is inseparable part of a man; this is a sensible reflection of real space. Even it’s not reflection, but imprint, ring imprint as Plato said.
It’s more difficult to understand conceptual space, because of its abstraction character. It exists only for some people and with its own aim. Conceptual space is a space, expressing with symbols, formulas. It is a space of algebraic, geometric, physics formulas, ЯТО (the language of ternary describing), Excel, Basic, Pascal etc. It’s like a “rolling-up” space.
In other words, conceptual space is that interpretations, that hypothesizes and theories, explaining the real space.
This separating on three types of space was not always. For example, in the syncretism epoch there was only real space, the other two types were identified with it. We can see this situation in all mythology or folk-lore (as a picture of life). For example, let’s consider Russian faire-tails. The understanding of space is based on an opposition “up” and “down”, which we can compare with heaven and earth, even underground. This space is separated on “real” and fantastic. But this “real” space has nothing to do with upper classification. It is real only for tale’s hero.
Three types of space were appeared only after the first philosophical system developing and scientific evolution.
So, for the basic statement we took the thesis of three-type space – real, conceptual and perceptual. Can we separate the category of time on these types? And we answer: Yes, of course. Let’s consider this question.
Doubtless, we have an objective time, which is independent from anything. It is absolute as a real space [5; P. 58] It’s easy to prove if you consider Aristotle’s, Newton’s works etc.
The perceptual space existence we can find in other sphere of knowledge (for example, in psychology with its classification of human temperament – sanguine person, phlegmatic person, choleric and melancholic). Time depends on the type of temperament. It’s like an “inside” time. The melancholic and phlegmatic person’s time is slower than choleric and sanguine person. I wander that “inside” time we can’t make slow or quick as we can’t change our temperament. We can only change the outside expression of “inside” time.
The experiments on astronauts prove that the objective time of event is not the same as a subjective feeling of time.
For philosophical investigation more of all we are interested in the difference between universal time and system own time. Universal time, using to measure any event, is based on periodical longing of other events, which have their own time. It has its own direction. System own time is cyclic; we can see it in biological and social phenomenons.
Every-day life fixes the perceptual time. Every day we use time: when we get up, go to our job, have a dinner, meet our friends etc. And we use some subjects to count the time – watches, clocks, radio, TV. Sometimes we have no time, but sometimes we have a lot of it. For children time is going very slowly, but for old men time is going very fast. All these testifies to prove that we have our “inside” time, identifying with perception one.
Conceptual time as a conceptual space must express with help of symbols. But how can we make a model of time even in our head? We can’t. We can’t find it in our past, present and nearest future. We can’t even imagine it. But we can call chronology with event’s content as a conceptual time.
In our opinion, real, perceptual and conceptual time they can make as a set-up of past, present and future. Past time is perceptual, present as real and future as conceptual. Such a separating on the three types forms some “cross of reality” (by Rosenshtock-Hussy). That’s why we must tell about not only one time and space, but about many and many times and spaces.

References:
1) Afanas’ev A.N. Russian national faire-tales. Bb/ 1–3 – M.: State publishing of an art literature, 1957.
2) Hokins J., Bleyksly S. On intelligence. – M.: SPb.: K.: Wiliyams, 2004. 285 pp.
3) Ivanov S.M. Imprint of the ring. – M/: Knowledge, 1974. 224 pp.
4) km-si 1 – 4. Time and Bible// www. watchtower.org
5) Potemkin V.K., Simonov A.L. Space in the world structure. – Novosibirsk: Science, 1990. 176 pp


 

5.6
Your rating: None Average: 5.6 (5 votes)

Dear Alexandra! Thank you for

Dear Alexandra! Thank you for your interesting article. All the best in your work, Solveiga Blumberga, Latvia.

As the Philosophers Say...

It is interesting for the philosophers the results of the paper, privately: It is known that the space and the time is consequence of existential attitudes between structural elements of a physical matter and fields connecting them. The metrics of space and time is not given in advance, and created by mass-less fields by means of an establishment of existential attitudes between massive material objects. It is caused first of all by its direct attitude to the philosophical categories of space and time. Disagreements begin with a question on that, supports or this theory denies the certain philosophical concepts or what modifications it in them brings. At knowledge of objective natural attitudes it is necessary to consider a number of the moments. First of all, it is necessary to mean inexhaustibility of those attitudes which any material thing can enter. During knowledge inevitably it is necessary to distract from infinite variety of these attitudes, isolating separate of them. Further. Attitudes have concrete character. The principle of concreteness of true allows defining precisely, about what attitudes there is a speech in each separate case. "Attitudes in general" does not exist. It is either material or ideal attitudes. In turn they are subdivided on: isolated and interconnected, external and internal, etc. At last, attitudes and results of concrete attitudes judge on those things and elements which are in the given attitude. Attitudes at which objects enter interaction, is already communication. Concepts "attitude" and "communication" are quite often used as synonyms for what there are certain objective bases. Communication is always the attitude, but not any attitude is realized in the form of communication. Communication is always the attitude, but not any attitude is realized in the form of communication. Communication arises in the event that action of the certain object leads to reciprocal action from other objects. Unlike communication "attitude" - more the general concept also means coexistence of final material objects, events, processes. It is natural, that abstract attitudes, "attitudes in general" (i.e. to what concerning) in the material validity do not exist.
Irma Bagrationi

любопытно, но мало пользы

Представляется, что смысл имеет только то, что именуется концептуальными пространством и временем. Развитие цивилизации связано именно с этим подходом к определению пространства и времени. Работа, конечно, полезна как введение в содержание категории пространства и времени, но интереснее конкретные знания и разработка конкретных задач.Было бы интересно, например, проследить, как овладение знаниями о концептуальном пространстве-времени в процессе обучения влияет на восприятие "реального" пространства-времени индивидом.

...on the way

This theme hasn't end... Best wishes for you on tnis way!
PARTNERS
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.