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Formation of modern higher education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the basis of competence-based approach

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Shornikova Olga, senior lecturer

Kokshetau State University named after Sh. Ualikhanov, Kazakhstan

Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Kazakhstan";

the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;

In the given article  is considered the issues of modern condition and development of education in the Republic of Kazakhstan. It was held the great preparing work about entering to the Bologna process by all the organizations of higher education.

High schools have to form the whole system of universal knowledge, habits and skills, also self-activities and personal responsibilities of students that is key competencies, determining modern quality of education. To carry out all these tasks are intended not only model structural, institutional, organizational-economic changes, but at first to make a new content of education. To make it in accordance with requirements of time and with the task of developing the country. That is why today in realization of competence approach needs the support on international experience, by the necessary adaptation to traditions and demands of Kazakhstan.

Competence approach orients on such systems of providing with quality of preparing specialists of higher education, which can be answered to the modern world labour market.

Keywords: the Bologna Process, competence, competence approach, higher education system.

1. Introduction

March 11, 2010 the Committee of Ministers of Education of the Bologna Process (46 countries) decided on Kazakhstan's joining the Bologna process.

The aim of Kazakhstan's participation in the Bologna process - expanding access to European education, further enhancing its quality, as well as increasing the mobility of students and faculty through the adoption of comparable levels of higher education, the use of a credit system, the issue of graduates of universities of Kazakhstan European Diploma Supplement.

Kazakhstan is the first country in Central Asia, a full member of the European educational space. It is certainly important in the international positioning of the national higher education.

At present, Kazakhstan is becoming the new educational system oriented to entry into the world educational space. This process is accompanied by significant changes in educational theory and practice of the educational process. There is a change of educational paradigm assumed different approaches, a right, other relationships, other behavior, other pedagogical mentality.

The Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev "Building the Future Together" education and training in the XXI century identified as the main priorities of state policy, which says in particular "Qualitative education should be the basis for industrialization and innovative development of  Kazakhstan."

Worldwide a new stage in the development of higher education is associated with the increasing role of university education. Today, universities have perceived not only as centers for training, but also as centers of innovational ideas that can carry out a scientific discovery moving the development of economic, social and policy in general. The head of state on this issue states: "We are obliged to provide a new level of development of university education and science. Today, based on the new "Nazarbayev University" forms an innovative model institution of higher education, oriented toward the market demands. It is intended to become a model for all high schools in Kazakhstan" (Nazarbayev, 2011).

The State Programme of Education Development for 2011-2020 in the Republic of Kazakhstan determined a new goal of education - orientation on achieving concrete results, that the basis of education must be practically oriented training, bringing together most educational institutions with potential employers, combining educational and professional standards that regulated the training requirements demanded in the labor market of competent personnel. This interpretation of the aims of education, stimulated the key concepts in psychology and pedagogy as "competence," "competency," "competence approach", etc.

2. Methodology

Higher education plays an important role in professional training of competent and competitive specialists for all branches of the national economy in the integration of science and industry.

At present it is possible to state with confidence that Kazakhstan has entered a period of successful experience in implementing the Bologna process and its adaptation to modern realities.

It was done the following:

  •     1. worked out a system of events on realization of principles of the Bologna process in Kazakhstan
  •     2. developing a program of academic mobility of students and teachers
  •     3. introduced a credit technology of training,
  •     4. described Kazakhstan  model of credit transfer system for ESTC,
  •      5. worked out a mechanism of formation of modular educational programs on the basis of competence-based approach taking into account the ECTS, describe their structure, it is given Methodical recommendations on construction of the module, worked out a scheme for the formation of competence modules.

From September 1, 2011 Kazakhstan's higher education institutions have begun to create modular education programs and implement them in the learning process.

Of course, all this will result in a change in teaching methods, procedures and assessment criteria, and generally change the entire paradigm of higher education.

Activity on  working out  of educational programs due to the need to upgrade existing educational programs to bring them into conformity with the requirements of market economy and the labor market, the formation of European Higher Education Area. Bringing educational programs Kazakhstani universities in accordance with the educational programs of the European institutions is an effective tool for updating of existing training programs and obtains their international accreditation. Development of educational programs in accordance with the Dublin descriptors is of great importance for use in the organization of double diploma education, getting joint degrees, and for the modernizationof Kazakhstan's higher education system as a whole, because they reflect all the necessary parameters of obtaining of qualifications.

First of all, are interested in developing educational programs to the Dublin descriptors for the implementation of the Kazakhstan high schools.

Higher school institutions of the Republic of Kazakhstan are training specialists with higher education in accordance with:

  • - the state educational standards in the field of higher education, developed on the basis of this standard;
  • - classifier of professions of higher and postgraduate education of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
  • - working curriculum, academic calendar;
  • - individual training plans of students;
  • - training programs on disciplines.

Educational programs are developed specialties of higher education institution itself, in accordance with the Dublin descriptors agreed by the European Qualifications Framework.

Dublin Descriptors representing descriptions the level and volume of knowledge, skills and competencies acquired by students on completion of the educational program at each level (stage) of higher and postgraduate education based on learning outcomes formed by competencies, as well as total number of credit (credit) units ECTS.

Structure of formation is formed of various types of educational activities determining content of education, and reflects their relationship and accounting.

The educational program includes bachelor:

  • - Theoretical training, which includes the study of cycles of general, basic and majors;
  • - Additional types of training - different types of professional practices, physical education, military training, etc.;
  • - Interim and final certification.

Herewith bachelor educational programs are projected on the basis of a modular system of study subjects.

General competence of higher education is formed on the basis of requirements to general education, social and ethical competencies, economic, organizational and managerial competencies, special competencies.

 Requirement for general education:

  • - to have a basic knowledge in natural sciences (social, humanitarian, economic) disciplines that contribute to the formation of a highly educated person with broad outlook and culture of thinking;
  • - to have the skills handling of modern technology, be able to use information technology in the field of professional activity;
  • - to be able to acquire new knowledge to their daily professional activities and continuing education in magistracy.

Requirements to social and ethical competencies:

  • - to know the social and ethical values, based on public opinion, traditions, customs, social norms and focus on them in their professional activities;
  • - to observe the standards of business ethics, have ethical and legal standards behavior
  • - to know the traditions and culture of peoples of Kazakhstan;
  • - to be tolerant to the traditions and culture of other nations;
  • - to know the basics of the legal system and legislation of Kazakhstan;
  • - to know the trends of social development;
  • - to be able to adequately orient themselves in various social situations;
  • - to be able to work in a team correctly defend their point of view, to offer new solutions;
  • - to be able to find compromises, to relate their opinion with the opinion of the community;
  • - to seek professional and personal growth.

Requirements to economic, organizational and managerial competencies:

  • - to have the basics of economic knowledge, a scientific understanding of management, marketing, finance, etc.;
  • - to know and understand the goals and methods of state regulation of economy, the role of the public sector in the economy.
  • Availability requirements change social, economic, professional roles, geographic and social mobility in terms of increasing the dynamism of change and uncertainty:
  • - to be able to navigate in today's information flows and adapt to rapidly changing phenomena and processes in the global economy;
  • - to be flexible and mobile in different conditions and situations related to professional activities;
  • - to be able to economic decision-making and institutional arrangements in the face of uncertainty and risk.

Special competencies are developed for each specialty, higher education subject to the requirements of employers and social demands of society.

Stating the five proposed classifications of key competencies, we concluded that the most successful is the classification proposed by the State standard for education. In it, in accordance with a specified purpose, expected outcomes of education are defined in the following key competencies:

1) value-oriented competence - the ability of students to perceive the surrounding world, the ability to find its role in the creative life of the community based on the highest ethical values, citizenship and patriotism. This competence provides the ability to make decisions in various situations. The most important thing - to be a patriot of his homeland of Kazakhstan, to show civil activity, to understand the political system, to be able to assess the ongoing social events.

2) Cultural studies Competence - possession of knowledge and experience on the achievements of human culture and national characteristics, enables it to ethno-cultural events and traditions in society, cultural foundations of personal and family and social life. Understand the role of science in human and social development. Possession of effective ways to organize cultural and leisure activities that will appreciate and understand the culture of its people and cultural diversity of the world, be committed to spiritual harmony and tolerance.

3) Training and cognitive competence - complex competence, providing their own training process and cognitive research students. Ability  effectively to plan, organize their educational activities, own ways of analysis and reflection of their activities for the development of knowledge based on the requirements of the relevant functional literacy, which will allow to understand the scientific worldview, have the skills of search and research activities.

4) Communicative competence - provides knowledge of the native and other languages, ensuring ownership of means of interaction and communication with people in different social groups, the performance of different social roles in society, the ability to use a variety of communication facilities, to deal with specific life situations, communication skills in the Kazakh language as a state language and of interethnic communication, in foreign languages.

5) The information technology competence involves the ability to navigate, to search for and analyze, make a selection, convert, store, interpret and implement the transfer of information and knowledge with real technical facilities and information technology.

6) Social and labor competence means possession of knowledge and experience of active civil society activities in the field of social, family, employment, economic and political relations. The ability to analyze specific social and social situation, make decisions and act in accordance with personal and social benefits in various situations.

7) The competence of personal self-development   - master the methods in their own interests and capabilities, providing physical, spiritual and intellectual self-development, emotional self-regulation and self-support. The formation of psychological literacy, domestic environmental culture of their own health care and possession of the basics of life safety, the ability to match its capabilities with a real prospect and the organization of activities with dignity, to be responsible for their actions and their lives.

3. Conclusion

Thus, competence approach in education is an  attempt to make in accordance with, on the other hand, necessity of individuals to integrate itself in activities of society on the other, necessity of society to use the potential on each individuals for providing itself  with economic , cultural and political self-development.

References:

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Comments: 6

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Elena Artamonova

True,the Competency-Based Approach is widely used today by many successful organizations—and for good reason.

Umurzakov Arman Galimtaevich

Для обсуждения проблем компетентностного подхода в образовании необходимо ответить на вопросы о том, какие изменения в обществе обусловили поиск новой концепции образования и почему сложившийся подход к определению целей и содержания образования не позволяет провести его модернизацию. Модернизация образования, т.е. обеспечение его соответствия запросам и возможностям общества, осуществлялась всегда — в той или иной мере. Эта мера зависит от способности системы образования к изменениям, а сама эта способность во многом определяется подходом к постановке целей, отбору содержания, организации образовательного процесса, оценке достигнутых результатов. Успехов в изучении данного вопроса. Спасибо.

Shaayhimova R.

В настоящее время в Казахстане идет становление новой системы образования, ориентированной на вхождение в мировое образовательное пространство. Этот процесс сопровождается существенными изменениями в педагогической теории и практике учебно-воспитательного процесса. Происходит смена образовательной парадигмы: предполагаются иные подходы, иное право, иные отношения, иное поведение, иной педагогический менталитет.Социуму нужны выпускники, готовые к включению в дальнейшую жизнедеятельность, способные практически решать встающие перед ними жизненные и профессиональные проблемы и это зависит не от полученных ЗУНов (знаний, умений, навыков), а от неких дополнительных качеств, для обозначения которых и употребляются понятия «компетенции» и «компетентности», более соответствующие пониманию современных целей образования. Спасибо автору за статью.

Morari Marina Mihail

Спасибо Вам за представленный материал. Реализация компетентностного подхода в странах СНГ основана на международном опыте. Предложенная классификация ключевых компетенций в принципе, принята во всех европейских странах. Интересно узнать мнение автора о трудностях и препятствиях на пути перехода на кредитную систему высшего образования. С уважением, Марина Морарь.

Fornea-Stecailov Iuliana

Уважаемая Olga Shornikova! Интеграция Республики Казахстан в мировое образовательное пространство и существенные изменения в парадигме образования в этой стране, очень важный вопрос, сопутствующий новую образовательную систему, ориентированная на комплексные изменения в системе высшего образования. Этот процесс предполагает переоценку ценностей субъектов педагогического процесса, а также пересмотрение моделей, стратегий и методов обучения, сопряженные, в значительной мере с внедрением компетентностного подхода к образованию в ВУЗах. Она достойна внимания, так как формирование компетенций является эффективный и качественно новый подход к образовательной деятельности в учебных заведениях разного уровня и специализации. С уважением, Юлиана!
Comments: 6

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within the school teacher's quality is also questionable.vibram five fingers Is this not a school for killing? So in dealing with the incident, vibram five fingers shoes the local public security, can't make a hasty decision, but also to explain all kinds of question,vibram five fingers uk

Elena Artamonova

True,the Competency-Based Approach is widely used today by many successful organizations—and for good reason.

Umurzakov Arman Galimtaevich

Для обсуждения проблем компетентностного подхода в образовании необходимо ответить на вопросы о том, какие изменения в обществе обусловили поиск новой концепции образования и почему сложившийся подход к определению целей и содержания образования не позволяет провести его модернизацию. Модернизация образования, т.е. обеспечение его соответствия запросам и возможностям общества, осуществлялась всегда — в той или иной мере. Эта мера зависит от способности системы образования к изменениям, а сама эта способность во многом определяется подходом к постановке целей, отбору содержания, организации образовательного процесса, оценке достигнутых результатов. Успехов в изучении данного вопроса. Спасибо.

Shaayhimova R.

В настоящее время в Казахстане идет становление новой системы образования, ориентированной на вхождение в мировое образовательное пространство. Этот процесс сопровождается существенными изменениями в педагогической теории и практике учебно-воспитательного процесса. Происходит смена образовательной парадигмы: предполагаются иные подходы, иное право, иные отношения, иное поведение, иной педагогический менталитет.Социуму нужны выпускники, готовые к включению в дальнейшую жизнедеятельность, способные практически решать встающие перед ними жизненные и профессиональные проблемы и это зависит не от полученных ЗУНов (знаний, умений, навыков), а от неких дополнительных качеств, для обозначения которых и употребляются понятия «компетенции» и «компетентности», более соответствующие пониманию современных целей образования. Спасибо автору за статью.

Morari Marina Mihail

Спасибо Вам за представленный материал. Реализация компетентностного подхода в странах СНГ основана на международном опыте. Предложенная классификация ключевых компетенций в принципе, принята во всех европейских странах. Интересно узнать мнение автора о трудностях и препятствиях на пути перехода на кредитную систему высшего образования. С уважением, Марина Морарь.

Fornea-Stecailov Iuliana

Уважаемая Olga Shornikova! Интеграция Республики Казахстан в мировое образовательное пространство и существенные изменения в парадигме образования в этой стране, очень важный вопрос, сопутствующий новую образовательную систему, ориентированная на комплексные изменения в системе высшего образования. Этот процесс предполагает переоценку ценностей субъектов педагогического процесса, а также пересмотрение моделей, стратегий и методов обучения, сопряженные, в значительной мере с внедрением компетентностного подхода к образованию в ВУЗах. Она достойна внимания, так как формирование компетенций является эффективный и качественно новый подход к образовательной деятельности в учебных заведениях разного уровня и специализации. С уважением, Юлиана!
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