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THE MAIN STEPS OF DEVELOPING WRITING IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

THE MAIN STEPS OF DEVELOPING WRITING IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Shaydullaeva Sitora, student

Samarkand State Institute of Foreign languages, Uzbekistan

Conference participant

The article investigates the role of developing written speech in the process of learning a foreign language. The author enumerates different types of writing and presents effective ways of improving each of them. Moreover, there applied an interesting information about creative writing and methods of achieving fruitful results in fulfilling it. The article contains useful advice on improving written speech in a foreign language.

Keywords: writing, written speech, development, language skills, essay, letter, imitative writing, intensive writing, self-writing, display writing, real writing.

В статье исследуется роль развития письменной речи в процессе изучения иностранного языка. Автор перечисляет различные виды письма и предлагает эффективные способы улучшения каждого из них. Более того, прилагается интересная информация о креативном виде письма и методов достижения плодотворных результатов в нём. Статья содержит полезные советы по улучшению письменной речи на иностранном языке.

Ключевые слова: письменность, письменная речь, развитие, языковые навыки, сочинение, письмо, имитативное письмо, интенсивное письмо, самостоятельное письмо, демонстративное письмо, реальное письмо.

 

Learning a foreign language involves the mastery of such kinds of speech activities as listening, speaking, reading and writing.In the programs of secondary school writing has a major educational goal, being considered as a means of learning, contributing to the development of oral communication skills and reading, as well as the acquisition of linguistic material.

When learning a foreign language, students must master writing to such extent that is necessary in order to assist them in mastering its vocabulary, grammar, essential for the development and improvement of speech and reading.Forming these skills in students makes easier to use writing as a tool for language learning assistant in the mastery of speaking and reading.From simple tasks students go to assignments of varying difficulty, requiring a creative move to solve problems such as: headline meaningful segments of text, written questions to the text, a written reply to questions, making a plan, etc. 

Writing in the foreign language teaching is a means of learning a foreign language: graphics, spelling, written using exercises to help you better grasp of language materials and acquire spoken language and reading [1, p.24]. Thus, successful teaching writing at an early stage contributes to the improvement of writing skills, the end result of which is the written part, consisting of writing essays and personal letters.

The special features of the sociocultural component of written speech include: rules for writing dates, addresses, addresses, conclusions, summaries, business letters, reports, etc. In some cases, a lack of knowledge of socio-communications can lead to misunderstandings or cultural conflicts. Writing and written language in the way of language learning is not only a learning tool, but more as a goal of foreign language teaching [4, p.81].Letter – this is a technical component of writing.Written speech by talking together with a so-called productive (expressive) is a kind of verbal activity and is expressed in the fixation of certain content graphic signs.Written presentation, essays, creative dictations, drafting plans and talking points for posts on a given topic, writing a personal or business letters, that is, stories written on a given situation, refer to the communicative writing [6, p.16].

Writing a letter, for example,  is a very successful form of exercise, wearing multifunctional character. Thus, successful teaching writing at an early stage contributes to the improvement of writing skills, the end result of which is the written part of learning English, consisting of writing essays and personal letters [3, p.10].

According to psychologists, heard the material is absorbed by 10%, seen by 20%, heard and seen by 30%, recorded at 50%, with pronunciation of 70% in the training of another 90%.Psychologists believe that the basis of the written language is spoken language.And speaking, and writing can be seen from a plan (what to say) to the selection of the necessary funds (which are necessary words, as they combine in an utterance) and to implement the plan by means of language orally or in writing. If you correctly identify the purpose of learning to write and writing, consider the role of letters in the development of other skills to use exercises that fully cover the objectives, do these exercises at the appropriate stage of training, the spoken language gradually becomes richer and more logical [2, p.46].

Written speech is regarded as a creative communication skills, understood as the ability to express in writing their thoughts.For this we need to own spelling and calligraphic skills, ability to build and place of composition in writing, voice work, composed of inner speech and the ability to select appropriate lexical and grammatical units. There are several steps in writing process, each of them is very important:

  • 1. Pre-writing: This is the planning phase of the writing process, when students brainstorm, research, gather and outline ideas, often using diagrams for mapping out their thoughts. Audience and purpose should be considered at this point, and for the older students, a working thesis statement needs to be started.
  • 2. Drafting: Students create their initial composition by writing down all their ideas in an organized way to convey a particular idea or present an argument. Audience and purpose need to be finalized.
  • 3. Revising: Students review, modify, and reorganize their work by rearranging, adding, or deleting content, and by making the tone, style, and content appropriate for the intended audience. The goal of this phase of the writing process is to improve the draft.
  • 4. Editing: At this point in the writing process, writers proofread and correct errors in grammar and mechanics, and edit to improve style and clarity. Having another writer’s feedback in this stage is helpful.
  • 5. Publishing: In this last step of the writing process, the final writing is shared with the group. Sharing can be accomplished in a variety of ways, and with the help of computers, it can even be printed or published [4, p.85].

There are the following types of writing known in scientific literature as types of academic writing:

  • 1. Imitative writing – at the beginning level of learning to write, students will simply “write down” English letters, and possibly sentences in order to learn the conventions of the orthographic code. Some forms of dictation fall into this category although dictations can serve to teach and test higher order processing as well.
  • 2. Intensive (controlled) writing – usually arrears in controlled written grammar exercises. Some written tasks as essays, compositions, summary are also included into intensive writing.
  • 3. Self- writing - this type means writing with only the self in mind as an audience. The most vivid example of this type of writing is notetaking where students take notes during a lecture for the purpose of later recall.
  • 4. Display writing – short answer exercises, essay examinations, research reports are display writing examples, when students have to display their knowledge of language and academic skills.
  • 5. Real writing – this type is done not for marks or checking by teachers. Its aim is genuine communication. Writing diaries, letters, post cards, notes, personal messages or other informal writing can take place [5, p.28].

In the perception of foreign speech at the hearing (listening), students can make notes:

  • 1) make a summary audiotexts to advance the proposed plan (keyword);
  • 2) make a record of printed reference signal in the plays audiotexts;
  • 3) in accordance with a given communicative situation (task) to separate from audiotexts information and record it.

You can use the free dictation. In this case, the teacher reads audiotexts by paragraph, students write down what is remembered, in order to facilitate the assignment given in advance a plan or keywords.Ability to present in writing their thoughts in a foreign language should be developed consistently and constantly.To solve this problem there are a number of exercises reproductive and productive nature.All exercises are done in writing.Interesting, are, for example, such tasks:

  • - Restore the beginning and end of the story;
  • - Restore the dialogue on specific "guides" replicas; 
  • - Change the appearance of text (message to the conversation, a dialogue on the description);
  • - Describe the ambiguous situation in the various texts and dialogues;
  • - Explain the contradiction between the text and illustrative information;
  • - Answer to a letter by letter, phone call, conversation, etc.;
  • - Choose the keywords that lead to certain pre-known result, etc.

In the modern method of teaching writing and writing in a foreign language has spread so-called "creative writing".Under the "creative writing" refers to the nature of the most productive exercises varying degrees of difficulty, varied in form and content, often in the form of a game. Using "creative writing" Methodists set themselves specific questions: when to write, how much and for what purpose?Deliver a letter to the pleasure and to whom?, etc.

Distinctive features of these exercises is that they hold necessarily in writing, the content of speech are creative character, interesting and enjoyable for students and for teachers.Played upon poems of famous poets used the monogram, collectively written funny stories, written letters to fictional characters [3, p.21].

In conclusion we must remember the effective advices for improving our writing skills:

  • Using plain English style
  • Pay attention to sentence and paragraph length
  • Use parentheses sparingly
  • Use bullet points and enumerated lists
  • Use  the simplest words and expressions possible
  • Replace difficult words and phrases with simpler alternatives
  • Avoid stock phrases
  • Avoid legal words and pomposity
  • Avoid jargon and slang
  • Avoid  unnecessary words and repetition
  • Use verbs instead of nouns
  • Explain new ideas clearly
  • Use consistent naming of the same ‘things’.

 

References:

  • 1. Blot D. and Davidson D. M. Starting lines, beginning writing. – Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1998. – 334 p.
  • 2. Kent T. Post-process theory: Beyond the writing-process paradigm. – Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999. – 154 p.
  • 3. B. Kroll. Exploring the dynamics of second language writing. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. – 200 p.
  • 4. Moiles S. The writing process. – Arlington, VA: Arlington Education and Employment Program (REEP), 2000. – 110 p.
  • 5. N. Nasrullaeva, Z. Vafaeva. Methodics of teaching foreign languages. (For master students). – Samarkand: SamSIFL Publishing House, 2012. – 52 p.
  • 6. J. Williams. Tutoring and revision: Second language writers in the writing center. // Journal of Second Language Writing, 2004. - № 5. – 172 p.
Comments: 4

Hamze Dimitrina

Уважаемая коллега! Благодарю сердечно за интересный и познавательный доклад! Желаю дальнейшей продуктивности в науке! С уважением и сердечностью! Димитрина

Panaiotov, Velitchko

Очень полезная работа. Содержит потенциал для интенсификации для интенсификации изучения чужого языка. Поздравляю!

Kostova-Panayotova Magalena Petrova

Уважаемая Ситора, Спасибо за интересную работу! Желаю удачи!

Balasanian Mariana

Уважаемая Ситора. Спасибо за интересную работу. меня интересует практическая сторона ваших исследований, были ли применены результаты ваших исследований на практике и если да, какие показатели они дали..работали вы со студентами или с более младшим (школьныМ) возрастом. С уважением, Марианна Б.
Comments: 4

Hamze Dimitrina

Уважаемая коллега! Благодарю сердечно за интересный и познавательный доклад! Желаю дальнейшей продуктивности в науке! С уважением и сердечностью! Димитрина

Panaiotov, Velitchko

Очень полезная работа. Содержит потенциал для интенсификации для интенсификации изучения чужого языка. Поздравляю!

Kostova-Panayotova Magalena Petrova

Уважаемая Ситора, Спасибо за интересную работу! Желаю удачи!

Balasanian Mariana

Уважаемая Ситора. Спасибо за интересную работу. меня интересует практическая сторона ваших исследований, были ли применены результаты ваших исследований на практике и если да, какие показатели они дали..работали вы со студентами или с более младшим (школьныМ) возрастом. С уважением, Марианна Б.
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