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IMPACT OF MUSICAL ACTIVITY ON CHILDREN WITH ADHD EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

Автор Доклада: 
T. Gogotishvili
Награда: 
IMPACT OF MUSICAL ACTIVITY ON CHILDREN WITH ADHD EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

IMPACT OF MUSICAL ACTIVITY ON CHILDREN WITH ADHD
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

Tea Gogotishvili, PhD, Researcher
Clinical Psychology Department
D. Uznadze Institute of Psychology


The review of contemporary practice of music therapy shows that music is used successfully in many directions – to regulate an individual’s physical, psychic and social problems; especially in cases when conscious effect on symptoms is less effective, or absolutely ineffective. Attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome belongs to this very category.
Presently, the approaches to children that involve drawing, play, behavioral-cognitive ones or others still to a certain extent require holding them in one place, directing attention to a uniform stimulus, quiet behavior and taking control of the body, while the children with ADHD lack this ability. This peculiarity of the syndrome results in the resistance interfering into the therapeutic process and failures. Therefore, we deemed it relevant to develop the therapeutic model and experimental research that would take account of the peculiarities of children with this syndrome. We thought that music therapy would be best in this case. The practice of contemporary music therapy shows that the rhythm of music is successfully used for training attention.
Moving to music results in the release of physical and mental energy and balancing; the process of singing prompts the actualization of inner resources and regulating behavior; and relaxation to music removes anxiety and has a soothing effect.
Music is perceived with hearing and tactile (touch) perception. According to whether it is a voice of an instrument or human voice music creates energy which prompts frequency of air molecules of relative intensity. This phenomenon is referred to as sound waves. The biggest difference between the sounds of music and those of the surrounding area are is in that musical waves create the form which is regularly organized in time. The features of a sound: pitch, tempo, harmony enables a listener to develop pleasing, important listening experience. Musical sounds are transmitted to the brain and here they acquire meaning: brain recognizes rhythmic organization of melody, harmony, instrument and other features and determines what the music is like: familiar, pleasant/unpleasant, sad/joyful, etc. Every person interprets the same musical piece in his peculiar way, since the perception of music is associated with a number of personal factors such as: experience, musical background, cultural context, intellectual development. Perception of music is a complex phenomenon.
The studies have demonstrated that only those frequencies are perceived in a rhythmic way which is characteristic of human movements. Experiments aimed at establishing correlation between a musician’s breath and the tempo of the piece performed by him were conducted. Graphical images of the tempo of a piece of music, on the one hand, and secondly – of the breath of musicians were developed. It appeared that in the majority of cases the curve of breath coincides with music metric beat and structure. Further, the dynamics of breath cycle corresponds with the changes of tempo, number of beats in a musical phrase or metric durations.
Musical rhythm and tempo regulates the dynamics of inner physiological processes. It is known that a human being has muscle pulsation when listening to music. Essential factors to this are the concurrence of musical rhythm with the rhythms of pace, running and dancing movements, on the one hand, and on the other its concurrence with the rhythm of breathing.
Sound affects motor neurons and acts as a stimulator of the motor system. When sound is organized in recurrent rhythmic structure motor neurons are stimulated and muscle system is activated, which is prone to synchronizing with perceived structure. This process develops as follows: after hearing one or two rhythmic intervals brain instantly calculates the duration of an interval and matches to it the duration of motor movement.
Musical rhythm can trigger a positive ear stimulus, which drives attention, neutralizes physical discomfort, directs muscle system towards activity, following which it releases fatigue and develops a strong rehabilitative tool for physical betterment.
The findings of the studies have also demonstrated that music changes the frequency of pulse, arterial pressure and muscle tension; but the effect on physiology is not always uniform. The effect of music on a human is halved by personal qualities, rhythmic stimulus unconditionally results in the increase of motor response.
Music stimulates certain emotions and thoughts in a human. It is used as an effective instrument for intensifying and expression of emotions and relaxation.
Given the existing information for experimental study from kindergarten’s musical repertoire we selected songs with active dance rhythm and tempo, that in our estimation would create natural therapeutic atmosphere of active movements for the children with ADHD, would result in the release of excess psycho-physical energy and emotional balancing, would make joyful stimulation and exercising of their attention concentration, develop the ability to perform the instruction and complete a behavior, improvement of academic achievement.
All of them liked children’s songs with active, dancing rhythm and they acted as a pleasant, attractive stimulus. The subjects of an experiment were readily trying to match movements to musical rhythm, follow the sequence of demonstrated movements, follow the voice to melody and repeat text. This process, on the one hand, conditioned concentration of children’s attention on multi-component stimulus, and on the other – organization of their biological rhythm and the release of energy.
In the above-mentioned songs dancing rhythm is merged with the didactical content; thereby, along with the concentration of attention it stimulated the wish to imitate in children and developed the attitude of regulating behavior. The inclusion of kinesthetic sensations in perception and remembering of pieces made the process more joyful and easy, which, in regular cases would cause problems, due to their lack of attention and hyperactivity. Following active, mobilized work at the end of the session we used calming relaxation, which was conducted while laid down position, under lyrical children’s music – from well-known cartoons. Under the background of music sounds we would voice suggestive text, which was directed at lifting tension and stimulated calming virtual images in children.
Music therapy model developed by us enabled us to train concentration of children’s attention for 45 minutes in relation to multi-component stimulus – in the process of activity pleasant and entertaining for them: 30 minutes – active dancing and singing, 5 minutes – relaxation under calm music, the remaining 10 minutes – evaluation of behavior.
To facilitate regulation of behavior at the end of each session we additionally evaluated children’s’ behavior on a regular basis: we created a special electronic table, where each individual column depicted a child’s behavior: 1. at a music therapy session; 2. at home and 3. in school. Evaluation was based on three categories: bad, average and good. Each category had a corresponding sticker depicting specific emotion (special sticker for children); for bad behavior a sticker with a sad face would be inserted in the evaluation table, for average behavior – emotionally neutral, and for good behavior – a sticker with a happy face.
The subjects of the experiment were selected as a result of preliminary diagnostication. The following methods were used: Raven’s intelligence test (3 forms); 2. Attention: a) Burdon’s test (figures and letters) b) method of elimination of an extra element (drawings). 3. For parents – DSM – IV questionnaire; 4. For teachers – Converse’s questionnaire.
As a result of diagnostication of 135 children experimental group was formed from 52 primary school age (6-8 years) children, which were broken down in 6 sub-groups. Music therapy sessions were held three times a week, during one month. A total of 12 sessions were conducted.
Notably, they usually recommend that attention training activities to this category of children does not exceed 15-20 minutes, for these children lack the ability to stay in one place, they are insubordinate and usually can not bring a commenced activity to end. Music therapy activity made it possible to perform the training of concentration of attention of this category of children, neutralize hyperactivity, correct behavior, develop will power and improve of academic achievement during 45 minutes.
The effects of music therapy were examined in two stages: at the end of 6 sessions and after the end of the course (12 sessions). Objective and subjective criteria of evaluation of changes in children were used.
1. Burdon’s test (figures and letters)
2. Behavior evaluation table for parents
3. Behavior evaluation table for teachers
Following music therapy 2 indicators of child’s attention were evaluated again using Burdon’s test: a) scope of attention (according to the number of letters, figures) and b) concentration of attention (according to the number of mistakes). Initially the values of both indicators were above norm, following therapy it came close to the norm (60% and over).
6 variables were introduced in the evaluation table for parents and teachers:
1. Concentration of attention, 2. Hyperactivity, 3. insubordination, 4. Ability to complete behavior, 5. Aggressiveness and quarrelsomeness, 6. Academic achievement.
Each subject was to be evaluated by a parent and teacher independently from each other under a system of four scores: 1. did not improve, 2. slightly improved, 3. fairly improved, and 4. fully improved. Obtained results were compared with the diagnostic indicators identified prior to therapy. According to the evaluation of parents and teachers the condition of children increased significantly in the majority of cases.
Statistical analysis of data demonstrated that concentration of attention is correlated with the tempo of activity. Following music therapy due to the increase of concentration of attention the time of fulfillment of an instruction increased and hyperactive behavior was reduced.
It was ascertained also that the attention deficit is highly correlated (0, 5) with insubordination (0,525), inability to complete behavior (0,601) and academic achievement (0,632):
High correlation was identified between insubordination (0,439) and inability to complete behavior (0,588), as well as between insubordination and academic achievement (0,497).
Conducted experiment has demonstrated that music therapy resulted in the training of attention of the subjects, neutralizing of hyperactivity, regulating behavior and improvement of academic achievement.
After one year it is planned to undertake the study of the participants of the experiment again using the above-listed 6 criteria.

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MUSIC THERAPY

Tea Gogotishvili! Thank you for an interesting scientific material! The problematic of music’s influence and harmonizing effect not only on children, but also on adults, interests me for a long time. The tranquility of its stable and balanced forces – was used many years ago by healers for its therapeutic effect. I believe this material will be properly applied not only by clinic psychologists, but also by the specialists from another branches of psychological science. The abstract definition of the concept of music therapy needs a subjective approach from a scientific point of view; this definition cannot be finally determined on account of various interpretations and imprecision of the term. This is why we need your opinion and your scientific recommendations! I hope this will improve the situation of the children with different psychological deficiencies and hyperactivity, because during the process of the singing occurs the actualization of the internal resources and regulation of the behavior, also – the relaxation through music eliminates anxiety and has a calming effect. I was also curious to find out the effects of music therapy on children who had finalized the course (12 sessions). I would like to get familiarized with the course material. Thank You in advance!
С уважением, Юлиана Васильевна!

Psychotherapy

Dear Tea. Thanks for the interesting data that extend the practical knowledge in the field of psychotherapy. In Ukraine, it is now widely used method by psychologists, rehabilitation. At the given syndrome at the child the emotional sphere that leads to infringements in informative sphere suffers. In practice of work with such children it is used active music therapy means that the accurate rhythm is important. Active music therapy is action with music or playing simple musical instruments, moves with music, drawing music. Active therapy means something to do with the music. The rhythm has deep influence on mentality and on an internal of the person. The human body can easily absorb the rhythms, the rhythm has a medical effekt. The child sees music not only with ears, but the whole body. This direction in psychotherapy can be solved without the drugs many problems of children and this is the most important in the usage of music therapy.

Is it possible to use your model in practice of teaching?

Dear Tea Gogotishvili! We are also exploring the problems of music therapy in our institute. I agree with you that the practice of contemporary music therapy shows that the rhythm of music is successfully used for training attention; moving to music results in the release of physical and mental energy and balancing; the process of singing prompts the actualization of inner resources and regulating behavior; and relaxation to music removes anxiety and has a soothing effect. Will you answer the question: Is it possible to use your model in practice of teaching, educational activities in the Inclusive School? Oleksandr Josan, Kirovograd, Ukraine
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