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RESEARCH CULTURE OF THE YOUNGER SCHOOLBOY AS THE PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM

Автор Доклада: 
A. Davydova
Награда: 
RESEARCH CULTURE OF THE YOUNGER SCHOOLBOY AS THE PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM

УДК 373.31

RESEARCH CULTURE OF THE YOUNGER SCHOOLBOY
AS THE PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM

Anna Davydova, the post-graduate student
Omsk State Pedagogical University


В статье приведен анализ категории «исследовательская культура младшего школьника» и сопутствующих ей видовых понятий с философских и психолого-педагогических позиций.
Ключевые слова: культура, исследовательская культура личности, исследовательская культура учащегося, исследовательская культура младшего школьника.

In the article the category analysis «research culture of the younger schoolboy» and accompanying its specific concepts from philosophical, psychological and pedagogical positions is given.
Keywords: culture, research culture of the person, research culture of the pupil, research culture of the younger schoolboy.

The culturological approach last years all represents itself as the reliable theoretical-methodological reference point more actively, allowing to reveal natural communications and relations of the studied phenomenon that allows to use it as the generalising theory in relation to private researches, including in the field of pedagogics. According to I.F.Isayev, the culturological approach «allows to consider the pedagogical phenomena, pedagogical activity on a wide common cultural background of society as set of cultural components» [1]. Therefore in pedagogical researches the culturological approach does not exclude, and means realisation of ideas system, personal-focused and activity approaches.
The modern scientific literature is characterized with fast growth of the culture definitions quantity. This one more proof of that concept «culture» covers the wide and various world of the phenomena, is at extremely high level of abstraction and is in modern social and humanitarian knowledge an open category. The culture in it appears as something which is distinct from the nature, transferred on tradition as means of language and symbols, practical and direct imitation, instead of biological inheritance.
From set of existing definitions of concept «culture» K.A. Abulhanova, A.I. Arnoldov, V.S. Bibler, L.N. Kogan, M.S. Kagan, N.B. Krylova, D.S .Lihachev, M.K. Mamardashvili, E.S. Markarjan, B.A. Pruzhinin, V.M. Rozin, etc. follows that it is presented in unity of three it, inseparably linked aspects: ways social-cultural activity of the person, results of this activity and degree of development of the person.
Problem of disclosing of creative potential of the pupil as development in pupils «a personal initiative, personal energy, creative work of mind, a habit to reach all most, habits to self-examination, to the critical relation to another's word» has been designated in the beginning of 20s centuries in works of domestic teachers: P.P. Blonskiy, A.V. Vladimirskiy, D.D. Galanin, V.P. Vakhterov, A.P .Nechaev, N.E. Rumjantsev, I.A. Sikorsky, etc. From the middle of 50th years a problem of development of creativity has been connected, first of all, with S.L.Rubinshtejn and A.N. Leontev's names and concerned thinking psychology. Then it has been continued by their pupils and followers: V.N. Druzhinin, A.M. Matjushkin, J.A. Ponomarev, O.K. Tikhomirov, etc. which concretised and developed substantive provisions of psychology of creative thinking.
Necessary condition, «admission» to continuous formation is the general cultural level as it imparts taste to formation, and also is its basis, necessary to study throughout all life.
Analyzing a category «research culture» from the point of view the general philosophical and psychological-pedagogical positions, it is possible to allocate the following logic sequence specific concepts: culture - culture of the person - research culture of the person – research culture of the pupil – research culture of the younger schoolboy. For revealing of interrelations between these concepts and interactions of accompanying concepts with the data, the judgement of culturological categories is necessary.
For the first time in references a word «culture» appears in creation «Questions debated at Tusculum» (45 BC) of the Roman orator and philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero. Etymologically it goes back to words of Latin language «cultivation», «handling», «leaving» [6]. Besides, already in antiquity it had a figurative sense - good breeding, culture. During the period from Cicero («the culture of mind is philosophy») to the German ideologist of XVII century I. Gerder carrying to culture language, family relations, art, a science, crafts, «culture» gradually changes the government, religion, a word the value, taking more habitual form for the modern person. However now the concept «culture» matters and bears various semantic loading, both in ordinary language, and in diverse scientifically-philosophical disciplines. So, it is necessary to allocate some substantive provisions: the culture has interrelation with moral, aesthetic, ethical, moral qualities of the person; it has the time and epoch-making borders; сarries out interaction of the person with a society surrounding it by means of a timely concrete definition of a set of the general values; it is considered as a certain kind of human life. Revealing through features of behaviour, consciousness and activity of the person; the culture can be formed in certain conditions by means of studying and education.
Passing to the analysis of the following concept allocated with us «culture of the person», it is necessary to notice that in modern culturological researches two basic categories are allocated: culture of a society and culture of the person which are initially regarded as independent cultural formations.
During all life the person receives the information, in the beginning at education in the childhood, then receiving the general and the vocational education. This information carries both the general ordinary, and special character, it is transferred both as a result of the permission of any moral collisions, and as a result of judgement of art and literary images. In any case, this information has special value for formation of the person of the concrete person adequately co-operating with surrounding society. In this case we can speak about the person, as about culture «product». On the other hand, each separate individual can be considered as «consumer» of culture and at the same time as its «carrier» as the person constantly uses the got rules and norms of culture in the everyday life and especially at dialogue with members of the social community. As a result of interpersonal interaction people, using knowledge, the estimated standards, the settled ethical forms, become culture «consumers» already in a ready view.
Characteristic feature of the person is the creative aspect and in the course of ability to live each person represents itself as «creator» of culture. Or it is shown in the obvious form and there is a generation of new forms of culture, or the person carries out own estimation of the surrounding phenomena and by that there is an individual interpretation of a situation that also it can be accepted as the creativity certificate. Besides, speaking about culture of the person, M.S. Kagan notices that «it is a lot of elements and is various on the structure. It includes a number of subcultures, such as: spiritually-moral, professional, research, aesthetic, ideological, national, ecological, legal, economic, etc. in which basis special relations of the person to environment» [2].
The culture of the person and culture of a society develop in parallel, are mutually enriched, as the culture of the person in many respects depends on culture of surrounding society, and the culture of a society as it has already been told above, is created and defined by the culture, individuals entering into it. The given categories are not opposite, - quite the contrary, in many respects supplement each other.
Generalizing all aforesaid in a context of our research, we will notice that the modern approach to judgement of culture of the person demands its understanding as is system organised whole, co-operating with the nature, a society and the person. On the one hand, the culture of the person is represented as a certain formation. Complete inherently, with another - its division into separate components - subcultures is necessary.
One of the important problems facing to modern formation, the problem of preparation of the person to qualitative brainwork, development in it of mental abilities is, abilities adequately to react to environment changes. In our opinion, one of conditions of the decision of the given problem is formation at the pupil of research culture.
As shows the analysis of the philosophical, pedagogical and psychological literature, formally research culture was considered in didactic models «according to the nature» and «according to culture» training and J.A. Komensky, D.Lokk, ZH.-ZH.Russo, I.G. Pestalotstsi's education. Now the concept «research culture» is considered in E.D. Andreeva, I.V. Nosaeva works, I.E. Klimova, T.V. Lodkina, T.A. Sandalova, etc.
So, G.V. Makotrova defines research culture as a component of base culture of the person, its intensive quality characterised by unity of knowledge of a complete picture of the world, abilities, skills of scientific knowledge, the valuable relation to its results both providing self-determination and creative self-development of the person. In its work following research culture formation criteria of pupils are allocated: motivation of research, scientific style of thinking, technological readiness for educational research, creative activity of the person. As a result allocated criteria and indicators are considered by G.V. Makotrova as characteristics of development of school that has in turn allowed to design to it the educational environment of a grammar school [3]. Thus, to it is shown that process of formation of research culture of pupils can be successfully transformed to process of creation of the corresponding educational environment.
Concept «the research culture» includes two semantic parts: «culture» and «research». Thus, research is the special kind of creative activity directed on reception of new significant knowledge. Being engaged in research, the pupil creates and realises system of representations about cultural informative space, about the place and the cultural maintenance of dialogue in it, i.e. carries out cultural self-determination. Together with self-realisation it becomes a push to new forms of cultural informative activity. On this basis it is possible to assert that research activity of the pupil is necessary for self-determination and self-realisation of its person that, in turn, reflects the purposes.
The research culture of the pupil as the base component of personal culture, expresses leading characteristics of development of the person, reflects universality of its communications with world around, initiates abilities to creative self-realisation, defines efficiency of informative activity, promotes transferring of knowledge, research skills to any area informative and practical activities. Therefore it is possible to tell that its level of forming is one of criteria of efficiency of development culture-making schools. It is obvious that thus level of mastering by the person research culture defines degree and forms of display of individuality in educational research, success of its results, process of its occurrence in a social life.
The aspect analysis of research culture of the pupil carried out by us gives the chance to us to draw a conclusion: in what context we would not consider this phenomenon, he always specifies in processes of creation by the person of the pupil material and the cultural wealth having subjective and objective value; on processes of change, development, transformation of the validity and own individuality. On the basis of the above-stated we define essence of research culture of the person who are a component of base culture of the person, as it integrative the quality characterised by unity of knowledge of a complete picture of the world. Abilities, skills of scientific knowledge, the valuable relation to its results both self-determination providing it and creative self-development. Therefore features and quality of formation are defined by quality of interaction (depth of dialogue) teacher and the pupil and a valuable saturation of their cooperation. Means, the culture of the teacher has basic value for development of base culture of the person of the pupil, including for development of its research culture. Being guided by creation culture-making school models, already today many teachers put such problems at definition of the maintenance of own pedagogical actions on formation of research culture of pupils.
It is obvious that success of formation of research culture in the course of training will be defined by not so much width and depth of mastering of already ready forms, how many the ability of each subject of educational process received in the course of social interaction to independent activity. With level growth forming research culture, in our opinion, should increase intellectual and creative potential of the person, owing to their direct connection with the given kind of culture. The valuable relation to process and result of creative research activity is obvious, under condition of true motivation on the given kind of activity.
A number of teachers consider possibility of formation of research culture from the training initial stage. So, T.D. Fain considers, «that process of training to the beginnings of scientific research represents stage-by-stage, taking into account age features. Purposeful formation of all components of research culture: cogitative skills (the analysis and main thing allocation; comparison; generalisation and ordering; definition and an explanation of concepts; a concrete definition, proofs and a refutation. Ability to see the contradiction); skills of work with the book and other sources of the information; the skills connected with culture of oral and written speech; special research skills» [5].
In the conditions of a social and economic life of a modern society the requirement for the independent people capable quickly to adapt for changing situations increases, creatively to approach to the decision of problems. Characteristic feature of society are already since the childhood the increased requirements shown to personal characteristics of the person: its high level of development spiritual and mental abilities, moral responsibility, creativity in the course of the decision educational, professional and reality situations. Along with listed, there is a requirement to the person, shown in its ability to the decision of various problems from research positions. Such relation of society to separately taken person is dictated by the accelerated rates of development of a science, the industry, the social sphere, the increased competition on a labour market, and also necessity of constant self-education. The schoolboy independently conceiving is necessary to a modern society, able to see and creatively to solve arising problems. This problem receives a special urgency in dynamically developing information field. Thus, the schoolboy should become the active participant of social and spiritual development of the country that will demand from it independence in the course of acquisition of new knowledge and abilities at school, in high school and throughout all life. However pupils not always can be guided in a huge stream of new data, take the necessary facts and the data, is critical to think, productively to use them in the work. The organization of teaching and educational process on the basis of research activity and stage-by-stage formation of research culture of pupils can become an exit from the created problem situation.
The federal educational standard initial and the general education formulates idea of realisation of the lichnostno-focused, developing model of a mass elementary school the formation maintenance in which will be focused on maintenance of self-determination and self-education of the person, on mastering by ways of informative activity, acquisition by children of experience of various kinds of activity. Other key standard document confirming told above in our opinion, is the document the National educational initiative «Our new school» in which from first lines the urgency of the given problem is underlined: «Modernization and innovative development - a unique way which will allow Russia to become a competitive society in the world of 21st century to provide a worthy life to all our citizens. In the conditions of the decision of these strategic problems the major qualities of the person become initiative, ability creatively to think and find non-standard decisions, ability to choose a professional way, readiness to be trained during all life. All these skills are formed since the childhood» [4].
Received in childish sports and on specially organized employment of skills of the researcher, take root and easily are reproduced further in activity any kind. It is natural that the most valuable and strong knowledge not that grow out of learning, - learning remains a rudiment from such called «cram learning» model - and that «is extracted» independently, during own creative researches. Creativity acts as the basic component of research culture of the person. Thus, own research practice of the pupil is necessary for writing down in number of the most effective ways of development of creative potential of the person of the child.

References:
1. Isayev I.F. Essence and the basic tendencies of formation of professional-pedagogical culture / I. F. Isayev // The professional-pedagogical culture: history, theory, technology: materials of the all Round Russian Practical Conference. Belgorod, 1996. – p. 8-13.
2. Kagan M. S. Culture philosophy. Spb.: Open Company TK «Petropolis». – p. 414.
3. Makotrova G.V. Forming of study-research culture of a grammar school pupils: the dissertation of the candidate of pedagogical sciences: 13.00.01. Belgorod: BSU, 2001.
4. The national educational initiative «Our new school» [the Electronic resource] / the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation – an access mode: http://mon.gov.ru/dok/akt/6591/, free. – Title from the screen.
5. Fain T.D. Stage-by-stage actions on formation of research culture of schoolboys // Practice of administrative work at school. 2003. №7. – p. 35-40.
6. Cicero M.T. The selected compositions. М.: «Znaniye», 1975.

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Интересно было ознакомиться в Вашими идеями.

Уважаемая Анна Владимировна! Интересно было ознакомиться в Вашими идеями. Что касается Ваших комментариев к другим статьям, необходимо отметить, кроме глубокого проникновения в теоретический материал, ещё и некоторую эмоциональность речи, чего так не хватает нашей науке. Мне приятно было общаться с Вами. Рад буду получить обещанные материалы. sasha1@host.kr.ua Успехов Вам и удачной защиты диссертации! А.Жосан

Об исследовательской культуре младших школьников

Уважаемая Анна Владимировна! Ваша статья довольно интересная, хотя мне было проще понять все Ваши идеи и подходы, если бы она была напечатана на украинском или русском языке. Мне близки Ваши взгляды на дифференцированный подход к организации учебно-воспитательного процесса. Есть ли У вас работы на эту тему? Как Вы относитесь к идее широкого использования проектной деятельности в начальной школе? Какие требования к проекту существуют? Какие ограничения необходимы именно для начальной школы? Какой вы видите роль учебника в системе исследовательской (а у нас всё чаще пишут: научно-исследовательской) работы младшего школьника? Используете ли Вы результаты исследований украинских ученых? Как можно ознакомиться с вашим проектом формирования исследовательской культуры младших школьников? По поводу списка литературы, хочу обратить Ваше внимание на единые требования к его оформлению: все источники должны представляться на языке оригинала. С ув. А.Жосан, канд. пед. наук, Кировоградский областной институт последипломного пед. образования им. В.Сухомлинского.

Олександр Едуардович,

Олександр Едуардович, благодарю Вас, что обратили внимание на мой доклад. Вопрос, который я осветила, находится в разработке. В данный момент мы заканчиваем работу над программой формирования исследовательской культуры младших школьников в условиях взаимодействия семьи и школы. Если Вас интересуют наши разработки, оставьте, пожалуйста, свой электронный адрес. На некоторые Ваши вопросы я ответила в предыдущем комментарии в том числе и по поводу массовой проектной работы в школе. Однако хочу заметить, что мы занимаемся вопросами ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ, а не ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ. По поводу последнего написано достаточно работ. Роль учебника в системе исследовательской деятельности очевидна. В первую и главную очередь, учебник играет роль путеводителя для учащегося, в частности младшего школьника. Современные учебники в достаточной мере наполнены исследовательскими заданиями по любой программе (Школа 2100, Перспективная начальная школа, Классическая начальная школа, Начальная школа 21 века,...). Проблема в том, что многие педагоги пропускают подобные задания, так как они требуют времени, или задают их на дом. Здесь уже наступает "звездный час"родителей. Об этом я писала в комментарии...Результаты исследований украинских ученых не использую, так как не нашла подобных работ по теме своего исследования...По поводу Вашего замечания. Список литературы предоставляла на 2х языках, как положено. Почему здесь разместили список (только) на английском языке, я не в курсе. С уважением. Анна Владимировна.

О статье "Исследовательская культура младшего школьника..."

Анна Владимировна, позвольте поблагодарить Вас за актуальный материал на английском языке, что вызывает уважение к исследователю, способному отразить свои научные взгляды на иностранном языке. Я хоть и владею прекрасно немецким и английским языками, свои статьи все же пишу на русском... Согласна с Вами в том, что исследования школьников, как особый вид творческой деятельности, направлены на получение новых существенных знаний. Вы описываете компоненты исследовательской культуры школьников (мыслительные навыки, навыки работы с книгой и т.д.), а относите ли Вы сюда проектную деятельность школьников? Ведь, как известно, разработка школьниками проектов способствует развитию исследовательских навыков... Задаю данный вопрос, ориентируясь на личный опыт. Мой сын, еще обучаясь в третьем классе, начал разрабатывать различные проекты по предмету "Окружающий мир", продолжая это и в дальнейшем на уроках биологии. Сейчас, обучаясь в восьмом классе, он занял первое место по нашему краю в краевой исследовательской конференции по медицинскому профилю. Считаю, что именно раннее начало формирования исследовательской культуры через проекты способствовало успешности сына. Интересно узнать Ваше мнение. С/ув., Грачёва Е.Ю.

Елена Юрьевна, спасибо, что

Елена Юрьевна, спасибо, что оценили!Несомненно, проектная деятельность является в некотором роде составляющей исследовательской деятельности. Очень рада за Вас и Вашего сына. Однако, давайте посмотрим, как разворачивается картина с исследовательской деятельностью сейчас, в частности, в начальной школе. Уверена, что Ваш ребенок развит, замечательно учится и прочее. Как показывает опыт, педагоги "берутся" за проектную деятельность как раз с такими ребятами. То есть двоечник Петя Иванов мало кого интересует. Когда я защищала тему своей диссертации на кафедре, старые, "матерые" преподавали сказали, что сначала нужно, чтобы все дети отлично учились, только потом можно заниматься формированием исследовательской культуры. То есть исследовательскую культуру учащегося связывают с интеллектуальной работой. Елена Юрьевна, это очень старый подход, которого придерживаются еще с революционного времени 1917 года. Я же полагаю, что у ребенка можно и нужно формировать исследовательскую культуру вне зависимости от его успеваемости в школе. Я опираюсь на творчество и эвристику, а не на интеллект, хотя это тоже немаловажно. На семинарах учителя и даже завучи упорно настаивают на том, что у них активно ведется исследовательская деятельность. Однако, на мой взгляд-, это еще не показатель того, что у этих ребят сформирована исследовательская культура, и что в школе существует единое исследовательское пространство. Проще говоря, педагоги выставляют своих лучших учеников, занимаясь с ними...хуже того, когда на родителей вешают все проекты, которые, как потом отчитываются, выполнили сами ребята. Это смешно и грустно одновременно. Пока будем ждать результатов, когда запустится мой проект формирования исследовательской культуры младших школьников. Более того, это только часть проблемы-, разработкой которой я занимаюсь. Рамки доклада не позволяют раскрыть ее полностью. Еще раз благодарю, Елена Юрьевна! Вы не припомните, как проходила работа Вашего ребенка над проектом в начальной школе? Какие трудности он испытывал? Какую и в какой степени поддержку и помощь оказывали ему Вы? Заранее благодарю!

Ответ

Анна Владимировна, спасибо за содержательный ответ, с которым я согласна. Сын работал над проектами в 3 и 4 классах - сам выращивал кристаллы из соли, наблюдал за погодными явлениями, за растениями. Трудность состояла в оформлении данного материала теоретически и представлении результатов работы. В этом мы ему и помогали - я и учитель в школе. Текст доклада сочиняли вместе. А насчет представления результатов - тогда еще не использовали компьютерные презентации, так что все рисунки к своему докладу он рисовал сам. У Вас очень интересный и важный проект, Анна Владимировна, желаю успехов! С/ув., Грачёва Е.Ю.

Спасибо огромное, Елена

Спасибо огромное, Елена Юрьевна!Вам также дальнейших исследовательских изысканий!
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