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Yaroslav-the-Wise Novgorod State University, Russia
Consideredinnovative technologiesof artistic processingof metals.Recommended bylaser engraving,superplasticforming,the use ofnanomaterials.
Keywords: innovative technologies, laser treatment, superplasticity, nanotechnology, nanomaterials
Рассмотрены инновационные технологии художественной обработки металлов. Рекомендованы лазерная гравировка, сверхпластическое формообразование, применение наноматериалов.
Ключевые слова: инновационные технологии, лазерная обработка, сверхпластичность, нанотехнологии, наноматериалы.
Art material handling technology, in some cases differ significantly from those technologies that are used in general engineering. The differences are caused by different requirements for the technological processes for conventional and artistic treatments. When artistic processing of materials to the forefront the need to provide a set aesthetic quality manufactured product. In the manufacture of traditional products crucial role played by such figures as accuracy process, quality and product formation. The aesthetic quality of art products are classified into four groups: information expressive, compositional integrity, decorative, perfection of execution. Within each group there are several specific indicators identified by the expert. Thus, in the group “information expression” includes such indicators as the originality of private artistic intent, expressive style decision, compliance with the fashion story artiainty, compliance form, ergonomic requirements. In the group of “compositional integrity” includes such indicators as tektonichnost, harmony, flexibility, and ordering graphics and visual elements. In the group “decorative” includes such parameters as color, tone, texture, pattern. In the group of “perfection of execution” includes care version of the product as a whole, the clarity of execution paths, the purity of the execution of relief, resistance to external damage and adverse effects.
Analysis of the experience of many companies has shown that this aesthetic quality of products can be successfully achieved using the following advanced technologies: laser engraving, forming under super plastic conditions, polished nanodiamonds, the use of nanomaterials in the process of maching.
Modern system for laser engraving can form of the treated surface is not only relief or pattern, but also create color schemes at the expense of education as a result of high-temperature reactions of surface oxide films. Change of regime laser irradiation can affect the quality of treatment cooling on the formed image, and, of course, the performance of the process. Russian companies producing highly pure laser equipment to dramatically improve the artistic decoration of metal surfaces. The equipment has a fairly extensive changes in the specific area of the irradiation power, where the melting of the surface layer that provides a diverse color palette. The equipment is fitted with solid-state systems, pumping energy of the fiber laser oscillator, which is located in the scanning head. This allows us to obtain high quality images even in-depth on metals with high thermal conductivity.
Perspective it should de recognized technology of laser engraving on the steel pre-coated. Shown that the velocity of the laser beam to 40 mm/sec, when the modulation frequency range from 2 to 6 kHz and a current of at least 32A provides complete removal of the nickel coating thickness up to 8 microns. With further deposition of the oxide coating is achieved by a rich black background image. The acceptable height of the asperities laser-treated surface is 20 microns and is achieved at the speed of the beam more than 10 mm/sec. Clarity of line drawing reproduced is provided at the laser beam diameter is not more than 0,03-0,05 mm.
When you clone the usual standard parts are used in conditions of superplasticity, as a rule, the bulk of the work piece. When artistic processing of materials should be used in stamping super plasticity. The essence of technology lies in the gradual heating of the thin-walled parts with fine-grained structure to the manifestation of the superplasticity effect (for example, brass up to 500-700 digress Celsius), and subsequent deformation in the form of a matrix by the pressure of compressed gas (0,5-2 MPa). Superplasticity deformation in the highly artistic can create a complex topography with a relatively simple process equipment. The technological process provides for the isolation of the product design especially hard-relief elements that require the most time pressure and deformation. The duration of the process of superplastic forming of a complex artistic terrain can be up to 60 minutes, formation at a pressure of up to 1,25 MPa. The increase in these modes may lead to the disappearance of superplasticity effect due to structural transformations in the deformed metal.
This technology can be formed highly artistic terrain relief elements with thinning to 0,2 mm, as well as elements with angular sizes ranging from 10 to 120 digress. Traditional stamping achieved similar image quality molding is often impossible.
When forming the artistic profile of the high-alloy steels, when the effect of superplasticity is difficult to achieve or impossible, we can recommend such advanced technology as hydro-pulse stamping.
Polishing is one of the leading technologies in the processes of artistic processing of materials, as it provides not only the desired surface roughness, but also the aesthetic characteristics such as glare, reflectivity, opacity, susceptibility to decorative coatings. Polishing can be, depending on the plan designer, open or conceal the texture of the material.
Traditional polishing technology used in general engineering, are after ineffective in the products. Innovative solution is to use the polishing compositions of nanocarbon diamonds are among the leaders in nanomaterials. Nanodiamod charge is the primary product of detonation synthesis and is a homogeneous black powder. The absorption coefficient is 99% of the blackbody. The content of nanodiamonds in the charge of 30-60%/ specific surface - 400÷500 m2/g. Bulk density of 0,4÷0,6 g/sm3. The average size of single crystals of 120÷140 nm. The charge of the particle – negative. Start temperature oxidation in air - 350°C.
Nanodiamond particles are aggregated in to complex structures, the magnitude of which depends on the methods on the method of preparation and polishing compound of the composition of the dispersion medium. Nanodiamonds have a strong structuring effect on the polishing composition is in an amount of 0,1÷0,3%. The complex structure of nanodiamonds promotes effective dissipation of local stress arising from the strains and stresses in the surface layer. For optimization of processing and polishing material in all cases observed the alignment of the relief. At the same time highly aesthetic mirror surface is formed of different levels of glare and without microdefects.
The advantages of nanodiamond polishing are vital as they cover a relatively high cost of nanomaterials.
Preservation of art and decorative relief images on the metal surface is responsible procedure. Traditionally, the protection of the outer surface of the artistic product was applied hydrophobizing layer. This technology is unreliable since a short time, the protective layer crocks. Peeling of the protective layer after cracking causing additional damage to the surface of the aesthetic qualities. Way out is to use as protective coating of ultrathin films of nanomaterials on the basis of water-soluble polymers. The stabilizing effect of such coatings is based on the fact that nanomaterial fact that nanomaterial acts as a scavenger of free radicals and thereby interrupt the processes of oxidation and degradation of the surface material of artistic products. Such a mechanism of action of the hyperfine nonocoatings does not require that studies have shown that the preservation of its full integrity. Even in the presence of cracks and uncovered areas of the surface properties of nano-safety preserved. The described technology is especially effective for protection of monuments, sculptures and antiques.
In summary, we conclude that the considered innovative technology based on laser engraving, effects superplasticity and use of nanomaterials is very promising and are recommended for widespread use in the artistic treatment of materials.
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