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Asmina Kushkumbayeva, 11th grade pupil, finalist of the "republican contest of innovations", 2014
Svetlana Moroz, physics teacher
Kokshetau State University named after Sh. Ualikhanov, Kazakhstan
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Kazakhstan";
Desertification problem - it is a problem of global significance, which has serious implications for the international environmental safety, efforts to eradicate poverty, socio-economic stability and sustainable development.
Problems faced by poor people in drylands are multifaceted: loss of income, food insecurity, health deterioration, lack of security systemsland rights and rights of access to natural resources, as well as lack of access to markets. Limited opportunities in terms of livelihood is often force people to migrate is not affected by desertification areas in search of a better life.
From dryland ecosystems depend approximately 2.6 billion people. Arid regions occupy 41 percent of the earth's surface. In these areas, home to about one third of the world population. One example of such a country can serve as Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan - a country which is the 9th largest in area. Over a quarter of our territory is occupied by steppes (26%), half - desert (44%) and semi-deserts (14%), the remaining quarter - mountains, seas, lakes, rivers and forests (16%). In these arid regions of our country as steppes, deserts and semi-deserts, where small villages and villages inhabited by people who can not afford to engage in farming and agriculture, as the need to send water from the outside. But all this is difficult, time consuming and expensive. After delivery of water is quite expensive these days, besides transportation leads a fairly high cost, energy and thermal energy, money, and plenty of water. But our engineering idea, we believe, is able to solve these problems.
Absorption - the process of absorption of one substance for another. So, if any substance to absorb water, it can be transported in arid regions.
Potassium polyacrylate, falling into the water can absorb liquid more than 500 times their own weight. In the midst of a drought is enough to make the soil potassium polyacrylate, and the plants themselves will take as much water as you need. However, he swells. Shelf life of water, potassium polyacrylate is one year. However, this does not mean that after 12 months of novelty can not be used. In contrast, over the next 2-10 years will garner potassium polyacrylate moisture precipitation and return her to the ground during a drought. Potassium polyacrylate itself by outward signs similar to the detergent, sugar or salt. In addition, the hydrogel is an environmentally friendly product, no adverse effects on the soil and the environment. Therefore, it can be used not only for the transport of water in arid regions, but also for watering plants. Gradually polyacrylate, potassium decaying, will give them the accumulated water, supplying plants to moisture. But after the rain appears the sun evaporates the moisture, the earth cracks and excess moisture go into the deeper layers that are inaccessible to the major crops. Scientists estimate that plants use only 10% moisture, 20% goes into the groundwater, and 70% - evaporates. The next rain moisture and does not have time to soak through the cracks and streams out, the soil surface "hammered" and the rain turns into an airtight crust. 
One way out of trouble - gidroabsorbenty.Superabsorbent 1 kg of soil which accumulates up to 400 liters water.
Absorbent crystals specifically designed for use in agriculture, from greenhouses and indoor plants to crops with / crops, century, tobacco, flowers, vines, lawns, trees and shrubs, ornamental plantings. Gidroabsorbent - crystals that absorb and retain unique a moisture amount to hundreds of times their own weight and drought dosed give moisture to plants.
Potassium polyacrylate is better to use in the following sizes crystallization fine granules for light loose soil and enveloping pastes, granules krupnyke for heavy soils and chernozems, powdered - to treat roots, a combination of different granules for general use.
While drying, absorbent takes its original form - crystal and is ready for a new cycle in the subsequent moisture.
This rare ability to cyclically absorb and release moisture for several years, using a single introduction, is not inherent in all absorbents, so the most reasonable option during the agricultural activities.
In areas of the globe, which is dominated by a sharp continental climate it is important to ensure that watering plants during drought. Using hydrogel potassium polyacrylate. We believe even small landscaped school district, with the lowest cost it can lead to massive use of hydrogel in agriculture, and subsequently improve the economy of our country to a new level. Also, the use of potassium polyacrylate is very advantageous from the economic point of view: it helps to save (ie, getting free from nature itself) from 50% to 80% of water, depending on climate and soil conditions. 
For landscaping a small area in an arid region, we use potassium polyacrylate hydrogel. In Kazakhstan, namely in the Akmola region, 15 kilometers from the town is a small village KokshetauAidarly where people live, experiencing an acute shortage of water. To the villagers every week comes a tractor with water, and ensuring their local school supply of water for a week. The inhabitants of this village has a desire to plant trees their land, begin to engage in farming, agriculture, animal husbandry, but the problem is that in such arid regions of our country as steppes, deserts and semi-deserts, requires delivery of water from the outside. But all this is difficult, time consuming and expensive. After delivery of water is quite expensive these days, besides transportation leads a fairly high cost, energy and thermal energy, money, and plenty of water.After the tractor, of bringing water, spends a large amount of thermal energy. Pumps, pumping water from the springs, spend about 105.8 MJ of energy to fill 42 barrels. And also spent 90 m3 of water. For this reason, we want to offer potassium polyacrylate, which repeatedly save, electric and thermal energy, money and water costs. Besides potassium polyacrylate is an environmentally friendly product, no adverse effects on the soil and the environment. Therefore, it can be used not only for the transport of water in arid regions, but also for watering plants. Gradually polyacrylate, potassium decaying, will give them the accumulated water, supplying plants to moisture. Aidarly But this is just one example of these villages, and in the world there are thousands, millions, which also affects people. We believe if you start plant trees and gardens, even small areas in arid regions, it can lead to massive use of potassium polyacrylate, which then displays the savings not only in our country to a new level, but also in many other countries, who have problems of desertification. After all, how many people we could help that every day suffer from lack of water, food and unemployment. Also, the application range of the hydrogel is very large. It can be used not only in agriculture but also in greenhouses for growing indoor plants, clothing, medicine, and for growing lawns. 
In many cities of our country can be seen naked, empty land, and in fact this big problem from an environmental standpoint. In our country, because such blow wind gusts reinforced, in consequence of which large streams of dust rises. But in these cities live children, adults older people who breathe this polluted air, which leads to many diseases, such as asthma. Of course, buying a lawn grass is relatively expensive, and besides, leads the big money, power and thermal costs, as well as large amounts of water. Because in order to grass remained fresh and green, it is necessary to provide daily watering. But if you use potassium polyacrylate for growing turf grass, the frequency of irrigation will be reduced several times, because the need for watering turf daily disappears, and is enough for 2-3 times a month. Since potassium polyacrylate gradually, breaking up, will give them the accumulated water, supplying plants to moisture they need.
In the future, will need to establish production of potassium polyacrylate, using raw materials of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as one of the main resources of our country - is its natural resources. Even scientists estimate that the leading countries Kazakhstan is ranked sixth in the world in terms of mineral resources, which means that on the territory of Kazakhstan has all the resources required for the synthesis of the hydrogel. Industrial production also potassium polyacrylate is a simple organization.
In conclusion, we would like to say that potassium polyacrylate, as we believe, would help to solve many problems, most countries of the world. Not only to bring the economy and the ecological condition of a new level, but also to help the common people, to help people who live and suffer every day because of the conditions in which they are forced to live. But we believe that our idea will help make life easier for many people who subsequently withdraw savings together the countries in which they live to a new level.
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2. Yuhimchik DF Flowers. - Selhozgid, 1964. - 212.