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Prykhodko Nataliya, lecturer
Obukhovska Anastasiia, student
Sumy State University, Ukraine
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Ukraine";
the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;
The article deals with proper names,which are obligatory in fairy-tale discourse and are cognitively, semantically and communicatively charged. Cognitive way of studying functional and pragmatic features of proper names in English fairy-tale discourse reveals semantic meaning and pragmatic orientation of proper names as transferring units of cognitive information.
Keywords: proper names, fairy-tale discourse, cognition, pragmatic orientation, communicative charge.
Статья посвящена именам собственным, которые являются облигаторным элементом сказочного дискурса и несут когнитивную, семантическую и коммуникативную нагрузку. Когнитивный подход к исследованию функционально-прагматических особенностей имен собственных в англоязычном сказочном дискурсе раскрывает смысловое наполнение, экстралингвальные особенности и прагматическую направленность имен собственных как трансферов когнитивной информации.
Ключевые слова: имена собственные, сказочный дискурс, когнитивный подход, прагматическая направленность, коммуникативный заряд.
In the domain of modern linguistics aspects of cognitive and pragmatic trends of the text prevail. Theobligatory element of fairy-tale discourse is proper names (the object of our article) which have semantic, communicative and cognitive charge. By the definition of New Webster's Dictionary, proper names (PN) – are nouns or adjectives, naming a specific person and are written with a capital letter [1, p.1197]. PN have a special status in the language and do not submit to certain laws which are typical for common names [2, p.41]. Onomastics, as a part of lexicology, has been distinguished as an independent science when scientists clearly realized the difference of PN from common names [3, p.69]. Cognitive orientation of PN, their orientation to the reader, author's intention which are implicated in PN are the subject of the article. Communicative and cognitive approach to PN and their functioning in the text are relevant in today's mainstream linguistics (S.M. Spivak., S.A.Yarova, L.M. Lazarenko) [4, p.1], [4, p.231] [6, p.217]. The purpose of this article is studying of the background knowledge, which contain PN in the English fairy-tale discourse and their cognitive orientation to the reader.
O.S. Akhmanova identifies PN as words or phrases which specific purpose is in identifying individual items without regard to their characteristics, i.e. without establishing the correspondences between qualities of subjects [7, p.175]. As S.M. Spivak points out, PN are codes of background knowledge, specific types of compressed national and culturaltexts,that stored in their semantic memory cultural and historical subjects, written in the contemporary social consciousness [4, p.1]. Means of nomination and images which are laid up in the basis of the name are ethnically defined, despite the fact that typical nature and anthropological universals in the imagery of the names are common. Names and nicknames in colloquial language are associated with the realities, traditions and religion [8, p.15]. Culture and social life are always reflected in PN[8, p.22]. Extralinguistic factors significantly have an effect on the quality of the names and their place in the language as linguistic signs that identify an individual and have a strongly marked national and cultural component [9, p.148]. PN as a unit category, are used for highlighting, identification and characterization of a certain reality and at the same time help to activate knowledge aboutit [10, p.430]. PN perform nominative function and function of representing an individual fragments of the world and its conceptualization.
O. V. Superanska points out that PN don’t have connotations (conditional intention in other words); they have denotation, because they nominate an individual to differentiate him among others. The meaning of PN is known only to those whom the individual is introduced to [8, p.69]. In the language beyond the discourse PN don’t have the denotative value [11, p.106]. Cognitive orientation of PN is in understanding of the act of nomination from the cognitive position and in finding answers to questions, what sets of concepts and why are verbalized in a particular language, what a particular form of speech is herewith selected [10, p.71]. Speech and cognitive development have an effect on each other, and the names, including PN, are the sources of knowledge about objects. Cognition and communication as the main functions of the language, equally determine its specificity and structure [10, p.325]. They should be explored at their permanent agreement and interdependence.
Often PN transfer to addressee an information and knowledge about the status and position, which the individual in society takes. The social status of a person - is the position of a person in a social system, rights, duties and as a result - the mutual expectation of a certain behavior. Herewith the individual characteristics of a person occupy a secondary position. An indication of the status of a person is often his name. Nationality, sex, age and marital status of the individual are encoded in the name. Even the right to have a name may be the evidence of a social status. If we investigate PN from the cognitive position in a certain society we can gain knowledge about general and specific model of behavior of people who speak a common language and share a system of appraisal norms of the society, to establish principles of social organization [12, p.5]. The expression of social status in PN can have both implicit (connotations, associations) and explicit nature.
PN are more than common names respond to social changes. In PN, regardless of the will of those who give the name, the culture and social life are always reflected. Doing a number of social functions, PN live and develop under the laws of language, while the reasons that stimulate the development of nominal systems are social in origin, i.e. are beyond linguistics [8, p.26]. Even the form of the name - a structural component of onomastics – in some way is conditioned by social factors.
There are four main ways of PN origin: transformation from common names in PN (onimisation),borrowing of foreign PN, transition of PN from one level to another one(transonimisation) and the artificial creation ofoccasional names[8, p.473].
Unlike PN, common names relate an object to its class, have basic and additional connotations. The proper names are associated with an individual object or multiple objects of the same name, each of which is taken individually. PN mean a separate subject, not associated with the concept, but they can have other connotations. If a side connotation develops into a major one, PN become common names. PN are always specific. If concreteness of an object is not available, the tendency of PN transformation in common names is observed [8, p.113]. These processes between proper and common names (CN) form a universal group of names in language systems. They occupy a central place in the vector of common names (CN1) - PN- CN2.
CN1 and CN2 identify an object, actualize denotative or connotative meaning. Unlike CN, PN point at a single object, name it. An object that calls PN is specific. Over time PN will be converted to CN, the tendency of transformation PN → CN will become up-to-date [8, p.113].
PN, which are formed from common names, can develop their derivational paradigm. Derived from the PN words retain the seme of the name. Compare: англ. present-day Shakespeare, Conan Doyle's style; укр. сучасний Франко, шевченківський стиль. These derivatives enrich their semantics, indicate the typed characteristics of these individuals.
The emergence of new connotations becomes possible due toinfluence of extralinguistic factors. For example, when the denotation of PN is known to membersof a certain society. In this case, the name returns to the paradigm of CN [8, p.117]. Appealingof PNin fiction is presented in so-called expressive names. These names are identical in their shapes to common names that denote the most peculiar features of acharacter. The name of the character is an important factor in the creation of the work. It updates the author's pragmatic orientation of the text on the reader's complicity. The main aim of PN appeal function isexcitation of images and emotions caused by the values contained in the associative and semantic field of PN. Affectabilityof PN, in its turn, activates the process of its understanding [4, p.14]. Thus the contact between an author and a reader is created, ensuring the success of creative communication.
In the literary work the name plays an important role as a landmark in time and space. In the language of fiction a former common meaning of the name can have characterological application; name and surname of the character may be a part of its characteristics. The simplest example is expressive names and surnames [8, p.32]. The names of literary characters we can divide into those that characterize them explicitly and implicitly, and as a conclusion we can say that a moment of characteristics is more important than just a nomination in fiction.
Communicative and pragmatic approach to the study of PN foresees the determination of functional and pragmatic properties of PN in English literary discourse, clarifying conceptual basis of compositional and semantic structure and role of PN in its formation [4, p.3]. Notional filling of PN is determined by semantic analysis of descriptions and definitions which are contained in the culturological dictionaries.
Proper names of the famous collection by Clive Lewis “The Chronicles of Narnia” cause the research interest, as a store of factual material for linguistic research, and especially for onomastics [13, p.12]. Naming the character, PN become a thematic word. Thanks to its inseparability from the character, the name is perceived in associative complex with it, get the right not only to indicate the denoted object, but also serves as its characterological representative. That is, when PN are in the context, it can take any content. Meaningful saturation of PN occurs gradually [8, p.110]. It includes all the skills of the character, which author gives to him.
Characters of the series of fantastic tales (“The Chronicles of Narnia”) possess with extraordinary power, capability, creativity which help them to overcome all the trials on the way to the goal. According to thematic basis we can divide tales into magical, domestic and animalistic [14, p.2]. Fantastic tales originally had a magical purpose, which over time has been lost. In modern fiction tales mythical fantastic and heroic principles are combined [15, p.322]. One of the main functions of fairy tales is cognitive, that is accumulated in PN of characters of a tale which transfer cognitive information and carry the knowledge about national peculiarities of a certain ethnos and way of their life, work, mode of life, natural environment, individual features of narrator and characters.
Conf.: And in those days there lived in London a girl called Polly Plummer. Plummer ← англ.plum – укр. ласий шматочок; вигідне замовлення ← слива .The name of the main character of the tale, a little English girl, who needs adventure and communication, containsa clear motivation, however, is quitetypical for the British. Comp.:… for Digory was the sort of person who wants to know everything, and when he grew up he became the famous Professor Kirke who comes into other books. Digory ← англ. digo – укр. гребля, загата.Kirke ← англ. kirk – укр. церква . From PN of these characterswe will learn about true, reliable friend and clever, well-educated person. Comp.: “That was the secret of secrets,” said the Queen Jadis . Jadis ← англ. jadish – укр. непристойний, нечесний. The name of the queen gives the reader a certain idea about this character, preparesto perceive this person as a negative personage.
A specific feature of tales by Clive Lewis “The Chronicles of Narnia” is a combination of a fantastic type of tales with animalistic ones. Animals in these tales act side by side with people and magical creatures, performing good or bad deeds. Tales about animals are genetically the most ancient, associated with totemic representations [15, p.321]. C. Lewis, using the knowledge and experience, accumulated by the English nation, makes animals characters of his tales and instead naming them, he capitalizes common names of the animals, which become their proper names. The process of conversional transfer from common name to proper one takes place. Conf.: The Lion was pacing to and fro about that empty land and singing his new song. The Lion ← англ. lion – укр. лев. The Jackdaw became so embarrassed that it hid its head under its wings as if it was going to sleep. The Jackdaw ← англ.jackdaw – укр. галка. Come hither to me, you the chief Dwarf, and you the River-god, and you Oak and the Owl, and both the Ravens and the Bull-Elephant. The Owl ← англ. owl – укр. сова. The Raven ← англ.raven – укр. ворон, крук. The Bull-Elephant ← англ.bull-elephant – укр. слон.
Cognitive-pragmatic orientation of this type of PN is for using names of animals according to historical and national perceptions of ethnos. Differentiation of animals into good and bad, clever and outspoken, brave and timid is in line with concept of the British about certain animals. That in its turn allows a reader to find out about the world outlook of a certain nation and helps children to learn more about animals and their characteristic features.
Conf.: When the Bulldog spoke to him (or, as he thought, first snarled and then growled at him) he held out his shaking hand and gasped “Good Doggie, then, poor old fellow.The Bulldog ← англ. bulldog – укр. бульдог (злий сильний собака). “Well?” said the He-Beaver at last, “what, in the name of Aslan, are these?” The Beaver ← англ. beaver – укр. бобер. A Panther, which had been washing its face, stopped for a moment to say. Panther← англ. рanther – укр. пантера, леопард. “You surely don’t mean,” said the Jackdaw to the Badger, “that you think its a talking animal! It didn’t say any words.” The Badger ← англ. badger – укр. борсук. “I tell you what!” said the Donkey brightly, “perhaps it’s an animal that can’t talk but thinks it can.” The Donkey ← англ. donkey – укр. осел.
On the material of previously mentioned examples we can see that the conversional transition from common names to proper names and the usage of PN formed in such a way, give to narrator a possibility to realize a cognitive function of PN and introduce to readers of all ages ethnical perceptions about certain phenomena.
Cognitive orientation of PN in the English fairy-tale discourse is shown in the information which PN contain, in their structure and semantic fullness that allows the reader to explore the world in the process of decoding PN. Further research will be devoted to polyaspects, polyfunctionality, polymodality of PN in English fairy-tale discourse.
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