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Technical and Agricultural College of Soroca, Moldova
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This paper is addressed the theme of modernizing agricultural education. It was made an inestigation about the educational proces from the last year and there were highlighted the major modernisation of agricultural education in the Republic of Moldova in the context of the european itinerary.
Keywords: agricultural education; modernization; european itinerary; specialits; material and technical base; programs of studies; educational plans; optimization; funding formula; rating criteria.
The modernization of education has a primary importance for the countries which have chosen the option of developing the country's pro-European. The growth of the economy is due to qualified specialists, the problem of training and personnel training has a direct impact on the economic growth and well-being of the population. For the Moldovan economy, the agriculture has a major importance in the Global National Product. If previously, the emphasis in the training of agricultural specialists, was put into the training of specialists able to increase the agricultural production in accordance with intensive technologies, now the problem lies in the process of production, industrialization, commercialization as a result of modern marketing.
Methods and discussions
The preparation of specialists in agriculture, for the Republic of Moldova is very important. Currently, in the country was adopted a new Code of Education, but still, there has not been found, despite the fact that other types of vocational training as military, artistic, athletic, medical are present in the Code. [ 1 ]
If we refer to the agricultural education, which had previously been in all sovietic countries, it can be found many positive sides. The negative ones will not be spoken about. Firstly, what are the positive sides:
a) Financing of the Agricultural Institutions, covering all the needs. Equipping the laboratories and cabinets was made in concordance with the latest developments in science and technology. For example a combine which was only designed and ready to be built, was firstly transmitted to the Agrarian Institutions. The graduates of these institutions were able to woek with such a combine.
b) All agricultural enterprises and farms were obliged to receive practice pupils and students of agrarian institutions. Moreover, the specialists from enterprises, who were guiding the process of practice, were paid out from the budget of the institutions.
c) Methodological guidelines,books, curricula and study plans were developed centrally with the involvement of the country's outstanding personalities. The specialists from the institutions had just the role to realize and execute.
d) All the agricultural institutions had a narrow specialization and did not prepare the specialists of the same kind in different institutions.
e) The institutions possessing a rich infrastructure made attractive the profession of teacher in these institutions, the remuneration of the teaching staff was at a high level. The profession of teacher-engineer was very prestigious.
Currently, in the Agrarian Education in Moldova are made many changes. After a period of stagnation, has begun to renovate the technical-material living standards. Many new specialities appeared attractive for agricultural students. In the country have been reopened two agricultural colleges,alltogether trere are eight colleges and an agricultural high school. Frames with higher education prepares the State Agrarian University of Moldova.
The educational system has become more democratic. Pupils and students have more opportunities. Many laws and regulations adopted and developed for agricultural education contain many gaps, that is because in working groups, often are meeting only with scientists, academicians, professors. All these scientific frameworks have an essential contribution in the scientific progress, but when you compile something pertaining to vocational schools, colleges, it is appropriate to involve the personnel working in this area. We were the first, who have proposed that the Chairmen of the boards of the qualification to be nominated producers and prospective employers, but not the scholars. Certain employers are those who put forward the requirements for the future graduates. Production specialists and employers increasingly are invited in the institution. They bring their contribution in the developing programs and in developing the skills of the future specialist. This is a benefic thing when the production specialists are tariffed as heads of the state technological practice. [ 3 ]
The relationship between the educational institution and the agricultural employer is shown in Figure 1
Fig. 1. The relationship between the agricultural educational institution and the employer in total quality management .Source: adapted by author. [ 2 ]
Which, in our vision, are the main attractions in the modernization of the agricultural education in the country.
1. It is necessary to optimize the agricultural Colleges, because the preparation of specialists of the same kind shall be done in several institutions. In this way, it is necessary to equip several laboratories of the same kind with the modern agricultural technique, which is quite expensive.
Location of agricultural Colleges is quite disordered: a College is located to the South, two in the centre of the country, and 5 to the North.
2. Some agricultural specialties are unattractive and therefore need to be renamed and even replaced with others.
3. It is necessary a more serious involvement from the State in the problems related to the patrimony of the institutions. Some institutions have problems with the local public administration on the issue of delimitation of boundaries, because in the towns and district centers the land is very requested.
4. Every College has 2-3 unused boarding houses. It is necessary to access projects or the support of the State to renovate these boarding houses, in order to be used for the improvement of the educational staff in the field of agricultural-food.
5. The formula, which is used to finance the Colleges, is not a good one. Currently, the financing process is carried out depending on the number of the students. The formula would have been successful if all the building blocks of all the Colleges would have been the same. In the case when (for example :the buildings of The Agricultural Technical College in Soroca are historical and architectural monuments, built at the beginning of the XIX Century), the constructions are different, the demand for heat is different and depending on the specialties the need of electricity is different. There are Colleges located compact and there are colleges stretching tens of hectares and in different sectors of the city. In this way the number of auxiliary and technical persons is different. Therefore it follows that these factors have to be taken into account in the process of financing. We have proposed that the funding process must be in accordance with the evaluation criteria, which include several factors, including the final results.
It is good to realize the complex evaluation of the socio-economic effectiveness of the educational institutions on the basis of an integral indicator, based on the following criteria:
× Training specialists qualitycorrespondence and knowledge levels obtained in the training and content process, the requirements of the national economy in the process of their work. The quality of preparation of the specialists in educational institutions must be determined not only by internal criteria (success), but also of those external - the market economy requirements for the content and the level of preparation of highly qualified specialists. Here, as a component ,is also included the results of the achievement in education - educational level, which characterizes the society and manifests itself both in the content of consciousness and in the character of the behavior.
× Contribution in the educational process (the character and volume of funding the educational institutions, the levy of pupils (students), faculty, material resources and others).
× Determining the return on investment in the educational institutions: the character and the level of the results of the educational institution.
× The appreciation of the changes which had taken place in the process of enhancing the qualification of all staff members, including the development of ethic-moral, legal, social, spiritual and professional degree and forms of participation of all team members in the management of educational institution.
× Optimal use of the resources in the educational institution, in the system of educational institutions (of different levels).
× Profitableness of the resources in the educational institution.
× Direct contribution of the workers in educational institutions in implementing and enhancing the quality of the educational services, in the creation of the country's national income.
× Socialization of the graduates from the educational institutions (analysis of the salaries of workers with additional studies, researching their occupation and their place on the labor market, a successful professional activity after graduation).
× Increase in the volume of assets, as a result of the increase in the level of education and qualification of employees in national economy.
× Enhancing the effectiveness of the use of resources in the branches of the national economy as a result of implementation of new scientific and technical developments, made by specialists of educational institutions. [ 2 ]
A problem remains with the subordination of the Agricultural Colleges. Currently the Agricultural Colleges are subordinated by the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry, and some issues are conducted by the Ministry of Youth and Sports. There are cases when it is necessary to send various forms on three addresses at the same time. The financing is made by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry.
Fig. 2. The correlation between the ministries and the institutions of agricultural education.
Source: compiled by the author.
It is good that in the Code of Education is stipulated that the Manager is chosen by a competition, but it was stipulated that all the staff managerial and leadership of colleagues must be reelect by competition every 4-5 years. In such a way it will be improved the responsibility and professionalism of many members of the staff.
It is necessary to modify the legal framework, which will not allow the persons who do not have agrarian studies, to deal with this branch.
1. Codul Educaţiei al Republicii Moldova nr. 152 din 17.07.2014.Publicat: 24.10.2014 în Monitorul Oficial Nr. 319-324 art. Nr : 634.
2. Nesterenco C. Managementul instituţiilor învăţământului agrar: Problemele manageriale ale gestiunii instituţiilor cu profil agrar în perioada europenizării economice. Monografie. Chişinău: Centrul editorial al UASM, 2009, 244 p. 20,9 c.a. ISBN 978-9975-64-175-3.
3. Rezultatele activităţii instituţiilor de învăţămînt din subordine şi realizarea Foii de parcurs privind acţiunile Guvernului în vederea dezvoltării învăţămîntului vocaţional/tehnic pentru perioada 2013-2014, CONFERINŢA ANUALĂ A CADRELOR DIDACTICE,Ungheni 2014.