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CELL HYDRATION AS A UNIVERSAL AND EXTRA SENSITIVE MARKER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Автор Доклада: 
Ayrapetyan S.

CELL HYDRATION AS A UNIVERSAL AND EXTRA SENSITIVE MARKER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Sinerik Ayrapetyan, Ful Professor

At present, when the technological progress?induced environmental pollution brings the humanity to the threshold of ecological catastrophe, the environmental health control becomes one of the most important problems of modern life sciences. The environmental pollution by extra weak concentrations of chemicals and physical factors the direct effect of which on the cells and organisms are non-measurable, is particularly dangerous for public health. But they are able to modulate the effect of high intensity of chemicals and physical signals. The safety standards based on classic thermodynamic principles for different environmental factors, developed by WHO and other organizations are able to explain only the linear dose?dependent effects of factors on biological systems. However, there is a great number of experimental data on extremely low concentration of chemical active substances (Ayrapetyan and Carpenter, 1991) and weak intensity of physical signals (Devyatkov, 1973; Adey, 1993), which are unable to produce any measurable direct biological effect on organisms and which could modulate the cell metabolism by non?linear dose?dependent manner. Therefore, for the adequate estimation of biological effects of weak environmental signals there is to find out a universal and extra?sensitive marker through which the non?linear dose?dependent effects of weak environmental signals on cells and organisms are realized.

Since water is a dominant component of environmental medium and biological systems, and its molecule ionization is extremely sensitive to different environmental factors, from the beginning of last century the structure of water was suggested as a universal target through which the biological effects of weak environmental factors on organisms are realized (Throshin 1966; Szent?Gyorgyi, 1968; Ling 2004; Klassen 1982). However, this statement did not meet an adequate application in estimation of biological effects of different environmental factors, including the extra?weak physical signals, which have intensity less than thermal threshold. Main barriers for using structural characteristics of water as a marker for detection of safe doses of different environmental factors are high variability of water structure and our weak knowledge on it. Since temperature, light intensity and background radiation are common physical components of environmental medium the detailed mechanisms of their influences on water properties are also not fully clarified. At present it is well- documented fact that non-physical signals having much less intensity than thermal thresholds could cause changes in water molecule ionization, whose products modulate the process of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and change the level of hydrogen peroxide () in water [12]. The hydration of water ionization products (H3O+ and OH-) reduces their chemical activity; therefore it was suggested that any dipole vibration, when the hydration shell of ions is removed, could reactivate them and elevate the formation in aqua medium. These properties depend upon the quality and quantity of soluble electrolytes ions. Thus, the weak physical signal-induced changes of ROS in the aqua medium serve as messengers through which the transduction of factor-induced water structure changes to intracellular cell metabolism is realized.

The fact that in living cells, the osmotic activity in intracellular medium exceed the extra-cellular one because of the cell volume controlling metabolic mechanisms, allow to predict that any factor -induced changes of the latter could modulate the cell hydration (Hofman 2009). By our early study was shown that the protein molecules, which have enzymatic (Ayrapetyan et al., 1984), receptive (Ayrapetyan et al 1985) and channel forming (Ayrapetyan et al., 1988) properties, could be in active or inactive (reserve) states, subject to the membrane packing (cell surface). At present the existence of caveolaes on membrane surface and their great functional role in regulation of cell functions are well documented (Parton & Simons 2007). It is also known, that as intracellular macromolecules are functioning in aqua medium, their activity also depends upon the cell hydration (Parsegyan, 2005). From these data can be concluded that cell hydration is one of the powerful fundamental mechanisms through which the functional activity of cells is regulated. It has a messenger function in the generation of different diseases including cancer (Hausinger 1996 Danielyan et al. 2000), nervous and cardiovascular disorders (Lang 2007, Hofman et al. 2009).

The issue whether cell hydration could serve as a universal and extra-sensitive marker has been the working hypothesis of UNESCO Life Sciences Chair’s research activity over the last decades. It was documented that the modulation of cell hydration is the mechanism whereby a number of extremely low concentrations (less than 10-10M) of biologically active substances (Ayrapetyan & Carpenter 1991), non-ionizing (Danielian et al. 1999,2000; Ayrapetyan 2006,) and ionizing radiation (Dvoretski et al.1990) produce their biological effects. The extra sensitivity of cell hydration to different chemical factors is well described in literature (see Revues Hausinger 1992, Lung 2006, Hofman 2009). The Na/K pump having a crucial role on cell volume regulation is one of extra sensitive sensors for weak chemical and physical signals (Ayrapetyan 2011). Our currently obtained data performed on water solutions, plants procariots and eocarionts including mammals consist the suggestion that the cell bathing medium serves as a messenger for weak signal transduction to cell metabolisms, while cell hydration serves as an extra-sensitive and universal cellular marker for the estimation of hazardous or beneficial effects of environmental factors. Therefore we have recommended to WHO and other international organizations whose mission is to establish safety standards for public health, the cell (body) hydration as an adequate parameter for estimation the hazardous effect of any environmental pollution.  

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