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Kazakh National Pedagogical University named after Abay, Kazakhstan
The article examines language competence, professional and practical sub-competences of future linguists.
Key words: competence, competency, language competence, systematic thinking, analytical skill, innovation, practice-oriented activity
Radical changes occurring in the contemporary Kazakhstan in the spheres of economy, policy and social relations require cardinal transformations in the sphere of education as well. That is why, L.V.Lvov highlights that the most important direction of scientific works in the field of professional training under these conditions is the research of the professional competence development process at a higher educational institution as major component of the professional development, and as an essential approach and condition for tackling a challenge of providing readiness and ability to professional activity of future specialists. Analysis of the scientific literature (V.A.Bolotov, V.V.Serikov, Zh.Delor, I.A.Zimnyaya, L.V.Lvov, G. Raven, A.V.Hutorskoi, V.D.Shadrikov, etc.) on the theme under research reveals absence of a common opinion of scientists and researchers regarding the concepts of "competence" and "competency". In research works on the development of future linguists’ language competency, we examine competency as an integrated characteristics of set of outcome of mastering the competence system and application of competence system in practice. Sharing L.V.Lvov's opinion, we consider that the competence is diagnostic system of knowledge, skills, abilities and generalized approaches of professional actions essential for satisfactory performance of standard requirements and solution of typical problem situations in a professional activity in accordance with the provided authorities. Language competency is considered by us as the integrated characteristics of outcomes of mastering and successful application in practice of language units in all kinds of activity (speech, understanding of speech, reading and writing) in accordance with communication spheres (including profile-focused), speech experience and «feeling of a language». Application of the synthesis of cross-cultural, lingua-didactic and participative approaches has allowed to develop a pedagogical model of developing language competency of future linguists, which contains an interrelation of the goal and motivational-objective, contextual, organizational-technological and analytical – productive components. Immediate goal of the preparation process is developing language competence of future linguists which flows into a perspective goal – improving the quality of professional training of future linguists. The contextual component reveals the essence of intercultural, socio-linguistic, language (linguistic) and professional-practical blocks which make an integrated structure of the language competency. We will describe in detail the professional-practical block below.
Professional-practical block (competence) unites in itself professional and practical sub-competences. We share L.V.Lvov's opinion that professional sub-competence is a system professional knowledge, skills and generalized approaches of professional actions essential for efficient performance of standard requirements and solution of typical problem situations in a professional activity in accordance with the provided authorities. Here we imply professional knowledge and skills to be special linguistic knowledge and skills essential for successful work in various spheres as a specialist with the knowledge of foreign languages.
Our understanding of the practical sub-competence is close to the structure of key competences which have been offered by T.N.Lobanova:
- systematic thinking, vision of the process development: systematic and structured approach to the solution of problems; ability to systematize, standardize objectives and approaches, understanding priorities, analysis of alternatives and finding optimum versions of solutions; ability to bear responsibility for the decisions taken;
- analytical skills: logic, order, careful in problem-solving, rationality, predictability, consideration of details; ability to connect judgments correctly, to think and act consistently; exact and regular analysis of the factors influencing the future of the company;
-innovative:ability to accept and offer something new, to demonstrate an initiative, to manage creativity; ability to perceive various ideas, views and suggestions without any internal resistance;
- flexibility: readiness for changes; ability to react quickly and adequately to non-staff situations, to see and identify the problem, to find ways for its solution; to evaluate results;
- directed at systematic development: readiness to get education, susceptibility to new methods and technologies, ability to apply new in practice; readiness for the analysis of own achievements and demerits, wise exploitation of other people’s experience;
- organizational skills: ability to manage people, ability to organize himself and the team for the solution of problems: to identify and set priorities, to concentrate on the important matters, to plan, to supervise; ability to collect and direct effectively in the right direction the resources which are essential for the realization of plans; ability to conduct a rational conversation, telephone skills, to deal with business correspondence and documentation;
- time management: ability to conduct situation analysis; to define and formulate goals; to conduct annual, monthly, weekly, and daily planning; to know principles of time management; ability to place priorities; compliance with the company schedules and everyday plans; ability to control achievement of the set goals; to analyze the results of the day;
- work in a team: ability to build a team and work in it; to know characteristics of an effective team; ability to maintain a favourable atmosphere of cooperation, to comply with the rules of behavior and communication between team members, to make corrections to the undesirable behavior of team members; ability to hold effective discussions and problem-solving meetings; to know the rules of holding «brainstorming»;
- business communication skills: ability to persist in own opinion and rights without destroying relations; ability to inspire with new ideas and plans; ability to pose correct questions and to define the level of knowledge and emotional status of a partner; ability to establish channels of two-way communication, to concentrate on the words of an interlocutor; ability to encourage effectively and criticize other people;
- negotiation skills: ability to define the goal and objectives of a presentation, interests of an audience; ability to construct an effective introduction, binding phrases, the main part and concluding part of a presentation; to apply strategies of convincing and public speaking skills; ability to cope with difficult questions and make objections; to know technical aspects of a presentation (audio-video- and computer equipment, presentation programs); ability to define interests, to choose the best alternative; ability to conduct discussion in an ethical way; ability to discuss, offer and conduct bargains;
- orientation to a client: to know the policy and standards in the field of work with clients; orientation to current and perspective needs of clients and partners; ability to behave correctly with different types of "difficult" clients and partners, to present services emphasizing their advantages and benefits; ability to advise and build partnership relations with clients.
Thus, we consider professional-practical competence as a combination of general professional and professional knowledge, skills and general ways of professional actions essential for satisfactory compliance with standard requirements, solution of typical problem situations in a professional activity and providing professional mobility of a specialist. Including professional-practical block into the content of the model of developing language competence of future linguists is dictated by the increase of requirements to readiness of future specialists to professional work. The goal of the given block is to stimulate development of skills and practical application of knowledge in various situations, need in self-actualization and self-improvement. Objectives of the given block are:
- actualize practical application of knowledge and skills at work;
- develop students’ initiative and independence;
- create conditions for future professional communication.
The given block contains knowledge on linguistic professions, system of knowledge and cognitive skills of the profession-oriented activity which form an individual, ability to strategically correctly build foreign language communication by demonstrating flexibility and maneuverability in the course of realization objectives, special linguistic knowledge and skills essential for successful work in various spheres as a specialist with knowledge of a foreign language, ability to think systematically and understand the development of processes, ability to analyze, innovative skills, knowledge and abilities of systematic development, organizational skills, time management skills, teamwork skills, business communication skills, negotiating skills, customer work skills.
Thus, development of language competence of future linguists is a consciously organized and managed process of mastering and applying language (linguistic), socio-linguistic, intercultural and professional-practical competences of students as a result of the realized purposeful subject activity which will provide positive results of professional activity in the future and will lead to growth of professional mobility which is one of the goals of professional education.