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Shukurova Govhar Rza, student
Mammadova Khayala Mashallah , student
Baku State University, Azerbaijan
The article considers the conditions for the formation of floods and debris flows which regularly every year brings damage to the environment ,mainly agriculture Sheki region of Azerbaijan. The authors trying to decide the way of regulation of the river flow using digital mathematical - cartographic modeling river basin R. Kishchay, using geographic information system (MAPINFO 10 and geographic information systems SURFER 8.
Keywords: river basin, environment, agriculture, geographical information system, digital mathematical-cartographical modeling, powerful floods.
Sheki region, located in the southern part of the Great Caucasus, entails 4,500 km²area, and its territory is situated 600-3466 m above the sea level. The landscape of region involves fragmentedmountenious form, and its high mountain part consists of mostly steep cliffs,at the result of heavy rains steep rocks are easily broken down and they play an important role in the formation of floods.
Kish river emerged through the combination of mountainous rivers whichs flow from slopes of the mountains of Seyityurd, Ckhodurmaz, Saylakhan and Black-Khuzen. After flowing into Duluzdara river, these rivers combine to form the Kish river near the village of Kish. Length of Kish river is 33km and its catchment area is 265 km², the river basin has an average depth of 0.25 m, and its average of width is equal to 8 m. Kish River basin average height above sea level is 1184 m. Kish, where the river flows into the Damarchyn , the total length of river became equal to 149 km after adopting small arms here. 75 km²area is fragmented and bare areas of the basin, where the temperature in the basin have a large amplitude promotes intensive mechanical and physical degradation. 73 km² of the river basin is forested, and the area of river cone is110 km², this area is full of unused areas in modern times.
Related with the landscape of the city, since the expansion of northern section of the city is limited, it developes to the valley of Kish river because of the smooth part of the territory is historically settled, the private houses, recreation centers - "tour", "Morning Star", "come and see", creativity house of the cinematographiers and so on are functioning here. In the watershed of Kish river in Sheki, intensive development of high-risk areas by ignoring floods, the river-bed has narrowed very much during over last 20 years and the materials, which were brought by flood prevented the movement toward North along the river-bed and the flow distance of the materials, brought by flood has been reduced . Because of that reason, now in some places the river cone is located in altitude than other gutters of Shaki district and the probability of destruction of these areas by every expected flood increases year by year. The devastating floods, which happened in Kish river in 2002-2003 have proved it.
All development work can be implemented by taking into consideration of the floods and after taking strong safeguarding measures against them. We should not forget that, the flood, which happened in 1772, totally destroyed Shaki district. The other floods, which happened in the next years can be seen
in the following table:
The most powerful floods in the river Kish
Some features of flood
Destructive activities of flood
Flood has been in wavecase and it has continued for 4 hours. Its maximum height reached to 10,5 m and has taken away stones whichs’ weight ar more than 10 tones
A part of orchards in Shaki was destroyed
12 July 1915
Floodhastakenawaystoneswhichs’weightalmostreachedto 20 tones.
12 houses and 6 watermillsweredestroyed and theorchards, reachingto 10 hectar , werescattered.
15 August 1955-ci il
Floodhappened at night and flowpassedinform of 5 giantwaveswhichs’ speedhasbeen 2,5 m in a second
Dams , Shaki Hydroelectric Station’s major infrastructure and some buildings were destroyed. Flood flowed into some planting and garden areas and a part of Shaki- Zaqatala highway.
15 July 1988-ci il
Floodinghasgonethrough a terribleroar.
It destroyedplantings, highway and ironbridge and it costed 25 millionmanatsharm
29 June 2002
Floodoccured at midnight
Flood took away electric poles from the river-bed
24 May 2003
It happened between1405-1745
Numerious debris, waters upply of the city and channel has been temporarily disabled
0300-0700at night the flood passed from Kish river.
In the case, Sorcu,Balaratma,Gudula,Baltalibe came flooded areas, live stock have perished
9 August 2005
After heavy rains to Kish river, the flood occurred between 0320-0450oclocks
The drinkable water of Shaki city was disturbed
Although most of the measures of protection against floods have been carried out in Kish river, these studies have not yielded well. In 1993, according to one of the proposals, put forward by executive authority of Shaki district to Mr president H.Aliyev and asked for financial asset for implementation of deepening and other hydro-technical processes, and as a result 12 billion AZN has been appropriated for this purpose in 1995. As a result of done work, the constructed barriers have protected the river side of city from the dangerous impact of floods.
The state program for social-economic development of regions of Republic of Azerbaijan” (2004-2008 years), in the fields of melioration and water household, alluded the projects related with improvement of supply of water in the regions, improvement of meliorative conditions of the irrigated lands, protection of people and places from flood and watercourse, the reconstruction of melioration-irrigation systems and installations, assistance and financial support of development projects by state.
Among the projects , which components of UN-UN Industry and Development Organization, Asia Development Bank, World Bank support, exist city-village investment projects, environment of villages projects, improvement of irrigation systems projects and every year 15 or 20 million AZN has been appropriated for salvation of these problems.
We must regretfully mention that, implementation of the other made offerings are delayed and it increase the probability of the threat for Sheki which can overwhelm under the watercourse.
To protect the settlements, located in the coasts of Kish river, i recommend these, which shown below.
To prevent course of river from narrowing, and not to implement any construction work, where exists potential threat of flood, to clear or to move the materials from the cone of river, to protect city, start to afforest on the left coast of river and in the Marxal rest zone, to plant trees, which’s roots go so deep in the forest. To be protected from floods and watercourses, to construct stone barriers, the first guiding bank should be built 0,5 km above Marxal rest zone, to elide the flow of the water toward village, because in that place, village is located in altitude and it isnt dangerous. To build stone-beton barrier from the foreland of water and to elide the flow of water toward to course of river, to protect village, to build stone-beton barrier from the iron foreland of city bridge to elide the flow of water toward course of river, the footing of the bridge, which were built over the river should be in romb form, and the houses and rest zones, which locate in the riverbed of Kish river should be moved.
To solve the damage brought by the floods and debris flows in the basin of the river Kish Azerbaijan will create a GIS database using geographic information system (MAPINFO 10.Based on this database, we compiled a GIS map of the state water regime R. Kishchay. And to determine the damage brought mudslides and floods on agriculture Sheki us will be composed of digital mathematical - cartographic model of the basin R. Kishchay using the program SURFER 8.
1. M.A.Mamedov, F.A.Imanov Hydrography of the Azerbaijan Republic. Baku,2003 y.
2. Математические методы в географии (Ю.Р.Архипов, и др.).КазГУ,г.Казань,1971,
3. Набиев А.А. Компьютерная география: теория и методология //Всб.-«GLOBAL PROBLEMS OF THE STATE REPRODUCTION AND USE NATURAL RESOURCES OF THE PLANET EARTH:-Materials digest of the XXVIII international Scientific and practical Conference and the II stage of Championships in Research analytics in biological, veterinary and agricultural sciences, Earth sciences (London, July 13-18,2012), page 40-42.