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Ismailova Mansura Zafar, student
Makhankova Ulyana Rostislavovna, student
Mammadova Khayale Mashallah, student
Shukuroba Govkhar Rza, student
Baku State University, Azerbaijan
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Azerbaijan";
the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;
This article describe about problems of cities on the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic and on the territory of California state of USA. Also given people problems in both territory
Keywords: city problems, industrial centers, environmental, pollution, migration
Political, social and economic changes happening in the world in this modern period has a significant impact on the life and development of major cities.The cities have entered a new stage in their development associated with the transition to a market economy, changes in the nature of of production relations. This in turn has created new challenges. In recent years, there is a need to seek new ways to solve the problems of cities developed based on the objective laws formed for many years. There 77 cities in Azerbaijan Republic, majors of them are Baku, Sumgait, Ganja, Shaki, Nakhchivan, Baku, Shirvan, Ganja and Yevlakh. Major cities and industrial centers have poor conditions (air, water and soil pollution, high noise level etc.) for living there. The problems associated with the flow of the rural population to urban areas in search of work, disturbance caused by transportation, collection and disposal of wastes are the issues to be settled in large cities in these days. The main problems affecting to the development of the cities in Azerbaijan since independence are urbanization, unplanned and chaotic migration and the most important environmental problems. The expansion of urbanization considerably limits the provision of urban population with food products, creates compactness in the cities , it is also causes to the problem of traffic jams, increases noise and vibration. Of course, the biggest problem of the cities are environmental problems, that is contamination of the environment. These problems are more pronounced in Baku and Ganja cities. As well as environmental problems have become acute around Baku city, the capital of Azerbaijan associated with oil extraction. Such problems are observed in the cities of California. Especially in Los - Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, Sacramento and San Francisco, the largest cities in California. Aerospace industry, oil production and oil refining, information technology took the most important places in the economy of the cities. Thus, the area called Silicon Valley is located in the north part of the state. The main centers of the world's most advanced computer and IT companies located in the valley. These companies are Apple, Google, HP, Facebook, Intel, Cisco, eBay, Adobe, Oracle, Yahoo and many others. It is true that, although the accumulation of such large companies in this area causes to the development on the one hand, on the other hand, it creates a lot of problems.
Almost, environmental tension, environmental pollution, water shortages, traffic jams, in other words, the problems created by the urbanization associated with oil extraction observed in Baku city are also observed in Los Angeles city that, it also creates some difficulties in the development of cities. In May of this year (2014) oil more than 200 thousand liters flowed into the streets in the result of oil pipeline explosion in Los Angeles and the city was damaged as a result of environmental and material damage. These and similar problems cause to the occurrence of the problem in a few cities at the same time adversely affecting the development of cities.
The problem of traffic jams is one of the main problems that affect development of the cities of California as in major cities of Azerbaijan. However, a lot of measures have been taken and been taking to solve this problem both of cities in Azerbaijan and in California. Thus, overpasses and underpasses, tunnels and bridges were constructed in order to solve the problem of traffic jam. Nevertheless, it is impossible to completely eliminate this problem in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Baku and others having more population.
The problem of garbage is one of "the biggest problems" of large cities. The plastic packages pollute the environment more thrown in the costs into the Caspian Sea in Azerbaijan, the Pacific in California. California government signed law banning the use of plastic package in one state for the first time in USA to solve this problem. Issuance of goods in plastic packages will be prohibited since the next summer in all markets, in small markets pharmacies from 2016.
We reviewed main problems affecting the development of the cities and saw that, finding solutions to the problems of cities are very important issues. Therefore, I decided to work on this project.
1. «Constanta, urbanization and urban settements of azerbaijan», V.A.Afandiev, Baku-2004.