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Alizade Khanimbaji Ilgar, student
Gasimova Leyla Aliyar , student
Aliyeva Raziya Zafar, student
Garali Narmina Mahammad, student
Jabbarova Vusala Safar, student
Baku State University, Azerbaijan
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Azerbaijan";
the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;
This article describe problems of drinking water on the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic and on the territory of California state of USA with aim of decision of people request in both territory.
Keywords: drinking water, quality water, population, industrial, resource, settlements
The drinking water in Azerbaijan.The usage of the water per person was 2.241 m3 in 1990. It got down to 1.493 m3 in 1999. The usage of the water got down from 3.418 million m3 to 2.473 million m3 at the industry between 1990-1999. During this period, the useage of the water with the purpose of the farming got down from 8.627 million m3 to 3.697 million m3.
The quality of the water is lower at some regions of Azerbaijan. The population more than 80 % live at the residential areas that there isn’t the water and the sewerage system corresponding to standards, the vast majority of the population does not have the opportunity to benefit from high-quality water. The Kur and Araz rivers that meet the water need of the a significant portion of Azerbaijan are the contaminated condition with the waste materials appeared as a result of the industrialization, agricultural activities and urbanization in Azerbaijan.
16 billion m3 water is laid on water in Azerbaijan in every year, 1,1-1,2 billion m3 of this is being provided from the underground water resources.
Annual water consumption is 11-13 billion m3 and % 25-30 of this is being used at the industrial and daily consumption.
According to the different marks, generally the water recourses of Azerbaijan rivers is 28,1-30,3 km3. The flow from other countries to Azerbaijan is 19,7-20,3 km3 or 67-70%. In Azerbaijan 11-133 billion m3 is used that 50-70% of it is in the agriculture, 20-25% is in the industry, the remains are in the sector of the water supply. Less than 3 times from annual water recourse, the actual water consumption is 11,7 billion m3 in 2008. The interesting thing is that according to the information of Statistics Committee, 1/3 of the water losses without delivering to the consumer. 4 % of the water that is taken from the nature is used from the purposes of the drinking water and the welfare-drinking water. The lack of water is also explained without using from the available water resources rational. Even if the water industry, infrastructure of Baku is considered for 1,3-1,7 billion people, at the present the number of the residents of the capital increased 2 times. Other reason of the lack of water is the problems of the lack of the water reservoirs and management, including the financing for the protection of water resources. The lack of water is observed in Azerbaijan that this must be shown with the water supply in the area of 1 km2. The providing of the country area with local flow is 90-122 thousand m3/year.
Considering the flow entering from the foreign countries, the providing generally Azerbaijan with the water is 324-350 thousand m3/year. The fresh water resources is 0,90 km3 in the lakes of the country, the surface area of the lake's water is 394 km2. The volume of the water reservoirs of Azerbaijan is 21,4 km3, the working volume is 12,4 km3, the area of the water surface is 694 km2.
According to researches, our above ground water resources is 32,3 billion m3 average annual. During the drought (little waterly years) this indicator decreases till 23 billion m3. The average annual water resource per person over the country is 3800 m3. Azerbay has 11-12 underground drinking water resources. There is 23 764,28 billion m3/ day water resource in the underground drinking water resources. Azerbaijan falls behind from the South Caucasus states and Russia according to the above ground water resources in each m2 of the area and every individual of population. At given moment there goes the very quick pollution of the drinking water resources of Absheron. Today 30 m3/second water is given to Absheron that 20 m3/second of it is given to Baku. At the present, the drinking water need of Baku city is provided 55-60 % by Jeyranbatan lake.
In order to pay the water need of the population living along the Kur and Araz rivers to ecologically clean drinking water, according to the available Disposals of the President of Azerbaijan Republic, the module typed water purification plants are installed by the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources in 156 villages of 18 districts during 2007-2010 years and the population than 300 thousand living at these villages are also provided the drinking water. The number and scope of these installations are considered to expand in future.
There are performed the different projects related with installing the water-treatment plants in Azerbaijan. The credit and project agreements of I “Protect of national water supply and sanitation services” funded by Azerbaijan Government and World Bank were signed. The purpose of the project is to be provided the safety, reliable and resistant water and sanitation services at 22 cities and districts (Aghstafa, Bilasuvar, Goranboy, Gabala, Guba, Saatli, Oghuz, Goygol, Tovuz, Zaqatala, Hajigabul, Gazakh, Gakh, Mingachevir, Samukh, Shamkir, Tar-tar, Shamakhi, Khirdalan and Sharur and Babak districts of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic including) and the surrounding villages more than 75 of Azerbaijan.
Reconstruction of water supply, water treatment and distribution is considered at the regional centers and also the village located alonf the magistral water pipes. Within the project, as a result of being implemented the complex events, it is considered to provide the more population of our republic that 700 thousand with water supply and sanitation services.
At the same time, within II “Protect of national water supply and sanitation services” the negotiations about financing the water supply and sewerage systems was completed at else 21 cities and regional centers (Davachi, Dashkasan, Gadabay, Imishli, Kurdamir, Siyazan, Aghsu, Ismayilli, Ucar, Zardab, Lankaran, Masalli, Astara, Jalilabad, Yardimli, Lerik and Julfa, Kangarli, Shahbuz, Ordubad and Sadarak districts of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic) and the surrounding villages between Azerbaijan Republic and World Bank. In 2008, in the country, for improving the water supply and sewerage system there was installed 252,2 km long 252,2 km water line and 85,4 km long sewage collector.
The reconstruction of water supply and sewage systems is considered to be financed by Azerbaijan Government and Japan International Cooperation Bank in 10 regional centers of our republic within “Project of water supply at small cities of Azerbaijan Republic”. It should note that this project is an integral part of the state program over the social-economic development of the regions. The main purpose of the project is to provide the quality, reliability and durability of the water and sewage services Shirvan, Barda, Salyan, Khachmaz, Yevlakh, Khizi, Gusar, Gobustan, Naftalan regional centers.
The drinking water in California. The limited water supply of California comes from two main sources: surface water and water collected in the lower layers of the earth. The ground water is a critical element of California. During normal year, 30% of water supply of the state comes from the ground water. At the hard times of the drought, the consumption of the ground water may increase to 60 %. The greatest ground water reservoir are founded at the Central plains. However, the surface of California has the rules and quality governing the water usage, there doesn’t exit the ground water governing the rules within any staff.
California has ten main reservoirs determined for the comfort of the water management. These reservoirs is divided by the mountains from each other. The reservoirs from North to South: Northern Coast, Sacramento River Northern Lohantan, San Francisco Gulf San Choakin River, Central Coast, Southern Lohantan, Southern Coast and Colorado river. The rain falls much at May-October months in California. The summer month passes the drought. The ecological water usage is 40 %, the agricultural water usage is 10 %, the urban water usage is approximately is 50%. 75% of water supply of California is given by the north of Sacramento. During 2014 years, the water portion (share) of California given to the environment was very high because the meters wasn’t accommodated to show the reduced denominator proportionately. The Division (Sector) of Water Quality of the State Water Administration develops the plans of the water protection within staff and installs the water quality standards as the Policy of Gulfs and Posts of Colifornia. The Division has two fields: surface and ground water. The water surface area focus on the regulatory of the control water. Everbody has right to clean the water. The concept of the clean water in California is to ensure to the safety of the public drinking water.
3.Национальная Энциклопедия Азербайджана (на Азербайджанском языке).Баку-2010 г.