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Gasanaliyev Alekper Alish, associate professor
Mammadova Ulker Vidadi, student
Akhundova Firengiz Elshan , student
Abbasaliyeva Nurane Elfag, student
Baku State University, Azerbaijan
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Azerbaijan";
the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;
This Article describe problems of climate condition,problems of rivers and lakes on the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic and on the territory of California state of USA.
Keywords: climate, rivers, lakes, rainfalls, snow, temperature,tourism
Comparative analysis of climates in California and Azerbaijan
A large part of the territory is in the Mediterranean climate zone, wet winter and dry summer are observed. The climate type of Azerbaijan is more colorful, changes with subtropical type. Geographical location, relief, and the Caspian Sea mainly impact to the climate of Azerbaijan. Impact of the ocean prevents sharp decrease of temperature in California. Provides a basis for cool summer and moderate winter. Continentalit is increased on the inland part of area. There are acute temperature changes in winter and summer. Westerly winds from the ocean are observed with rains. There is much rain in the north of area than the south. Rains impacts most commonly to its climate and they prevent enter of the rains from the ocean to the inland of area.
The north-western part of California has a sharp, dry climate, common amount of the rainfalls is 38-100 mm per year. Mediterranean climate prevails on the plain of California. However, there is a sharp variation in temperature.
The mountain climate is typical for mountainous areas of California. Snowy winter and hot summer. There are desert regions from mountainous hills to the east. Generally, features of mountainous climate: low atmospheric pressure, high-intensity solar radiation, air cleaning (except for the depressions between the mountain), low temperature and high air humidity, precipitation, depending on the height of the mountain - valley winds. High mountainous climate is formed on 2000-3000 meters.
Sacramento city- is located on the valley of Sacramento river. Sacramento is located in Sierra-Nevada mountain slopes, Mediterranean climate. There is moderate, rainy winter and dry hot summer.
Heavy fog is observed in winter and early spring. İt is considered one of most sunny towns in USA from June up to September. Despite intense heat during summer afternoons, the weather is always cold. Sometimes it snows 1-2 times per year. Nakhchivan city of Azerbaijan may be comparised with Sacramento city for its some climate features. Mountainous landscape affects to the climate of Nakhchivan city. Sunny days are mostly observed here. As there is continentality in the climate both annual and daily temperature amplitude is great.
San Jose - is located in the west of the State. The climate of San Jose is one of the best types of northern California. The city is located a little ajar from Pacific, therefore impact of cold Pacific stream is weak. Due to this positive difference, the temperature between San Fransisco and San Jose is 5-10 in summer and 10-15 degree in winter. Number of sunny days observed during year is 320. The weather is warm in San Jose. It is less dangerous than San Fransisco. The least rainfall is observed during the summer (May-September). There are similar climate features when comparising San Jose with Shrivan city of Azerbaijan. Shirvan city is located ajar from Caspian like Baku. Thus, its climate is more favorable than in
Baku. There are the less windy days.
San-Fransisco- The word produced on behalf of Mark Twain are wrong. "The coldest winter I ever lived was the summer in San Fransisco". The climate of San Fransisco is similar with the Mediterranean climate. San Fransisco is surrounded by the water from 3 sides like Baku. Therefore, cold Pacific stream impacts its climate. The average annual temperature is 18 degrees, it is 10 degrees below the Livermore. Livermore is a little city in the continental interior. The highest temperature recorded was 39 degrees on July 14, 2000. The average monthly temperature is 18.2 degrees C in September, it is colder than July of Moscow. San Francisco is on the south than Baku according to the latitude, but is on the same latitude with Ashgabat. The average daily temperature is 16 degrees from the beginning of May until the end of October. Daily temperature of 15 degrees in winter. The lowest temperature was recorded on December 11, 1932 (- 3 degrees). The season is dry from May up to September. Rainfall season starts in November and lasts until March. Beginning from 1852, only 10 times snow was recorded there. The heavy are heavy foggy days from the end of summer until beginning of autumn.
Positive temperature record of the weather belongs to the Death valley in the California State of Usa, not to Al Aziziyah city of Libya. Experts from the UN's World Meteorological Organization have come to this conclusion. Now the status of the world's hottest place was given to the Death valley. Thus, the record temperature of the weather was recorded positive 56.7 degrees in the "Greenland" ranchos area on July 10, 1923. Death Valley is located in the desert of Mojave and is considered to be the hottest place on the planet. The average temperature reaches 25 degrees here. Death Valley is also known for Beduoter trough located 86 meters below sea level.
The deepest place of surface is here in North America.
In addition, the highest place of continental United States 136 km away, at an altitude of 4421 meters above sea level, Whitney mountain rises to the heavens. The lowest air temperature of -45 ° C was observed in the high mountains of Azerbaijan Republic. This is considered absolute minimum. - 32 ° C was recorded in Aras River valley. The absolute maximum of + 44 ° C was recorded in Julfa.
The coldest climate of California territory was observed on Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains. Moderate - warm climate, rainfall is equally distributed throughout the year covers low mountains and foothills zones of Talysh Mountains, the south and the north-east of the Greater Caucasus in Azerbaijan. It rains throughout the year. Most of the precipitation falls in Lankaran, 2000mm.
Comparison of the rivers of Azerbaijan and California
Hydrographically the Republic of Azerbaijan belongs to the Caspian Sea basin. The hydrographic network of the Republic (rivers, lakes) formed over a long geological period and has undergone significant changes since that time.At present remains of several ancient river valleys found in the territory of the country proves this. Presently the hydrographic network is changing in the result of natural factors and economic activities of the people. Artificial watercourses (canals) and water reservoirs are also attributed to the hydrographic network. The State of California belongs to the Pacific Ocean basin hydrographically. In contrast to the Republic of Azerbaijan, the rivers of the State of California belong to the open basin, namely to the basin of Pacific ocean. As in the Republic of Azerbaijan hydrographic network of the State of California formed over a long geological period and has considerably undergone significant changes since that time. As in the Republic of Azerbaijan, the rivers of the State of California network are changing in the result of natural factors and economic activities of the people. Presently, the rivers of the State of California act as part of two large water projects. The Project of Central Plains - the main objective of this project is to supply the agriculture with plenty of water. For this purpose, the direction of rivers flowing to the north is diverted to the south by changing their direction in the State of California. The second project is provision of every territory with the water in the State of California. There are nearly 8400 rivers in Azerbaijan. The number of rivers having the length more than 5 km is 190. The length of the 21 rivers is more than 100 km. Only two rivers have the length more than 500 km. Rivers mainly are formed in the mountains. They come together in the plain or directly flow to the Caspian sea. All rivers of Azerbaijan belong to closed standing Caspian basin. The average annual water flow of rivers nearly is 31 cm3 and 2/3 of them are formed in neighboring countries. The average annual water flow of rivers nearly is 31 cm3 and 2/3 of them are formed in neighboring countries. Increase of drought in climate leads to the decrease of density of the river network to the plains on Greater and Lesser Caucasus. The densest river network is observed on the middle upland, but the least dense of river network is in plains. California has large and small, not very dense river network. California has large and small, not very dense river network. The rivers take their beginning from high mountainous area and flow to the basin of Pacific ocean in direct or indirect ways. Two largest rivers, Sacramento and San Joaquin are in California. A few major rivers with plenty of water flow to Sacramento and San Joaquin. Pit and Feather rivers are example of such rivers.
The length of the Kur river is 1515 km, begins from Gizilgadik mountain (2740 m) of Turkey, enters Azerbaijan passing through Georgia. The length of Kur is 906 km in Azerbaijan, flow into Caspian sea in Neftchala region. Kur river has plenty of water during end of the spring and beginning of the summer, when intensive melt of snow as it is fed by snow waters. The level of the river is maximum in April and minimum in September. The right branches of Kur are Shamkirchay, Ganjachay, Zayamchay, Khachin chay, Tartar and etc. whic starts from the Lesser Caucasus, lefts branches are Ganikh, Gabirri, Turyanchay, Alijanchay and etc, which starts from the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus. There are Mingechaur, Yenikend, Shamkir, and Varvara water reservoirs on the Kur. The creation of these reservoirs caused to the increase in the level of ground water, considerable part of tugai forests and lands remain under water. Kur is the only river navigation path of Azerbaijan. The ships here floating from the mouth of Kur to Yevlakh city. As the river flows by meander turnings on Kur-Aras lowland, some turnings in the bed of the river was adjusted by fencing off in order to facilitate the movement of ships. "Closed lakes" of Kur, Aghgol, Hajigabul, Sarisu and Mehman formed in this meander. Kur has not any branch from Sabirabad city to its outfall. Kur river is used with the aim of fishing, transportation, irrigation and hydropower. Long-term water consumption of Kur is 485m3/s.
San Joaquin river
San Joaquin River is considered the largest river in Central California. Having 585 km (366 miles) length, this river reaches to Suisun Golfs, San-Fransisco Gulfs and Pacific Ocean, high Sierra Nevada. Rich agriculture, previously known as Joaquin Valley passed through the region. The dam was built on this river and its direction was changed as it has been widely using for irrigation. The outfall of the river is located on Ansel Adams steppe, from the combination of three main resources to south west Sierra Nevada. The river comes out from the foothills by crossing through four hydroelectric water reservoirs along its flow. After this, Friant water reservoir in Millerton city was built on it. It crosses from Friant water reservoir to down, San Joaquin Valley from the south part of Great Central plains and flows in the direction of west, southern west. Snow and rain water is major feeding of the river. It is known that, California belongs to the climate type of Mediterranean. For this reason, the river becomes much tumultuous in winter, spring and in the beginning of the summer. Annual flow of the river is 145 m3/s.
It comes to such conclusion with regard to the similarities and differences between both rivers above mentioned. Both rivers are large rivers of the area where they cross. Both rivers start from high mountainous area. There is a distinctive feature in feeding. Thus, snow waters are major feeding of Kur river, but the major feeding of San Joaquin is snow, rain waters. Cascade water reservoirs were built on both rivers. These water reservoirs are widely used in regulation of river water, electric power. As there are severe floods occur the dams were built on both rivers. In addition, canals were built from both rivers in the aim of irrigation. In contrast to the Kur River, San Joaquin river is more useful for navigation and used much more.
Aras river joins to Kur river in Sugovushan village of Sabirabad region, starting from Bingol range of mountains (2990 m) of Turkey, passing by Armenia and Iran border. The length of Aras river is 1072 km, basin area is 182 sq. km and its water is turbid. In contrast to Kur river, is fed by underground waters (46%). Level of water is maximum in summer and minimum in winter. Arpachay, Ordubadchay, Nakhchivanchay, Gilanchay and Alinjachay in Nakhchivan; Hakari, Okhchuchay and Bargushad in Karabakh volcanic plateau are major rivers flowing into Aras river. Bahramtepe, Mil-Mughan and Aras water junction was established- on Aras river. Bash Mughan, Bash Mil and Azizbayov canals were built from Aras river to irrigate Kur-Aras lowland.
Sacramento River is major river of Northern California in the United States. It starts from Klamath mountains. It flows into San Fransisco Gulf in the length of 445 miles (716 km) flowing southward. Waters of Sacramento rises on volcanic plateaus and ranges - The Upper Sacramento and Pit- of northern California as two flows. Major river rises in the shadow of Shasta mountains and flows to the south from Klamath, former shast mountains, through Dunsmuir and Lakehead. However, the largest branch of the river is Pit River (315 miles), flowing through Modoc Plateu, formed by south-west flows. Water reservoirs change the ambiance of the south in Scaramento foothills and adjacent Redding mountains play a major role in the flow of the river. Very small and moderate-sized tributaries join the river entering from both of east and west. As the river flows on the Central plains, large part of its flow becomes a few irrigation canals in Red Bluff. Twenty-five miles (40 km) south-east of Fremont Landing close to Colus, flow of its largest tributary - Feather river joins to it on the north-east of the Sierra Nevada. It flows to the approximately 10 miles (16 km) downstream, to the cities of California and joins to American river, its second largest tributary. Here river is separated into two: major and artificial- Sacramento Deep (Deep water) Ship Canal. Both waterways continue from the lowlands.
Construction of water reservoirs, power stations and canals required huge workforce, the government allowed water reservoirs of Sacramento River and other structures such as public works projects. Construction of Shasta water reservoir was began in 1938 and was completed in 1945. Shasta is the largest water reservoir on Sacramento river. Water reservoirs were consistently built on Sacramento river and its tributaries to prevent huge floods and droughts; Pit, Feather and American. Folsom, Oroville and etc. water reservoirs.
In comparison of Aras and Sacramento rivers, both rivers are considered large rivers in the area where they flow. There are differences in feeding features. Thus, source of feeding for Aras river is underground waters, but source of feeding for Sacramento is rain and snow waters. Maximum level in Aras river becomes in the spring months, minimum level in the summer months. Level of Sacramento is maximum in winter months, minimum in autumn months. Both of rivers have a few tributaries in the left and right. A number of water reservoirs were built on both of rivers. Moreover, both rivers are widely used in the agriculture and a few canals were built from both of rivers. In contrast to the river Aras, Sacramento river is widely used for navigation. In general, rivers of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the State of California have been exposed to contamination by the domestic and industrial wastes. It was found from the comparative analysis that, rivers of both regions have similar features and problems. We imply solution of the problems existing in our future investigations.
LAKES IN AZERBAIJAN AND CALIFORNIA.
Most of the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan is situated in subtropical climate zone, but the north-east of Great Caucasus Mountains is situated in the temperate climate zone. The Great Caucasus Mountains prevent the cold air masses coming from the north, the Lesser Caucasus Mountains prevent hot dry tropical air currents from the south, weaken their impact .
A large part of its territory is in the Mediterranean climate of the subtropical climate zone and cool, rainy winter months and dry summer months are specific for here. Cool California current running on the costs of ocean causes to the formation of fog in the cost areas during summer months. İn inland areas the weather becomes warmer in summer months and gets colder during winter months. North part of California is more humid than its south part. There is temperate climate in the North West of California. Highlands of the state are covered with snow during the winter, but there is temperate climate here during summer months.
Number of lakes in Azerbaijan reaches to 250. The lakes are basically divided into 3 groups: 1. Kur-Araz lowland lakes 2. Mountain lakes 3. Absheron lakes.
The lakes of Kur-Araz lowland are closed lakes, for example: Aghgol, Mehman, Sarisu, Hajigabul and etc. The largest lake is Sarisu.
There are about 150 lakes in Absheron, its common area is 50km2. The lakes are very small.
The largest lakes here are Bayuk Shor, Masazir, Binagadi, Kurdakhani, Khoja-Hasan and etc. There are several lagoon lakes in the coast of Caspian sea: Aghzibirchala, Olkhovka and etc.
The lakes in Absheron are more polluted, thus wastewater from sewages flows into the lakes
The lakes formed on the mountains are volcanic and glacier origin lakes. These lakes are freshwater. Volcanic original lakes are in the Karabakh volcanic plateau, most of glacier origin lakes are formed on the highest peaks of the Caucasus Mountains.
There are many lakes in California. These lakes are useful for boat rides, water skiing, fishing. They are mainly located in the Central plains of California. The lakes are in the northern part of the state. Most of the lakes in High Sierra are formed from Cascades and Kalmaths glaciers. The volcanic activity caused to the formation of some lakes. Lakes in such areas are formed in volcanic craters and calderas, Medicine lake was formed on the east of the huge Cascade mountains. Famous Tahoe lake stretches between Sierra and the Carson ranges. The most largest lake of California is Clear lake, has topographical depression are exposed to the lava flows. Freshwater lakes are mainly found on the coasts of California.
Sometimes most dry lakes can be found in the Death valley, the hottest and driest place of California. The lakes in Klamath basin and Central plains have better appearance during the spring than the autumn. California lakes are famous everywhere as recreation area, especially quiet and frequently changing backgrounds. The main industry in California lakes is fishing, salmon and others are angled in the rich waters of Tahone lake.
Lakes in Azerbaijan are not rich for their biological resources. California Economic Cooperation Organization undertakes protection of biological resources of the lakes. The famous mono lake of California is located in 13 miles of Yosemit National park and is distinguished for its million old age. Tahoe lake was formed 2 mln years ago, it is the second deepest lake in USA and tenth in the world. Honey lake is shallow and alkaline lake located in the desert of Great Basin.
There are Shasta Cascade region, the island of miracles in the far northern California. The region covers 25% of California and is famous for its lakes.
There is Shasta lake, this lake is much famous. Floating with yachts was organized on the lake.
Though lakes in Azerbaijan are not so large, they have wide economic and environmental importance. Freshwater of Goygol has a great importance in supply of Ganja city with drinking water, lakes of medium and high mountain zones in the irrigation of livestocks during the summer, Lowland lakes, especially lakes in the Kura-Araz lowlands and Caspian littoral lowlands have an important role for ecological shelter. Many species of birds have taken shelter in these lakes, increasing and hatching here.
The role of the lakes in the water industry of Azerbaijan is not so too much. But it is possible to create fish farms from some lakes. Only Hajigabul lake is used for this purpose. Lowlands, mountain lakes and their surroundings should be given the statuses of nature reserves or protected areas. Main lake regions of California: Bay Area- In this region Cast Trail Lakes, Point Reyes, National Seashore - in this area is known as Bass lake, Pelican, Crystal,Ocean, Wildcat lake.
Five lakes organizes the list of Coast Trail Lakes: Bass lake, Pelcan lake , Kristal, Okean lake and Wilcat lake. Kelly lake region - Kelly lake is pacific lake located in the Monteref golf area of California. The lake is situated between Santa-Cruz and Monterey cities. The excursions such as boat rides, water skiing, fishing and etc. are organized on the lake.
Las Vaqueros Reservoir – lake is located in this region.
Central Coast region - Cachuma lake and Nacmiento Lake are located here.
There are the Central Plains regions, Desert Region, Gold Country region, High Sierra Inland Empire, Los Angeles County, the North Coast, San Diego County, Shasta Cascade.
In Azerbaijan, the lakes are divided for their origin into: 1. Tectonic lakes - Ajinohur
2. Volcanic-Lesser Caucasus (Ishigli, Karagol, Gizilboghaz, etc.).
3. Volcanic dam lakes (Large and small Ala lakes, Perichingili, Zalkhagolu and etc)
4. Avalanche lakes - goygol, Maralgol and others.
5. Glacial lakes - Murovdag, Sahdag and etc.
6. Landslip lakes - Girdimanchay, Valvalachay, Gilgilchay, Atachay etc.
7. Lagoon lakes – Aghzibirchala
8. Bed-flood (closed lakes of Kur-Araz lowland- Sarisu, Aghgol etc)
As climate features of Azerbaijan and California are similar, feeding of the lakes are also similar here. Feeding of the lakes is connected with regime of the rivers flowing into them - if the lake is open, it is connected with flowing of rivers related to the melt of snow during summer. Snow waters are much in spring. Rain waters are arranged the feeding of the closed lakes.
There are ecological problems of lakes in Azerbaijan like California. This problem is flow of wastewater by sewage and rivers to the lakes. This event is come across mostly in the lakes of Absheron. The reasons of this are industry, oil spills and so on. In contrast to this, protection of lakes is paid special attention according to the resolution of the state in California. Thus, recreation area is established, preserves are organized around the lake, special measures have been carried out to avoid the wastes. Most importantly, the state collaborates with a number of organizations in this direction.
The lakes in California are mainly used for industrial, energy, housing and communal areas, partially for the agriculture. Freshwater lakes are used in the agriculture in Azerbaijan.
When comparising the lakes of Azerbaijan and California, we can give example of Caspian and Salton lakes.
Caspian sea is the largest lake in the world. The length of coastline of the Caspian is 6500-6700kms. It is bordered with 5 countries. Azerbaijan Republic from the west- 825km, Kazakhstan- 2320, Iran IR- 900, RF- 695, Turkmenistan- 1200km. The length of Caspian is 1200km, the average width is 310km. Caspian sea is 27,3m low than the World Ocean. Surface area is 392600 km2, the largest river flowing into Caspian sea is Volga. The Caspian sea has much tense environmental situation. The main reason of tense is pollution of the water with oil wastes when oil and gas is produced, sea transportation and etc.
Rivers flowing into Caspian sea enrich here with organic substances, biogenic elements.
A lot of special materials and chemical rentgens having toxicity in different degrees, much volume of water are used during drilling process, technological wastes are generated, all of these adversely affect to the the flora and fauna of the Caspian Sea. It is not rich for flora and fauna. But there are types that, are distinguished from other areas. Nevertheless, there are beluga, sturgeon, longnosed fish, herring, salmon, ziyad, gulme, cheki.
The area covered by the Salton lake, the largest lake in California, Sonora Desert, California is located in the south-east. The average surface water is 1360 km2. The lake was created in 1905, but it actually is now saline.
The largest lake is Salton in California, is located in sonor desert, sout-east of California. The average surface water is 1360 km2. The lake was created in 1905, but now is salty. It covers an area of 376 square miles in the south-east of the country, is shallow. surface of the lake is 228m lower than sea level, it is located 5 m upper than Death valley, the lowest point of the area. Surrounded by desert landscape, Salton was very useful for fishermen. With the increase in the salinity of the lake caused fish (molluscs, paltus, bonefish, salmon, etc.) to die. However, some fish survived (croaker, sargo, orange, etc). Many resorts, water skiing, boatman, yachts, etc. were developed on the coast. The salt in the Salton lake is much more than Pacific, therefore decreasing the area of lake was planned.
3.Национальная Энциклопедия Азербайджана (на Азербайджанском языке).Баку-2010 г.