- About project
- Results and Awards
- Affiliate Programs
- International services
Yusbashova Nurane Shahverdi, lecturer
Suleymanova Aliya Fikret, student
Gasimova Leyla Aliyar, student
Baku State University, Azerbaijan
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Azerbaijan";
the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;
The article describe environmental problems of soil covers and using its in agriculture. Authors also describe questions of innovation develop agriculture economy in both territory.
Keywords: environmental, soil cover, agriculture, land, irrigation,innovation,economy.
1.Similar soil environmental problems and their solutions of the USA State of California and the Republic of Azerbaijan
The deterioration of soil ecology as a result of a variety of natural and anthropogenic factors bears the potential for serious problems. For many years, in Azerbaijan extensive development of agro-industrial complex, low level of agricultural culture and the burden of obligations of the government's plans for a couple of years has caused salinity, erosion, chemical contamination in our lands under the influence of negative processes such as compaction layer sowing land degradation of large areas (soil biological and economic productivity loss) One of the reasons for the degradation of the soil in Azerbaijan is the country's limited water resources. As well as one of the factors contributing to land degradation is the brutal destruction of forests. The main causes of soil erosion in the sloping hillside areas is related to the failure of properly organization of the land use and unregulated pasturing of cattle in summer pastures and grazing areas around the village without taking into account the characteristics of the risk of erosion and land-relief. Agro-technical rules that applied to mountainous and foothills regions did not differ from those in any way set forth to the lowland zone. At the same time unsystematic destruction of the forests on the mountain slopes and failure to implement of forest -amelioration measures envisaged in the area even more made difficult situation. The soil salinization, incorrect normalization of irrigation , unsystematic arrangement, as a result of the construction of water basins and water reservoirs without taking into account the characteristics of the land-meliorative area occurs because of rising of groundwater levels. On the other hand, the failure of irrigation canals and drainage systems can be considered as main reasons for salinization. The last 30-40 years the poor condition existing in the irrigation system of Azerbaijan as well as failure to carry out of restoration work and uncontrollability reigning in this field in addition to being cause for repeated salinization, unimplementation of food safety program in the country by creating major obstacles have damaged our economy in amounts of millions. One of the most frightening processes and which is characteristic for Azerbaijan is one of the main reasons of the desertification process because 60% of the country's territory consist from arid climate condition. On the other hand, the human-intensive economic activity has accelerated this process. there is a serious contamination in the environment as well as it leads to an increase of environmental problems. There is a serious contamination in the environment as well as it leads to an increase of environmental problems as a result of physical and chemical contamination of soil. The physical pollution mainly represents alien objects thrown to the ground. In other words during volcanic eruptions and strong winds the land pollution is happened with the neutral way.The solid substances thrown to the soil, waste and so on in industrial facilities, residential areas and their surroundings in mining facilities are considered the main sources of pollution. The above-mentioned sources of these pollution are enough in Azerbaijan too. The Chemical pollution is accompanied by the thrown to the ground of salts, acids, carbohydrates and so on. with natural and artificial methods. Providing a range of organic and mineral fertilizers on soil, inhibits the activity of a number of bacteria, as well as in some cases completely destroy them. Furthermore in the deprived areas of vegetation nitrogen substances existing in the soil filtered down to the soil layers. During the mentioned filtration process nitrogenous compounds mixes to groundwater. Thus, the use of fertilizers in addition to the positive effect creates environmental problems. There are many negative effects of pesticides imposed on the chemical pollution of soils against agricultural pests. All of the aforesaid lead to the conclusion that the way out of the situation depends on serious attitude of the State to these issues. As a result of several factors in California ecology of soil is damaged. As one of the main reasons for this is the development of the industry in California. California ranks the first place in the country's industrial production. The 45% area of California is covered by forests. For a state with a relatively dry climate, this figure is quite high. But deforestation is typical for this area too. This is in turn enhances the degradation of land as well as degradation accelerates the development of agriculture and cattle breeding. Land area more exposed to anthropogenic impact is the Pacific Ocean coast of the State. Here more densely settled populations. The physical and chemical pollution is dominated in this area where San-san megalopolis located. The process of desertification mainly spread in the south-eastern part of the state. It can be shown as the reason for this, existing drier climate in these areas as well as economic activity is intense. After the analysis of nature and economy of both areas their similar environmental problems on land cover can be stated as follows:
1) The soil salinization in the plain of San Joaquin and Sacramento of California and Kur-Araz lowlands of Azerbaijan.
2) The intensity of soil erosion and landslides in foothill zones of California and Azerbaijan.
3) The desertification process as a result of intensive economic activities and having a dry climate of both areas.
4) The soil pollution with regard to oil production in the coastal areas of California and Azerbaijan.
It should be noted that, contaminated soils remains as a problem for today. Thus , Oil and gas industry occupy an important place in the production of energy of California and Azerbaijan. This in turn causes of soil pollution by oil. However, in order to reduce this pollution California taking serious steps. The most important of these is the production of alternative energy. California ranks first place in the country for the production of alternative energy. Geothermal, solar and wind energy concern to Alternative energy sources. To date solar panels were installed in California with the production capacity of 755 MW. According to the calculations of the energy consumed in the state in 2020, 1/3 will be the energy from alternative energy sources. As a result of the realization of this plan, the states of California could become one of the cleanest environment. This experience of California can be used in our country too, because the annual number of sunny hours in Azerbaijan varies between 1800 -2000 hours and it also allows the use of solar energy. In order to prevent environmental problems mentioned above, the following solutions are used in both countries:
1) Using from drainage and collector network for the treatment of lands from salts of Kur-Araz lowland and Great Valley
2) For land irrigation bringing fresh water from the neighboring river basin (from Colorado river to Mohavi desert, from the river Samur to Baku etc.)
3) In order to increase the productivity of land rotational availability economic system (with this system in California 2, sometimes 3 and in Azerbaijan can be taken product in a 2 times) But all this is not enough to solve the problems, therefore, to solve the problems of all the California scientists, teachers and students of the scientists, teachers and students need to work together. I have conducted several studies in this area. I'm the author of these works are described.
Comparative analysis of agriculture on the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic and California state of USA
In California, dominated by large highly specialized farms, leading intensive farming on irrigated land, and is closely related to the agribusiness corporations.
Widely used farm labor hired seasonal workers, including illegal immigrants from Mexico.The main agricultural zone is the Great Central Valley, irrigated by the waters of the rivers of the Sacramento, San Joaquin and its tributaries On farms, California wheat, rice, corn, sugar beets, tomatoes, peppers, carrots, celery, onions, garlic, lettuce, cauliflower, broccoli, asparagus, mushrooms, strawberries, grapes, apricots, peaches, plums, dates, figs, kiwi, nectarines, olives, walnuts, pistachios, avocados, lemons, melons, flowers.
In Azerbaijan, nearly half of the arable land is concentrated in the country's breadbasket - Kur-Araz lowland. 70% of river water in Azerbaijan is used for irrigation in the Kura-Araz lowland. And 90% of all agricultural production rests on irrigated agriculture. Here in the Central Valley are well developed horticulture, viticulture and horticulture, concentrated the main crops of cotton, sugar beet and rice.
Azerbaijani agriculture specializes mainly on viticulture, horticulture, tobacco, vegetable, main industrial crops - cotton, tobacco, tea, saffron, henna.
Another important agricultural area is the Los Angeles-based lowland irrigated mainly by groundwater. It developed the cultivation of citrus fruits, grapes, tomatoes and lettuce.
In the southern part of Azerbaijan to other important agricultural area is Lankaran lowland. For this area is characterized by tea plantations, rice fields, orchards; development of vegetable production, as well as growing tsitrusovyh ya
Thirds of agricultural habitat is arid Imperial Valley irrigated by waters of the Colorado River. This is an important producer of early vegetables, cotton.
Kur-Araz lowland is also an arid valley, irrigated by the waters of the Kura and Araz rivers. Here are grown pomegranates, tangerines, persimmons, cherries, pineapple guava, cotton.
Viticulture - the most advanced, profitable and labor-intensive industries. Grapes grown as irrigated (60%) and rainfed (40%). Grown varieties (over 250) are technical, dining and seedless (sultanas). I place for growing grapes takes Ganja-gas (Shamkir, Tovuz, Samux), II place - Kur-Araksinksy area (Beilagan and southeastern foothills of the Lesser Caucasus, Fizuli, Jabrail, Zangilan), III place - Shemaha and Nakhchivan.
Gardening is a specialized field.
Seed fruit (apple) are grown mainly in Guba-Khachmaz, Sheki-Zagatala, mountain
Shirvan, sound - (walnut, walnut, chestnut) - Sheki, Zagatala, stone fruits (apricot,
peach, plum) - in Nakhchivan, dry subtropical (pomegranate, quince) - In the Kura-Arksinskoy Plain, Southern (pistachio, almonds, figs, olives) - in Absheron, citrus (lemon, orange, mandarin, feyhua) - in Lankaran-Astara, mulberry - Aran zone and Upper Karabakh.
An important and profitable branch of the US economy is viticulture. The total area under the crop of grapes is 235 thous. Ha, of which more than 181 thousand. Ha accounted for California. However, about 100 thousand. Ha of seedless raisin-varieties, about 5.0 thousand. Ha - wine and 32 th. Ha - table varieties.
Gross harvest of table grapes make 500- 550 thousand. T. Each year in the US prepared in 2300 th. tons of raisins and sultanas, and 450-500 million. liter of wine; one more than 18 million. l prepared in Kalifornii.Shtat California for the production of seedless raisin-products ranked first in the world, and the dues of table grapes - fourth place. The culture of grapes in the state grafted onto rootstocks of survived phylloxera.
The whole territory of the State of California divided by zones of grape: North Coast, South Coast. Central Valley, Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley, the hot desert. In the Central Valley are grown primarily for the production of variety of Tokaj dessert wines and raisins to dry under the name "Golden bleached." Upstate by the Sacramento Valley wine varieties are grown. At San Joaquin Valley accounts for a significant share of world production of dried grapes. Here grow famous brand currants. Table grapes are grown along the eastern edge of the valley from Fresno to Arvin. The most common varieties are the Cardinal, Emperor, Ribe, Sultana white oval and others.
Improvement, in particular, irrigation plays an important role in food production and ensuring their population.
According to official statistics, the country has 4.35 million hectares of land suitable for agricultural activities. Of this amount, 3.2 million hectares suitable for irrigation. At present, irrigated only 1,426,000 hectares of arable land, and 90 percent of gross output accounted for irrigated land. . As reported out of "Irrigation and Water Management", 610 thousand hectares provided drainage
network, but to produce consistently high yields necessary carrying irrigation and reclamation operations and increase their efficiency. Water reserves of the Republic (135 reservoirs) constitute 21.5 billion cubic meters, the total length of irrigation channels - 51,755 km of drainage networks - 29,640, 118 thousand. various waterworks pumping station 931, about 7.5 thousand. artesian wells, 1,700 km of dams from mudflows and floods and other water and ancillary facilities. Problems oroshenii- One problem is that most of the pumping station should transfer to the pontoons. Even when in the hot summer the water level drops sharply in Kure, they still supply water and provide irrigation plots. . Another problem is subjective. In the presence of small fragmented farms effectively conduct irrigation virtually impossible. As a rule, the villagers do not comply watering schedule, which adversely affects the operation of irrigation systems. With cooperation of private enterprises to achieve the effect of irrigation is much easier. Change the consciousness of the private landowner is very difficult any attempt perceived as a return to the collective farms.
Cotton growers Bilasuvar use new technologies in the cultivation of cotton. At the initiative of the International Labour Conference in farmers' fields to introduce drip irrigation. Water is supplied to the plants at a time when they are thirsty.
Unfortunately, this best practice was not widely appreciated and distribution. Because today, acting in the old farmers watered their land, not a plant need moisture. Old methods of irrigation used villagers in growing products on the garden plots and orchards, while there is equipment that enables the watering, using energy efficiently, helping plants to gather strength for development.
Today, over an area of 900 thousand hectares of the crop is maturing crops in regions finished sowing vegetables, potatoes, melons, cotton sowing continues.
For their growth and bringing up to standard required bracer that timely served on field work teams irrigation systems of "Irrigation and Water Management."
From their labor contribution depends on the fate of the new harvest, the food supply of the population of our country. In the late 20's in Southern California began to drill water wells. The effect was stunning: the surface of the earth came to the irrigation water to irrigate crops, and at the same time there was a decrease of groundwater level. California farmers have not only been saved from ruin, but also got a big economic impact. . The fact that they applied previously horizontal drainage is laid at a depth of 1 m -3 and could greatly reduce the level of groundwater. In contrast, the vertical wells, creating a deep water level, caused in the ground descending currents of water, which vigorously washing their salts from the soil and carries them down, away from the roots of plants.
Since then, a drain and called "California wells," or vertical drainage.
In many regions, particularly in the south-west of America, fertile land, receive little rainfall, successfully treated after the creation of systems orasheniya here.
About 15% of the cultivated land in the world orashayut artificially. With etim lands receive 30% oschemirogogo food production . In many regions orashenie not only brings benefits but also fraught with dangers.
Orasitelbnye partially isporyayutsya water, leaving behind dissolved salts. In some regions, including in some areas in the west of America, Soil thereafter become so salty that a long time here can not grow any culture. Salinization. In the Central Valley Imperial salinity of irrigated land is a major problem in agricultural production. On the site of a cotton field devoid of visible rows of bushes, which indicates a high salt content in the soil.
3.Национальная Энциклопедия Азербайджана (на Азербайджанском языке).Баку-2010 г.