- About project
- Results and Awards
- Affiliate Programs
- International services
Ismailova Tarana Mail, lecturer
Safaralieva Nargiz Asker, student
Mursalli Gunel Asif , student
Huseynova Gunel Alasker, student
Mamiyeva Gunay Adalat , student
Baku State University, Azerbaijan
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Azerbaijan";
the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;
This article describe natural and environmental features on territory of the Azerbaijan Republic and on the territory of California state of USA, Also this article describe features of tourism economy for innovation developing in future.
Keywords: tourism, environmental, natural, innovation, economy.
Two mountainous area, Great Caucasus and Sierra-Nevada, considered by us, appropriately surrounds northern part of Azerbaijan and central part of California State USA. Thus, the highest peak in Great Caucasus mountains is 4466 meters (Bazarduzu), 4421 meters in Sierra-Nevada mountains (Whitney mountain). Both mountain systems stretch from north-west to south east. But, inclination of Sierra-Nevada mountains in meridian direction is less.
Both Great Caucasus mountains, and Sierra-Nevada mountains were emerged in Alpian-Himalay orogenic level. There is one different opportunity in creation of this young mountain systems, so, Great Caucasus mountains were emerged in collision of two materic typed canopy (Africa and Asia), and Sierra-Nevada mountains from materic and ocean typed canopies (America and Pacific Ocean).
As it is well known Greater Caucasus Mountains are located in humid temperate climate zone. Sierra Nevada Mountains in the State of California, has a Mediterranean climate. The height of the mountain system is subject to both vertical waist. The western slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains landscape stretches from waste of the desert landscape, the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus Mountains from the arid landscape subniveal, Nival waist landscape.
We have seen in the rich mountain systems, the marvelous nature of the area revealed the need for the creation of a large tourist complexes. Sierra Nevada Mountains to the ancient history of the establishment of tourist facilities in the United States and the State of California. Mountain system has great importance for tourism and mountain tourism. Climate and the Sierra-Nevada Mountains hypsometrics opportunities in the Sierra-Nevada Mountains, turned into mountain tourism, the tourism industry. Each number of tourists coming to the millions, and the number of tourists coming to the Caucasus Mountains and is measured in thousands.
The southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains, the largest mountain in winter and summer sports complex Tufandag tourist complex. This mountainous area has favorable conditions for the rest of the tourist site is located about 4 km from the city of Gabala. Currently under construction in the immediate vicinity of the mountain-skiing base "Caucasian Resort" hotel building complex of three hotels, SPA-center, amusement park, has the capacity for the rest of the summer. The complex of mountain-skiing and nature trips are available throughout the year. Here are 4 ski tracks, 10 are operating a cable line.
Mount Whitney Base Camp complex in Sierra Nevada welcomes more than 30.000 tourists each year. Best travel opportunities were created here for alpinists. Seguava National park is located here, natural condition, beauty were interested by tourists. When being acquainted with tourism of Sierra Nevada, here national parks are main objects of tourism. Because of the nature of the Greater Caucasus Mountains, is invaluable to the tourist attraction that has no analogues. For example, in the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus, waterfalls, springs attract the attention of tourists. However, in certain areas, and these areas are stored in the form of National Parks condition created for tourist trips can get a higher result. Founded in 2006 in the south of the Caucasus Mountains Shah Dag National Park can be used for this purpose. Areas should be allocated to this area for tourist camps. Sierra Nevada from Yosemite National Park, 13 popular tourist camp (campground) are available.Application of this tendention in our country would be useful.
The second area of tourism in the mountains of Sierra Nevada forests. But strictly protected forests in the region, as well as being used for tourism. Their Plumas National Forest, Eldorado National Forest, Tahoe National Forest land is like. So far it has been a tourist in the area. Forest tourism is developed in the future can be very large. The southern slope of the Greater Caucasus Mountains, oak, beech, hornbeam forests, nature walks in the forest qorunarsa tourism can be developed. However, we can not prevent the destruction of forests in the fastest way, but also we can develop tourism.
Tahoe lake located in western part of Sierra-Nevada mountains is one of tourist bases. Lake tourism, water sport types, skiing are developed in Tahoe lake and more than 3 million tourists come to this region. This tourism may be developed in iced sourced Tufalgol in Great Caucasus mountains. When we consider that, mountain tourism was developed in Tufandagh, so, development and organization of lake tourism will be significant for our country.
That one of the beauties of nature is waterfall, and the Greater Caucasus Mountains, and the Sierra Nevada mountains are rich with waterfalls. Katekh in the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus Mountains (Balakan dist), Ilisu (Gakh district), Seven Beauties, Durja (Gabala), and so on. Views of waterfalls, attracts tourists with its beauty. Sierra Nevada Mountains, Yosemite National Park in the west, there is a magnificent waterfall, a very small area of the park, "Land of Waterfalls" is called.
One sphere of tourism is visit of historical monuments, and it is existed significantly in southern slope of Great Caucasus. Craftsman yard in Lahij settlement (Ismayilli region), Chukhur Gabala, old mosques, museums, tombs in Gabala region are the most visited places by tourists.
Central Valley surrounding central part of California state consists of two parts: Sacramento valley and San Joaquin valley. Sacramento valley surrounds area in northern part from Sacramento river, which is the longest of state and San Joaquin valley surrounds area in southern part from San Joaquin river. Central valley was surrounded from east with Sierra-Nevada mountains, and from west with San-Francisco gulf and Coastal rocks, from south with Tehachapi mountains. Central valley may be compared with Kur intermountain depression and Lankaran province being located in Azerbaijan territory. Thus, three are similar features between natural condition of these areas surrounded with Iranian plateau, being boundaried with Great Caucasus mountains from north and north-west, Lesser Caucasus mountains from west, Caspian sea from east and Araz river from south and natural condition of Central valley of California.
Semidesert and dry subtropical climate with mild winter, dry and hot summer is typical in Kur-Araz lowland. Lankaran province, surrounding southern part of country, is located in humid subtropical climatic zone. Totally Mediterranean sea climatic type is predominated in Central valley located in California state. Sacramento valley surrounding northern part of central valley is differed with its humidity and low temperature in comparison with San Joaquin valley located in southern part. As well as Chiko, Redding and Red Bluff areas located in Sacramento valley is characterized with relatively cool and high humidity for their temperature conditions. San Joaquin valley surrounding southern part of Central valley is concerned to field semi-type of Mediterranean sea climatic type.
Soils being fit for agriculture and climatic condition in both Central valley and Kur depression proves suitable condition for agricultural development here. Even Central valley is known as one of territories having most commonly planted soils in the world. Rural tourism program was made and is being developed in some areas of California as well as in Central valley. In future, progress in this direction of tourism in some areas of Lankaran province may be suitable for rural settlement of province. Moreover, some steps were taken in way of wide usage for tourism development from Central valley rivers. Thus, for increment of agricultural income and widening of agro-tourism in in the delta of Sacramento river, mission titled “Sacramento River Delta Grown Agri-Tourism Association” is being executed. Significant steps were taken for enwidening of river bank tourism in Kur depression province. Thus, some years ago, project commenced to be executed in connection with restoration of the edge of Kur and re-settlement of boulevard in Yevlakh city. Main purpose was to change Kur river bank into tourism zone, to aid interesting relaxation of human and include new architectural element to city image.
Human creation is needed for tourism development due to plain relief and dry climate, in a word natural condition potential of nature in Central vally and Kur depression is not suitable for tourism. So, various service types included in museums, concerts, competitions, American people music, laying out gardens in Central Valley is developed for enwidening of tourism area and gained popularity as tourism area nowadays. One of areas, these service types are applied is Bakersfield city, this area was turned lovely meeting place of different group and associations in western part of USA. It is known with useful and desired service, reasonable prices, suitability of area. More than 5400 hotel rooms, wide and comfortable meeting places, world-recognized entertaining places, purchase centers etc are existed in Bakersfield city. So, when estimating, it is seen that, enwidening of service spheres acting in Kur depression province and Lankaran province may give great profit for tourism.
One of spheres involving tourists is natural and historical monuments of country, Azerbaijan territory as well as kur depression and Lankaran province is rich with these monuments. As an example to natural monuments in this areas, Turyanchay State Nature Reserve, Aghgol National Park, Shirvan State reserve, Gizilaghaj State Natural reserve may be indicated. Moreover, Lankaran province, especially Masalli region area is rich with mineral water springs. Thermal water, and iced cold water are distinguished among them. Lots of sulfur and other microelements are in content of water of some springs. Istisu mineral spring is located in one of picturesque mountaneous nock of region and water of this spring has treatment features. Thermal water fountain and suspension bridge give special beauty to these places. Istisu, by being most popular treatment mineral water, by packing, is sold in pharmacies of country.
In example to historical monuments, Mingachevir State Dramatic Theatre, Khaldan Juma mosque and Hajilar bridge in Yevlakh region area, Barda tomb or Nushaba castle in Barda region area, Bahman Mirza tomb, Juma mosque, Underground bath monumental complex in Goychay, well-known sanctuary Hun baba sacred place in Saatli, Kerbalayi Hamid Abdulla bath in Astara region, Karvansara in Salyan region may be indicated. These areas is considered as most visited places by tourists.
Minor Caucasus mountains by locating in the west of Azerbaijan, has similarity with Coastal mountains being located in the western part of California state USA both relief and plant cover view. Minor Caucasus mountains consist of Shahdagh, Murovdagh, Garabagh, Mikhtoken, Garagaya ranges and average mountanious areas around them in Azerbaijan territory. It lies in direction of 600 km from north-west to south-east. The highest peak is Gamishdagh, located in Murovdagh range (3724 meters).
Coastal mountain are observed with north and south coastal mountains climatic types. Average annual rainfall is 800-850 meters in interval of 2400-2800 meters. Climate of coastal mountains is featured with dry and mild summer, humidity in winter in north. Oak and mixed forests are characterised for both area.
Coast Mountains - is divided into three regions North Coast, Central Coast, and San Francisco Bay area and two parts. Bolli Yolla to the north part of the mountain range consists of the mountains of the northern California coast, and the mountains of Trinti-Hayfork and in the southern part of the South Coast Mountains (in part), South Coast Mountains (part of the coast), the Santa Cruz Mountains and so on. Ridges were formed. The Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the north-west coast like this, in the south-east, a distance of 640 km stretch. It was the height of 2468 meters the highest mountain peak Mount Lin.
Northern part is divided into Del-Norte, Homboldt, Trinti, Mendoniko and Leyk regions. Area is differed from other regions for its nature. Northern part by being humid, caused forming of dense forests in wide areas. Redwood forests are known with high, great trees. Trees up to 150 meters heigh involve tourists. Tree climbing creates great interest for tourists. Relatively similar nature is seen in Gadabay, in the territory of Azerbaijan. Forests comprise of trees up to 27-30 meters of heigh and they are characterised by being young.
San Francisco consists of Bay Area, Sonoma, Lapand, Solano, Marin, Contra-Costa, Alameda, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, Santa Clara and San Benito regions. The tourist, entertainment, tram rides, whale watching, biking and so on. are related. Most of the places of tourist attraction such as the De Young Museum, Golden Gate Park, Koit Castle, the former prison island of Alkatraz, Redvud forests and more can be shown. In the Lesser Caucasus, Ganja for the tourist and the local tram service has been started to restore.
The Central Coast region, Monterey, San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara regions of the Coast Mountains are separated.
Central Coast region is selected wide sandy beaches, cliffs and parks. Surfing tourists, golf, equestrian, fishing and so on. We have to deal with the conditions. Different types of plants rich "Lotusland" invaluable to anyone interested in the botanical area. Suitable for picnics and whale-watching off the coast. Aquarium of the Bay of Monterey place attracts tourists from around the world. Santa Barbara Zoo is in the public interest, especially for the little tourists.
Mojaviya desert and Death Valley, California is located in the south and south-east. According to the physical and geographical characteristics of the territory of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan, located in the south-west with the similar. Mojaviya located in Desert Death Valley, the territory of the United States was the height of the lowest is -86 meters. Mojaviya Tehacapi desert, San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains and is surrounded by an area of 35,000 km².
NAR is located in southwest of the Lesser Caucasus. Geomorphological regionalization of the territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and the Lesser Caucasus mountains geomorphological Araz Nakhchivan region (Middle Araz) is the lowland sub-regions. The average elevation of 1450 meters.
Both are distinguished by climate continentality. So, NAR's summers are hot and dry, while winters are cold and rainy.temperature is reached 49 C in summer and 54 C in plain areas in valley of Mokhave dessert. It is snowing in winter in dessert mountains. Snow causes closing of some auto-magistrals. Average temperature of winter month reachs 0 C.
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, its geographical position, its climate, flora and fauna, ancient monuments, creates favorable conditions for the development of tourism. Here is a relic of ancient times, the natural and historical monuments - Momina Khatun, Garabaghlar, Joseph Kuseyir, Gulistan tombs, preserved for centuries, which is over 800 years old Oriental plane, the blacksmith, mulberry trees and reflecting the historical memory of the first settlement of ancient people - the Gamigaya, key cave, the grandeur of the venues, which is the symbol of invincibility of Cat Castle, magnificent Ilandag, unique natural monuments in the sky, lake, sleepers, and hundreds of works of art is not analogous to the Nakhchivan region's tourism potential. Mojave Desert is one of the most popular tourist destinations. Distinguished by the predominance of the national parks in the area. Here are three - Death Valley National Park, Joshua Tree National Park, Mojaviya the national reserve. California National Park, California Antelope Valley, Lancaster Hover Dam parks is in the Mojaviya national reserve.
1. Калифорния - Wikipedia–свободная энциклопедия
3.Национальная Энциклопедия Азербайджана (на Азербайджанском языке).Баку-2010 г.