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В статье анализируется модель бюджетирования торгового предприятия. Функционирование данной модели позволяет четко структурировать все процессы, распределить функции и ответственных лиц за конкретные процессы, а так же совершенствовать организационную структуру предприятия, структуру бизнес процессов и учетной системы.
Ключевые слова: бюджет, бюджетирование, предприятие, процесс, структура, управление.
The article analyzes the budgeting model of trade business. The introduction of this model makes a clear structuring of all processes, the distribution of functions and responsible persons of specific processes and improves the organizational structure of the enterprise,the structure of business processes and accounting system.
Key words: budget, budget, enterprise, management, process, structure.
Introduction and improvement of the system of budget management is an urgent task in the modern trade business. In uncertain conditions of the Ukrainian economy the problem of introduction the budgeting model in commercial enterprises is not new. For the modern trade enterprise the budgeting process (budgeting) is a system of coordinated management of its structural units on the base of the systematic processing of economic information in conditions of the systematic processing of economic information in conditions of acute competition and rapidly changing business, because it`s directed on compliance of possibilities of the commercial enterprise market conditions.
The purpose of budgeting is to provide a forecast of revenues and expenditures, that is, construct a model of how our business might perform financially if certain strategies, events and plans are carried out and enable the actual financial operation of the business to be measured against the forecast.
According to the American economist, Professor of Economics at Lewis & Clark College, Arthur O'Sullivan,a budgetis a financial plan and a list of all planned expenses and revenues. It is a plan for saving, borrowing and spending .
By definition of the Institute of chartered accountants of the governing management accounting (USA) the budget is a "quantitative plan in a monetary value, prepared and adopted by a certain period, usually showing the planned amount of the income, which should be achieved, and (or) expenses, which can be incurred during this period, and capital, which is necessary to attract for achieving this goal" .
Some of Ukrainian scientists provide a simplified concept of budget. V.G.Fedorenko notes: “Budget is a system of indicators, characterizing the sources and allocation of funds. On the one hand, it is a lot of resources, which any economic unit (state, republic, region, enterprise) has, on the other – budget is the ratio between income and expenses of economic subjects…” .
With the variety of opinions of the budget`s differentiation, the majority of economists are expressing a common position. Thus, the budget is a set of economic indicators in the operational management of business, in the basis of which is a financial plan that provides cross-referencing of costs with the existing (or possible) income for a certain period of time (usually a year) , and combining the means of operative control for the achievement the aims of the organization.
The functions of budgeting:
1. The budget is a tool of current planning. It shows the way of using available resources, taking into account the market opportunities. It`s important to consider possible problems and the ways of their solution in the process of budgeting.
2. The budget is the means of monitoring and evaluating the activities. Financial control and evaluation of the effectiveness of the organization activities are based on a comparison of actual performance and targets. A budget allows to control the impact of many factors, which influence on the final result. Constant monitoring of the performance of budgets allows quickly reacting on the change of situation and taking measures for its implementation.
3. The budgets provide criteria for assessing the work of managers. Components of the budget determine the sphere of managers responsibility. Almost all of the organizations that have implemented a system of budgets, use it for assessing the work of heads of divisions.
4. The budget is a means of motivation. They contain the goals and objectives of the organization and of its separate parts, play great motivational role by stimulating the employees and managers to achieve the goals. Motivational effect has the other side. If management uses a system of budgeting as a means of forcing employees, pursuing those who do not meet the targets, may create a team tense atmosphere that is not conducive for productive activities and the achievement the goals of the organization.
5. Budget forms the communication environment. If all the plans and guidelines are secret to the staff of the organization, these plans lose their meaning. Communication role of budgeting is especially effective, if this system is built on the combination of upward and downward flow of information. The upward flow of information is a transfer of information from the grassroots organizational and line managers to managers and specialists of high level. Downdrafts are approved functional budgets. The effectiveness of the system of budgeting as a communication environment depends on the organization of the system, on the content of the information in the formed system.
6. The budgeting helps to maintain the coordination between the departments. Coordination between the divisions of the organization is an important element of the company, in which the heads of departments make their own decisions.
7. The budgeting is a means of managers training .
The budgeting model of trade business is a combination of three main components:
· the structure of the centers of financial responsibility and its relationship with the organizational structure of the enterprise;
· the structure of budgets and plans, the relationship of budgets and their articles within the overall structure, which determines the sequence of drawing up plans, the rules of the article calculation, the procedure of balancing the budget indicators;
· the budget procedure, getting the planning and actual indexes.
Simulation of the process of budget planning must take into account not only the drawing up the types of required enterprise budgets, but also some coordination, the sequence of forming. It means the need of the development the budgets of the trade organization with the use of the scheme of linkages between them, and that will represent the budget model.
Figure 1. Budgeting model of trade enterprise
The proposed model helps to simplify the process of budgeting. This model should be corrected according to the specificity of activity of organization, where it is necessary to take into account the types of compiled budgets, their interaction and the order of their formation.
1. Sullivan, Arthur;Economics: Principles in action, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2003. ISBN 978-0130630858
2. Бизнес журнал «BizКiev». – Режим доступа: http://bizkiev.com/content/view/445/205/
3. Федоренко В. Г. Інвестознавство: Підручник. — 3-тє вид., допов. — К.: МАУП, 2004. — 480 с.
4. Шаховская Л. С., Хохлов В. В., Кулакова О. Г. и др. Бюджетирование: теория и практика. – М.: КНОРУС, 2009. – 400 с.