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Gukov Gennadii Victorovich, professor, doctor of agricultural science, full professor
Primorskiy State Academy of Agriculture, Russia
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Russia";
the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;
In article the current state of especially protected territories and suburban woods of cities of Primorskii Territory is presented. Before summit APEC -2012 remains less year for this reason the question on a condition of zones of a recreation became actual.
Key words: green belt «the big Vladivostok», anthropogenous press, the Asian-Pacific economic cooperation in 2012, valuable coniferous and deciduous breeds.
Primorskiy Territory, in comparison with other regions and areas of Far East region, is densely enough populated, especially its southern part. Therefore the region nature was exposed and exposed to a strong anthropogenous press. Now Primorski Territory is chosen by base for realization of some large-scale projects, in particular, carrying out of a forum of the Asian-Pacific economic cooperation in 2012, program introductions «the Big Vladivostok» and resettlements of compatriots on a government program and other federal programs. The «big Vladivostok»— the project of administration of Primorskiy Territory on association in uniform city municipal union of a city of Vladivostok with nearby cities-companions from structure of the Vladivostok agglomeration: merge of the Vladivostok and Artiomcity districts, further — merge to Ussuriisk and the Nahodka. Polytsentrichesky Vladivostok agglomeration with several cities-companions has arisen in Soviet period and became one of few million Russian agglomerations at cities-nonmillions. For the first time about the project «big Vladivostok» on association of a city to cities-companions have started talking in 1997. The project is included in the general plan of Vladivostok accepted in 2008. The first obstacle in a way of development of the Big Vladivostok — absence of roads and modern public transport. The basic hopes of ways to project realization are connected with preparation for summit APEC 2012 in Vladivostok when in edge reconstruction of roads and the international airport will be made. Besides, the organization of a high-speed city train of the Vladivostok agglomeration is planned. Daily, by estimates of administration, services of electric trains should use an order of 10 thousand persons. In the presence of due financing and the accurate program of actions the basic contours of "the big Vladivostok» can develop by 2025-2030. The project is supported in federal governmental plans (Minregionrazvitija and Ministry of economic development and trade) on creation so-called «basic cities». For this reason has increased and the further increase of recreational loading on green zones of nearby cities to Vladivostok is expected. In this connection creation of a green belt of "the Big Vladivostok» should become attribute of comfortable inhabitancy of the person, it became especially important now when to forum APEC remains less year. Thus the role of plants consists not only in performance of sanitary-protective functions (absorption of toxic gases, dust sedimentation, protection against noise), but also in maintenance of favorable psychological atmosphere . It is necessary to include In structure of a green belt of the Vladivostok agglomeration in addition woods of the Vladivostok local forest area, the Military forest area № 247, the former Artyom and Nahodka timber enterprises, the Ussuriisk local forest area, and also the woods which are not entering in Stateforestfond (Woods under the authority of joint-stock company and associations, the municipal enterprises, agricultural productions). The specific structure of vegetation of the areas of recommended local forest areas is very various . Here there are valuable coniferous and deciduous breeds: a pine Korean, a fir needle, a velvet Amur, a Manchurian walnut, an oak Mongolian, an ash-tree Manchurian, elm Japanese and many other things it is firm - and soft-leaved breeds . At the same time in natural plantings more than 80 % the oak Mongolian second growth occupies origins with an insignificant impurity of the breeds set forth above. Landings (wood cultures) trees with various valuable decorative and other properties occupy the insignificant areas, for example, in a green zone of Ussuriisk city district artificial plantings make only 13 %. Now the vacant city territory of Vladivostok is covered by woods almost entirely: the oak files dated for southern slopes interrupt only meadows and reed thickets in lower reaches of the rivers, and also cereals grass at tops. Oaks and oak-broad-leaved woods and light forests occupy as well islands Russian, Popova, Askold. Within a continental part of Vladivostok northern slopes are occupied many-tier and multipedigree broad-leaved by woods with fir "beacons" needle. New landings of decorative trees and bushes in an extending zone of "the big Vladivostok» will demand considerable material means and time. However already now in Primorski Territory there is a considerable quantity of natural sights – potential tourist objects. The Vladivostok natural park is created in territory of a northeast part of peninsula Muraveva-Amur (with its resort zone along the Ussuriisk gulf), islands Popova, Rejneke, Rikorda, Naumov, Kozlova, Klykova, Karamzin, Verhovsky, Pahtusova, Krotova, Sergeeva, Moiseyev, Tsivolko, Zheltuhina (a total area of 18,6 thousand in hectare). Parts of islands Russian, Askold, Putjatin (the second turn) and water areas adjoining to them on the basis of the Vladivostok and Island wildlife preserves join in park borders also peninsula Sandy. The territory of natural park is allocated with a variety of specific structure of flora. Vascular plants are presented by 125 families, 469 sorts and 1184 kinds, from them 42 kinds are carried to rare and disappearing. Presence in immediate proximity the Vladivostok city agglomeration causes huge recreational value of projected natural park. Unique recreational potential islands in Peter the Great bay possess. They involve numerous tourists in the summer when it is possible to combine walks on fine mountain-wood coast with bathing in pure sea water. In the winter here too it is possible to enjoy beauty of the nature and fascinating fishing. A various medical dirt is known: sea (in Amur bay, under the Find) and lake (Hankajsky). The state sea complex wildlife preserve having filled in the East the East for scientific researches, workings out of biological bases mariculture and the organizations and developments of plantations mariculture is created in 1989 with a view of preservation biota a gulf. In wildlife preserve territory dump of polluting substances and a waste, mining operations are forbidden. In territory of Botanical garden-institute FER the Russian Academy of Sciences (about 169 hectares), being the unique botanical garden in Primorskiy Territory and Vladivostok located in a residential suburb, concentrates a considerable quantity local and strange kinds of the plants representing a great interest both for a science, and for visitors . Vladivostok is rich with nature sanctuaries: a coastal part of Amur bay, a geological cut Sadgorodsky, a geological cut Sputnikovsky, a fir site, cellular rocks, an exposure Azure, кекуры the Toad and the Seal, wood cultures of a cedar Korean, a geological cut the Anizijsky, geological cut the Chernyshevsky, geological cut Tobizinsky, a valley of the river of Voevodiha. In a find this lake Swan and a bay Anna, and also a hill the Sister who is in a mouth of the river Guerrilla in territory of Guerrilla municipal area, in immediate proximity from the Find. A hill — a traditional symbol, the city card. Height of 318 meters. Together with hills the Brother and the Nephew forms a uniform natural complex. Decisions local government № 535 from July, 13th, 1984, № 404 from May, 30th, 1986 of a hill the Sister, the Brother and the Nephew are taken under state protection as nature sanctuaries of Primorskiy Territory. Island Fox which is located in the western part of a gulf the Find in 550 meters from continent. The Gulag which were in a saddle of island in 1937-1941 Here is known for the camp zone barracks,fish reproduced factory and other constructions took place, at island top there was a punishment cell for guilty (structures haven't remained). Later access on desert island has been closed. Today on island Fox the frontier regime operates, visiting is authorized as a part of excursion group. In 2000 on the highest point of island in commemoration of the 2000 anniversary of Christianity the 5-meter overgilded cross has been established. The decision of a city administration of the Find in 1994 the island is recognized by a monument of culture of local value. Along with protection of genetic resources, nature sanctuaries carry out also reference function since protect reference and unique ecosystems. To number of the monuments having reference value, Senkina the Cap in October area concerns. Located on the right coast of the river Spacious at with.Заречное, a hill of Senkina the Cap from apart reminds a huge turtle with the lifted head. The hill top is formed by the rods of diabases filling a crater неогенового of a volcano. Неогеновые porous basalt covers have remained in the top part of a hill where they cover more ancient adjournment. East slope of a hill is covered by a secondary oak forest. In the western part - at a foot and in the bottom part of a slope wood deciduous, with prevalence of a linden. Such rare plants, as лимонник Chinese, peonies, lilies here grow. In the top part of the western slope–steppe an oak forest. On the most light places in it meets scullcap Baikal, among rare species. But rocky communities of top with an abundance of rare species (stalky selaginella and an apricot Siberian) and a site of stony steppe with pennywort Siberian, a feather grass Baikal and other rare species are most interesting here. The standard of rocky communities with rare species is the nature sanctuary Stone Cheeks at with. Chernyatino in October area. Here the river Spacious saws through Paleozoic intrusion which forms almost steep rocks on both river banks and останцы in a channel, combined by a pink granite. But all the same the edges most accessible to inhabitants falls - Kravtsovsky. It is the cascade from five falls. Their height to 7 m. They settle down in canyon sight to a valley cutting a basalt plateau. They are fine at any time year, even in the winter when falls freeze and turn to beautiful sparkling ice cascades. In territory of Ussuriisk city district the Russian Academy of Sciences, and also a part of Ussuriisk state natural reserve of V.L.Komarova and the Poltava wildlife preserve settle down mountain-taiga station of V.L.KomarovaДВО. The Ussuriisk state natural reserve of V.L.Komarova is in conducting Far East branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences . The state natural zoological wildlife preserve of regional value "Poltava" are in conducting Administration of Primorskiy Territory (in an operational administration of Regional nature protection establishment «Seaside Administration of especially protected natural territories»). The botanical garden-institute and a tree nursery are in conducting Far East branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The city suburb is adjoined by Ussuriisk reserve of a name of academician Komarova. In the neighbourhood with reserve the station of service of the Sun - the most east astronomical service of the country is located. The Ussuriisk state natural reserve (the area of reserved territory of 40432 hectares) is located in a southern part of Primorskiy Territory in territory of two areas (Ussuriisk and Shkotovsky) on southern slopes of mountains Przhevalsky. Here there are no high mountains (the maximum height - 498 m, Grabovaja) and the prompt rivers. Its riches - rather large file virgin liana forests mixed coniferous-broad-leaved forests the woods which almost haven't remained in territory the Russian Far East and the adjacent countries. The primary purpose of creation of reserve - preservation by miracle escaped from cabin and fire of woods. In territory of Ussuriisk city district a considerable quantity of sites of ancient settlement, basically is revealed, all of them are located on mountains is a feature of East Sja preparing for reflection of an attack of Mongols. A vivid example of it in Ussuriisk area - the Krasnojarovsky site of ancient settlement. In vicinities with Utesnoe country the settlement chgurgenies, living here in XII-XIII is recreated centuries. In five kilometers from Ussuriisk on right to river bank Spacious there is biggest of found out on territory of Primorskiy Region of sites of ancient settlement chgurgenies. The area of the ancient settlement recognized as Institute stories, archeology and ethnography FER the Russian Academy of Sciences an archaeological monument, makes 180 hectares. Excavation here has begun in 1868 and proceeds to this day. Only for last 13 years by archeologists it is opened more than 5,5 thousand cubic meter of the earth. Such artifacts, as jugs, helmets, an armor are found. But the most surprising find - the press of Elanskogomenanja (the chief military-administrative unit in one thousand court yard), cast in 1222 that serves one of proofs of that once in village Utesnoe vicinities there was an imperial palace. All these woods, monuments and natural objects will be a part of a green belt of "the big Vladivostok» and it is necessary to develop a number of complex measures for their preservation and restoration. The basic attention to give not to wood preparation, and fire-prevention actions, wood landings, care of plantings for the purpose of creation of woods of recreational appointment is necessary for a management of Management of a forestry of Primorskiy Territory . According to the Federal law “About especially protected natural territories” nature sanctuaries are unique, irreplaceable, valuable in ecological, scientific, cultural and esthetic relations natural complexes, and also objects of a natural and artificial origin. Now in territory of Primorskiy Territory there are 214 confirmed nature sanctuaries. All of them have the status regional though nine of them it is recommended to attach federal significance. They are distributed on edge territory rather non-uniformly. It is caused basically by subjective factors - the management of one area treated favourably the statement of those or other objects in the nature sanctuary status, and in other area of mutual understanding between nature protection bodies and an area management hasn't been found.
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