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Baku State University, Azerbaijan
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Azerbaijan";
The North-east slope of the Greater Caucasus is considered one of the territories that has economical potential for development of the agriculture. Today, within the development program of regions, improvement of economy, productivity of the soils of the Gilgilchai basin, and scientific researches serving to protecting of fertility have vital importance. Assessment of soil - landscape complexes within large basins and monitoring and learning the changes in the soil have both scientific and practical importance.
Keywords Gilgilchai river and soils. Ecological characteristics of the basin.
Investigation object and methods
Ecological assessment of soil - landscape complex of the Gilgilchai basin is discovering of the reasons of the perennial changeability of the indicators parameters within the ecological monitoring. The research objects to characterize perennial influence of the anthropogenic factors to the land cover and landscape by investigating the modern ecological condition of the Gilgilchai basin. Moreover, improving bonitation of the ecological regions and finding theoretical bonitet scores of the soil by using land-climate formulae according to plants' demand, and finding practical bonitet scores by using land ecological index, determining potential capacity of productivity are some of the objects of the research.
Investigation object is soil of the Gilgilchai basin that runs starting from Gulumdostu mountain in the territory of Guba-Shabran regions to the Caspian sea.
Analysis and discussion
The Gilgilchai begins from 1980 m in north-east slope of Gulumdostu mountain of (2713 m) in the north - east of the Greater Caucasus. It is called Utugchai from source to Chalaltanchai; it is called Daqnachai after Charkhachichai, then till the mouth is called Gilgilchai. It directly flows from Guba-Shabran regions to its mouth the Caspian Sea. The length of the river is 72 km, the basin cavers area of 800 km2 (figure 1). The river flows across the ranges down the source of Kushichai, then it is directed towards the north, then till mouth it flows from southern-west to northern-east. The average width of the basin is 11.1 km; the average height is 972 m. Its area (98 km2) is covered by sparse forests and shrubberies. The average inclination of the river is 28.2%. Density of the drainage area is 0.55 km/km2.
Figure 1. The structure of the Gilgilchai basin area according to soil orders
The Gilgilchai has 10 main tributaries (table 2). 6 of them are on the right. The Gilgilchai is a river with flood regime. Water generally collects in the river from precipitation (75%) and groundwater. The role of meltwater is less. There are hot and cold mineral springs in the basin.
The main tributaries of the Gilgilchai
Name of the river
Orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the river
Decreasing the precipitation and increasing the temperature in the Gilgilchai basin is one of the important factors causing to changing of the fertility parameters of the soils. The Gilgilchai basin is useful for agriculture purposes. The coarse sediments generated and moved by the river are extensively used in construction. In recent 40-50 years, influence of human activity caused to sharp changes in the nature and land cover of the Gilgilchai basin. The Gilgilchai basin is characterized by its complex relief-climate plant features. Therefore, geographical variation of the soils that is a basic element of the landscape depends on complex ecological condition. According to altitudinal order, the areas is covered by mountain-meadow plain, brow mountain-forest, typical organic carbonate mountain-forest, brown mountain-forest, meadow brown, grey brown, carbonate meadow-brown, alluvial meadow, carbonate alluvial forest- meadow, etc. (G.Sh.Mammadov and V.A.Guliev).
North-eastern zone of the Greater Caucasus is one of the biggest cadastre regions. The cadastre region covers plain foothills territories of Khachmaz, Siyazan Shabran, Guba and Gusar districts. Shabran-Khachmaz is covered by meadow brown, typical open grey brown, flood-land meadow, meadow grey soils.
Anthropogenic activity, steep slopes, and complexity of the geomorphological condition of the Gilgilchai basin territories located in the north-east slope of the Greater Caucasus causes to intensive surface runoff as well as ravines. A number of other natural factors such as climate, relief, vegetation, geological structure and land cover influence seriously on forming and developing the erosion process. Moreover, incorrect activities of men play a big part in development of the erosion. Since middle XX century, practical activities and thinking of the people have changed. Economic priorities have begun replaced by ecological priorities. These kinds of thoughts are happening in the soil science as well. In the XX century agriculture direction has almost begun replaced by ecological direction in the soil science. Economical direction of the agriculture demanded soil science, agricultural chemistry to increase the agriculture products. Ecological function fulfilled the capacity of conservation and development of sustainability. It defines the possibility of the stable existence of a human in the biosphere.
In the article on the basis of the personal research, collection of literature and materials, and the analysis, in the Gilgilchai basin lands according to altitude zonation (mountain meadow, mountain meadow plain, brown mountain forest, organic carbonate mountain forest, mountain forest, brown mountain meadow, meadow brown, grey brown, meadow grey carbonate, alluvial meadow, forest carbonate alluvial-meadow, etc.) modern features of soil fertility were given.
1. Magbet Mammadov. Azerbaijan hydrographic II edition. Baku 2012. p.161-163
2. G.Sh. Mammadov and V.A. Guliev- Assessment of northern-east tillage zone of Azerbaijan soils. Baku
3. G.Sh. Mammadov. Ecological assessment of Azerbaijan land. Baku Elm 1998.p.282.
4. G.Sh. Mammadov. Ecoetic problems of mineral fertilizers usage. Soil science and agricultural chemistry collection of works XVII .Baku Elm 2007-p.5-10 from mineral fertilizers.
5. Garib Mammadov, Sara Mammadova, and Casarat Shabanov. Erosion and guarding of the soil Bakı-Elm-2009.p176-177
6. S. Mammadov Azer Cafarov. Fertility property of the soil. Bakı.-2009-Elm publishing house p.69-70