Statement of the problem. With the development of market relations the orientation of production processes of enterprise according to the requests of its external environment is becoming of current interest. Market in regard to producers transformed from a position of dictating terms to the point at which the consumer has the opportunity to choose the product that more suits his needs. Management of the enterprise should learn the desires and needs of consumers in order to create appropriate qualitative characteristics of the goods. Under such conditions, a central element in market relations is becoming a consumer of his preferences, tastes, needs and purchasing power. Producers should consider these factors when carrying out economic activities. Information provision are marketing researches, and marketing is becoming an integral part of enterprise management system.
Analysis of recent research. To the finding solutions to theoretical and applied aspects of marketing and development of enterprises are dedicated the works of both local and foreign scientists. So the marketing aspects of the management of enterprises investigated the following foreign scholars: F. Kotler, J.-J. Lamben, M. Porter, W. Rudelius et al., among local scientists should be highlighted: L. Balabanov, S. Garkavenko, E. Golubkov, T. Danko, S. Illyashenko A. Pavlenko, O. Prokopenko, S. Haminich T. Tsygankova and others. However, significant contribution to the study of marketing in agriculture made such scientists the agrarians as: V. Andreychuk, G. Andrusenko, P. Haidutsky, T. Dudar, V. Zinovchuk, A. Yerankin, D. Karich, S. Kvasha, S. Kravchenko, V. Pisarenko, P. Sabluk, M. Sohatskyy, I. Solovyev, V. Rybintsev, A. Shpychak and others.
Formulation of goals (goal setting). The purpose of the article is the systematization of approaches to the interpretation of the concept of marketing and the formation and justification the author's vision of its essence from the position of agricultural production.
Research methodology. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research were the universally recognized fundamental general scientific methods and specific scientific methodology of cognition of investigated phenomena and processes. In particular, when examining the methodological bases and summarizing scientific sources were used the following methods: abstract-logical, monographic, comparison, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction.
Results of the study. The concept of marketing is closely related to the functioning and development of market relations and market in particular. In turn, the market can be interpreted as a meeting place for the seller and buyer where there are economic relations with regard to the appropriation or the exclusion of certain goods. As noted by T. Dan’ko marketing - activities of the company to form their own position-activity behavior in the market, based on expert-analytical (reflective) tracking processes of promotion and circulation of goods within the implementation of competitive pricing policies influenced by factors in the external and internal environment to achieve maximum possible outcomes [4, p. 12]. Thus, the author focuses on the fact that the marketing company provides the necessary information about the market, and helps to build a course of action on it, creating some competitive advantages among other sellers.
Any seller that operates in the market tries to transfer ownership of the product he created with the highest level of benefits for himself. from such point of view B. Rayzberg treats marketing in economic dictionary - in its broad spectrum of activity in the market for goods, services, securities, carried out in terms of sales promotion of products and accelerate the exchange of the benefit of better meeting the needs and getting profits [10, with. 218]. While the focus shifts towards the stimulation of the buyer to get a certain product.
The buyer, in turn, tries to get at his disposal the goods of the highest quality while minimizing the cost of it. The aspect of best meeting the needs of the consumer are emphasizing a number of scientists from table 1. Such an approach is justified because the buyer is the driving force that enables producers to function effectively and evolve creating new products.
The above mentioned definitions of the concept "marketing" include in themselves the formed market and the existence of a number of buyers and sellers. This approach is acceptable for products that are already familiar to the consumer. As for the innovative products the marketing begins long before the creation of the product, the emergence of demand and market formation. Marketing begins when the producer considers the questions: "what exactly the customer wants?", "What doesn’t satisfy him in the products that are already introduced to the market?", "What price the consumer is willing to pay for a particular good?", etc. It can be affirmed that the emergence of radically new or improving existing product starts with marketing.
Interpretation of the definition of "marketing" with the focus on the consumer
Interpretation of the concept of "marketing"
[7, p. 41]
– provides management of market aimed at exchanging and creating relationships with the aim of providing consumer value and meet the needs and requests of the customer;
The American Marketing Association
[2, p. 17]
– is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communication and exchange of offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners and society in general;
[11, p. 3]
– the concept of orientation on consumers of any activity at any stage of the life cycle of objects management based on forecasting of their needs and the organization's promotion of the goods;
[12, p. 4]
– produce what the customer wants (requires) and, in general, be able to meet his needs, and for the price he is willing to pay with.
If at the initial stage of its formation marketing was considered by scientists as a process to harmonize the demands of consumers and the opportunities of companies, as well as social and managerial process by which individuals and groups by creating products and exchange receive what they need . At the present stage marketing is considered as philosophy, strategy and tactics of market activity that has defined the general principles, goals and means of achieving them [9, p. 9]. Thus marketing is transformed from a specific management functions to a specific enterprise management system. The same opinion is shared by B. Doroshev that treats marketing as a market philosophy, strategy, tactics and thinking of all the actions of market relations, not only producers, intermediaries in commercial activities, but also consumers and providers, practical economists, scientists and organizations up to government agencies [5, p. 30].
Assessing scientific approaches to the interpretation of the concepts of "marketing" we can identify certain elements that are present in the works of the majority of scholars, in particular:
1) Commodity or product, without which it is impossible to have economic relations between market participants;
2) Price, cost or value that acts as a key element of the process of exchange;
3) Incentive or motivation to obtain certain benefits.
However, recognizing the marketing as a system of Enterprise Management it should be noted that according to the vector of a business entity, it will have certain peculiarities and specifics. Because of this particular attention acquires the question of marketing of agricultural enterprises or agromarketing. So American scientists r. Branson and Dr. Norvel consider agricultural marketing (agromarketing) as all activity related to agricultural production and food, seeds, gathering the harvest, processing and delivery to the final consumer, with analysis of consumer shopping needs, motivation and behavior of consumers [1, p. 48]. However, half of the components that are mentioned by the authors have only indirect influence on the market and in general relate more to logistics (activity associated with agricultural production; gathering harvest, processing and delivery to the final consumer). There is a marketing character in the second part of the definition that directly focuses attention on such aspects as the "analysis of consumer shopping needs, motivation and behaviour of consumers”.
In turn, national scholar N. Kozub treats agromarketing as the whole phenomenon of socio-economic nature, the current content of which reflects the evolution of the market for agricultural products and products of its industrial processing, consistently combining processes of market research, agricultural production and processing of its products, trade, formation of demand and sales promotion [6, p. 11]. Interesting is the orientation of the author not only on the products of agricultural producers, which is usually a source of raw materials for industry, but also on industrial products, which are made using production farms. However, no details due to what is done the creation of demand and stimulation of sales of such products.
More fully to reveal the essence of agromarketing in modern conditions is trying P. Ostrowski. The author defines agromarketing as a complex of measures aimed at improving the production, increasing sales and improving the quality of agricultural products, finding new channels of marketing products, establishing long-lasting and long-term relationships with major and potential customers [8, p. 9]. Analyzing the definitions of «agromarketing», we can conclude that its key difference from the concept of "marketing" is the specification of object relationships between buyer and seller. If in the interpretation of the concept of "marketing" the scientists take as the object certain benefit that interests the consumer, then in the definition of «agromarketing» is clearly evident the role of agricultural products as an object.
Emphasis on the agricultural production necessitates consideration of characteristics of agricultural production. Taking this into account in the interpretation of agromarketing we should focus on the specificity of agriculture. The key differences are:
1. Product that is created by an agricultural enterprise is a biological organism that requires rapid consumption or specialized facilities for storage. This requires manufacturers to use special packaging and prompt delivery of their products to consumers;
2. Seasonality of production, due to a mismatch in time of the working period with the period of production, which necessitates the production and distribution of products so as to meet the needs of consumers over a long period. So, for the agricultural enterprises it is important not just for tracking market but also its forecast with a high degree of reliability;
3. Interdependence of the sectors, which manifests itself in the fact that the plants are feeding grounds for the livestock industry, which is a source of organic fertilizer. However, the successful combination of these two areas provides the most efficient use of human resources during the year;
4. Significant impact on the environment, which consists in the fact that the use of mineral fertilizers and chemical plant protection and weed control significantly reduce the cost of production, which is one of the main factors of competition. In this case, there may be negative effects such as reduced natural fertility of soil, surface water contamination, an increase of harmful substances in the final product and so on. In return for production technologies that minimize the impact on the environment increases the cost of production, which reduces its competitiveness in the market. In the recent years a growing interest of consumers just to environmentally friendly products;
5. Limited channels of realization is that the production of agricultural producers in needs further processing, which involves the use of specialized tools. Minor amounts of production on the one hand do not purchase appropriate equipment manufacturers and forming their own brand, on the other hand they can not cooperate with processors that are focused on the purchase of a significant volume of parties. Thus a significant proportion of sales channels (such as grain to 87%) take the so-called agro traders, offering not the best price.
These features of agricultural production confirm the need to consider agromarketing not just as a management tool, but as a system which ensures efficient functioning of the agricultural enterprise. So, agromarketing should be considered as an integrative enterprise management system, which is aimed at forming sustainable relationships between the producer and the consumer. This goal should be achieved through:
- Providing not just agricultural market monitoring but also forecasting of long-term conditions with a high degree of reliability;
- Formation of the optimal structure of production, which develops as livestock and crop production;
- Minimizing the environmental impact and production of quality products;
- Formation of high-quality material and technical base for storage of agricultural products;
- Minimization of channels of intermediary structures.
Agromarketing, in general, should ensure obtaining positive effects in three planes: economic, social and environmental. In the economic sphere is to increase efficiency and profitability of agricultural enterprises. Social – provision of rural population with jobs and building infrastructure. Environment – minimizing technogenic impact on the environment through the use of crop rotation and modern technologies of soil cultivation.
Conclusion. At the present stage of development of economics there is no common accepted interpretation of the definitions of "marketing" and " agromarketing." The reason is that they are closely related to the market and market relations, which is very dynamic, and therefore approaches to the interpretation of these concepts also undergo constant adjustments. It is found that the fundamental difference between the interpretation of "marketing" and " agromarketing is the specification of the object of the relationship between buyer and seller. Taking into account the characteristics of agricultural production is proposed to consider agromarketing as integrative enterprise management system, which aims at forming sustainable relationships between the producer and the consumer. Whose task is to produce positive effects in three areas: economic, social and environmental.
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