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THE PROBLEM OF LEGAL STATUS OF TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN PRIVATE RELATIONS

THE PROBLEM OF LEGAL STATUS OF TRANSNATIONAL  CORPORATIONS IN PRIVATE RELATIONS
Marukyan Gayane, associate professor, candidate of jurisprudence, associate professor

Kh. Abovyan Armenian State Pedagogical University, Armenia

Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Armenia";

the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;

Gradual process of economic development and the institutional changes, leading the development of economy, brought necessity of formation of new economical  unit.  Legal persons came to private circulaion to form equal participation for citizens and groups. Currently  it is impossible even to try to imagine public and private sphere of social life without direct participation of different formations created by group of people. Artice 50 of Civil Code of RA defined legal persons as:  «A legal person is an organization that has separate property in ownership and that is liable for its obligations with this property and that may, in its own name, acquire and exercise property and personal non-property rights, bear duties, and be a plaintiff and defendant in court. A legal person must have an independent balance sheet. In connection with participation in the formation of the property of a legal person, its founders (or participants) have or do not have rights under the law of obligations with respect to this legal person. Legal persons with respect to which their founders (or participants) have rights under the law of obligations include: business partnerships and companies, and also cooperatives. Legal persons with respect to which their founders do not have rights under the law of obligations include: societal amalgama­tions, funds, and unions of legal persons». The Civil Code of Russian Federation gives identiccharacterization.

 The civil legal entities, leading their actions in public relations, based on their own particular interests, set out decisions, to establish, reorganize or liquidate different corporations, made strategic projects for their development[1].

Global political and economic changes, which were taking place, in accordance to many extensive specialists, also led to new conceptual approach towards the role legal persons in international economic relations and in private circulation. The gradual changes in production process during 20-th century, development trends and other key processes eventually clarified the main conceptual approach towards the role of legal persons in international private relations.   To tell the truth, the processes had their immediate impact in all spheres of public life, but mostly reflected on the internationalization of the economic and legal aspects, changing both qualitative and quantitative contents of inter-economical relations.

As mentioned earlier, the processes could avoid the legal doctrine. Doctrinal literature sources also led to the problem of legal status of legal persons trying to introduce their own approach towards the issue, presenting conceptually contemporary approach towards the problem of  economical law, as separate legal category.  However, the proposed approach was in direct influence from the fact that the legal status of group of citizens as active participants of civil relations, needed exactness, which  in his turn brought importance to  put into right place the category “economical law”, and  clarify its’ role in legal doctrine. According to the legal doctrine sources of the USA, «economic law» and the relations, included in it, regulated the transactions, which, by their nature and substance, touched the borders of more than one state[2]. Taking into account the fact that actually the transactions touched the borders of more than one state and actually directly brokered the free movement of capital, the formation of transnational corporations, as new economical units, came of greatest necessity.   Transnational corporations in private relations were presented as legal entities, which both by themselves and in cooperation with the other subjects were able to be involved in commercial activities.  In global economic conditions and competative economical sphere, the transnational corporations came to be the most effective units as legal entitites. It gives a different ethnicity or legal persons  to centralize their capital and by joint management coordinate their actions and take greater benefits[3].  By its nature the transnational corporation directly moderates the relationships between trade and industrial ties, manifested as legal entities, aimed to provide free movement of capital from one state to another.  Such kind of organizations reflect on different business activities and influence on forming business practice consolidation[4]. Legal literaturepays special attention to the problem of legal status of transnational organizations as separate legal unit. During their activities, they are constantly dealing with different countries,consequently with different legal systems which legally gives rise to clarify the legal status of transnational organizations, as a different legal and economical unit, and to ցlarify one of the most important attribuetes of legal persons: competence. In fact we are dealing the same legal person, which are identic by nature, acting i the same sphere, belong to same industry, but at the same time legally acting in more, than one legal system.  Operate in different legal systems, perform the same activities, have the same founder in the same country of origin, makes transnational coprorations from the one hand legal persons, as compared with ordinary ones, from the other hand requeires special approach towards them, as separate private legal entities.  The unique approach to transnational corporations, comes from the fact, that, by their nature of actions, they actually promote international relations, not taking into account the fact, that they have different legal systems as ethnicity and place of business[5].   The problem of exact legal status of transnational organizations, in legal doctrine and practice is in direct influence from the fact of absence of comprehensive regulatory mechanism.  It seemed, that the “Convention on transnational Corporations”, adopted in 1998, which actually came to follow the  CIS 1994 Convention on Industrial, commercial, credit, insurancedevelopment creation” actuallywas able tosolve the problems. However, it could solveonlypart of the problem concerning the legal status of Corporations. Essentially,  the solution of the problem of legal status of transnational corporations, could be found only in adoption of comprehensive legal act, which would  in details describe the ways of solution of the issue.The specification of legal status of transnational corporations, meets different approaches in legal litarature. From the one hand, it comes to be of greatest importance the adoption of legal act, which would regualte legally all the questions, concerning the issue, from the other hand, the legal doctrine also presents new way: «Transnational law» as separate branch of study, which would define transnational corporations as specially characterized unit with all its' kew questions and answers to them. According  to V.M. Shumilin, the transnational law, as separate legal study, would have characteristic feature, which would seem very original, and would be reflected in following way: the subjects of transnational law, would separately work out their own behavioral rules, which would seem to be outside the scope of regulation of national and international sphere.   However,  it could be honest to say, that question arises: what would eventually be the mandatory legal standards in this case.? Essentially, transnational law comes to be a synthesized environment,  where the collision of public and private disciplines can be clearly seen.  However, in our opinion, no matter how dispositive can transnational law be and no matter how scientific sources try to characterize it as a special legal environment. The question is, that the problem of clarification of the definition of legal status of transnational corporations, even not taking  into account   the problem of the behavioral regulative norms of the subjects, can be seen only in adoption of special legal document, which would regulate all the questions of this new legal entity from the very beginning.

_________________________________________________

 

  • [1] Avetisyan V.D. Contemporary problems of corporate legal relations in RA (based on an example of economic societies), YSU pub. Center, Yerevan, 2013, p. 56.
  • [2] Zh. I. Sedova International legal persons as subjects of international private relations. Diss. for PhD degree in legal science, Moscow, 2001, pp. 49-52.
  • [3] Haykyants A.M. International Private Law, 2-nd edition, YSU pub. Center, Yerevan, 2013, p. 193.
  • [4] Romanyuk E.I, Malova A.Y.The problem of legal character of transnational organizations// Law and economics N4, 2013, p. 11-12, see alsoHaykyants A.M. the same work, pp. 194-195.
  • [5] Tolstykh V.L.  Rules of foreign law in international private law of Russian Federation. Pub. Center “Yurid. Center press”, SPB.,2006, pp. 27-28.
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Your rating: None Average: 6.3 (8 votes)
Comments: 8

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Scientific article of PhD, Associate Professor Gayane Marukyan "THE PROBLEM OF LEGAL STATUS OF TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN PRIVATE RELATIONS" regarding questions definitions legal entity, its role and importance in the system of international economic law. Author focusing attention on the legal status of transnational corporations. However, the adoption of a new legal instrument governing the outset all questions in this new entity, at this stage, is controversial. I wish continued success to the author in the study of her chosen problems!

Tsvetalina Petkova

The author examines a problem that could be definitely characterized by its actuality. It is noteworthy that the study is thorough and complete. It can be assumed that the conclusions of the author clarifies certain aspects of the legislation of the legal entities.

Tatiana Dolina

Проблемы определения и разъяснения правового статуса транснациональных корпораций являются актуальными. Представленные автором результаты могут быть в дальнейшем использованы. Успехов!

Baran Mariya

Несмотря на «нестареющее» значение проблемы определения правового статуса ТНК, по моему мнению, автору следовало бы расширить проблематику статьи – по-прежнему актуальным остается вопрос нормативно-правового регулирования проблемы социальной ответственности ТНК в контексте непрерывного развития каждого конкретного социума.

Puzikov Ruslan Vladimirovic

Проблема правового регулирования создания и деятельности транснациональных корпораций в свете происходящих в мире процессов глобализации бесспорно является актуальной. Трудно не согласиться с автором, что вопрос заключается в том числе и в уточнении определения правового статуса транснациональных корпораций, однако из статьи не видно авторская позиция по данному вопросу. Как сам автор видит перспективы решения этой проблемы?

Konoplytsky Ivan

Статья написана на теоретическом уровне и требует продолжения исследований автора. Желаю удачи в Вашем нелёгком труде!

Konoplytska Oksana

Статья написанана на достаточно актуальную тему. Хотелось бы увидеть больше предложений и выводов автора. Желаю Вам всего самого лучшего в Ваших исследованиях. С уважением Коноплицкая О.

Zulfugarzade Teymur El'darovich

В работе исследована весьма значимая для современной правовой доктрины проблема правового статуса транснациональных корпораций. Представляется, что цель, поставленная автором при написании работы, в основном достигнута. Исследование является актуальным, в достаточной степени самостоятельным. Результаты проведенного исследования могут быть использованы в дальнейшей научной деятельности.
Comments: 8

Chiladze George Bidzinovich

Scientific article of PhD, Associate Professor Gayane Marukyan "THE PROBLEM OF LEGAL STATUS OF TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN PRIVATE RELATIONS" regarding questions definitions legal entity, its role and importance in the system of international economic law. Author focusing attention on the legal status of transnational corporations. However, the adoption of a new legal instrument governing the outset all questions in this new entity, at this stage, is controversial. I wish continued success to the author in the study of her chosen problems!

Tsvetalina Petkova

The author examines a problem that could be definitely characterized by its actuality. It is noteworthy that the study is thorough and complete. It can be assumed that the conclusions of the author clarifies certain aspects of the legislation of the legal entities.

Tatiana Dolina

Проблемы определения и разъяснения правового статуса транснациональных корпораций являются актуальными. Представленные автором результаты могут быть в дальнейшем использованы. Успехов!

Baran Mariya

Несмотря на «нестареющее» значение проблемы определения правового статуса ТНК, по моему мнению, автору следовало бы расширить проблематику статьи – по-прежнему актуальным остается вопрос нормативно-правового регулирования проблемы социальной ответственности ТНК в контексте непрерывного развития каждого конкретного социума.

Puzikov Ruslan Vladimirovic

Проблема правового регулирования создания и деятельности транснациональных корпораций в свете происходящих в мире процессов глобализации бесспорно является актуальной. Трудно не согласиться с автором, что вопрос заключается в том числе и в уточнении определения правового статуса транснациональных корпораций, однако из статьи не видно авторская позиция по данному вопросу. Как сам автор видит перспективы решения этой проблемы?

Konoplytsky Ivan

Статья написана на теоретическом уровне и требует продолжения исследований автора. Желаю удачи в Вашем нелёгком труде!

Konoplytska Oksana

Статья написанана на достаточно актуальную тему. Хотелось бы увидеть больше предложений и выводов автора. Желаю Вам всего самого лучшего в Ваших исследованиях. С уважением Коноплицкая О.

Zulfugarzade Teymur El'darovich

В работе исследована весьма значимая для современной правовой доктрины проблема правового статуса транснациональных корпораций. Представляется, что цель, поставленная автором при написании работы, в основном достигнута. Исследование является актуальным, в достаточной степени самостоятельным. Результаты проведенного исследования могут быть использованы в дальнейшей научной деятельности.
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