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WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE MOTIVES OF STUDENTS AT THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LESSONS

WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE MOTIVES OF STUDENTS AT THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LESSONS
Zaika Liudmyla, senior lecturer, ph.d. of , ph.d. of

Nаtional Mining University, Ukraine

Conference participant

This article is devoted to development of cognitive motives of the students at the English language studies. The publication focuses on the methods the teacher can use to develop students’ cognitive motives.

Keywords: Extrapolation,  situations of success, cognitive gam.es, creative tasks, “incomplete sentences”, “brain storming”, problem situation, cognitive motives

 

Any activity of a student will be successful only if a student is interested in its results and takes part in the activity directly. The degree of a student’s activity is determined with the motives. [1] Motives can be different but they appear only in the process of complex inner psychological activity of a student himself/herself and a teacher can influence only formation of student’s motivations (interests, moral standards lifestyle principles) which will be used to form motives.

Educational activity is the main form of student’s activity aimed to change a student himself as a subject of education. Education action is composed of motivation and fulfillment. [2] A teacher can use different ways to develop cognitive motives during the English language lessons, for example:

a) motivation of educational activity by the way of conversation. A teacher outlines a range of problems the students will study and involves knowledge and experience of students, gives interesting examples and points out at the connection of materials to study with the previously studied ones and stresses practical meaning of the theme;

b) motivation of educational activity by the way of creation of problem situation. A teacher sets a problem, demonstrates a research or gives some examples of logic contradictions which students can’t explain because of lack of knowledge. Any problem must contain cognitive difficulty, that is, unknown branch of knowledge which students have to master; [3] the problem must be related to a student’s emotions (novelty, dissatisfaction with available knowledge and wonder); the problem must foresee an opportunity to suggest hypotheses and reflect specific character of the science of educational subject. [4] Problem situation is the situation created by a teacher which appears in the result of such organization of relation of students with the object of cognition that helps to find out cognitive contradictions. Problem situation is characterized by intellectual difficulty and necessity to solve it. The main point of the cognitive contradiction is in impossibility to solve the appearing contradictions with the help of knowledge and ways of activity the students have. A teacher can create problem situation by the way of collision of students with phenomena and facts which require theoretical explanation; urging students to analyze contradictory facts, phenomena and statements; urging students to choose the facts, statements which are considered true from contradictory ones and substantiation of the choice; urging students to self-dependent comparison of facts, phenomena and actions; urging students to suggest hypotheses, to draw conclusions and verify them etc. To obtain knowledge, abilities and skills; to master the ways of independent activities; to develop cognitive and creative abilities are the aims and tasks of the problem training. A teacher doesn’t present finished knowledge during problem training but sets a problem, makes it interesting for a student and provokes a student to find the way to solve that problem;

c) motivation of educational activity by the method of “brain storming”. That method is used reasonably during solution of a complex problem when it is necessary to use creative potential of the whole student group. All students are united by the common work of searching the truth. Students supplement each other, catch up and develop some ideas rejecting the other ideas. A teacher is a coordinator in that process and can maintain it with the help of the leading questions at any moment of the lesson. The students substantiate their ideas from the pointing of view of correctness and expediency;

d) motivation of educational activity by the method of “incomplete sentence”. That method is used when students have quite enough knowledge and personal experience to express their own thoughts concerning the theme they study. Students are given the tasks and are proposed to complete the sentence on their own. Students discuss the answers and give arguments while studying a theme;

e) motivation of educational activity by the way of usage of the creative tasks. A teacher has opportunity to use several directions:

1) the use of creative searching tasks, for example, to use outstripping tasks (1. You are a guide. Prepare a story about …  ; 2. Elaborate an advertisement about …);

2) the use of questions containing paradoxical data, which are found out by the students independently. Students are proposed to find those questions by their own, to answer those questions and defend their own positions using knowledge related to the theme they study;

3) the use of crossword puzzles and riddles. The students are proposed to work out crosswords and riddles concerning the theme they study;

4) the use of different stories. Students are proposed to write different fiction, scientific, fantastic, fabulous stories etc. with the usage of knowledge in the theme they study;

f) motivation of educational activity by the way of creation of situation of success. Usually students   mastering educational material with difficulty lose interest to a lesson very quickly, especially if a lesson is full of terminology and is characterized with a significant amount of information. In that case a lesson should be divided into several parts with their further obligatory consolidation. The students are proposed creative tasks by a teacher with a prompt or a known algorithm of fulfillment, not complicated task or simple self-dependent task. If possible, it is necessary to support educational material with the schematic pictures and simple schemes. A good result is achieved with the usage of examples and comparisons which are connected or close to personal experience of students. Such English language lesson becomes easily understood and gives rise to the interest to the subject;

g) motivation of educational activity in the process of cognitive games and game situations. Cognitive role games need additional training, search of interesting information. Game situations at the English lessons facilitate enlivening of the students’ actions at the lessons;

h) motivation of educational activity by the way of extrapolation. The way of extrapolation is based on the function of the brain to forecast.[5] The ability to transfer the available knowledge, skills, abilities and ways of activity into some other situation is a bright sign of creative thinking. A teacher proposes the students to transfer into imaginable future and forecast development of events.

Motives, appearing independently, are displayed in striving of a student for independent studying of the tasks and aims, independently of the teacher’s assessment and in unwillingness to use a teacher’s prompt.

To create steady educational motives it is necessary to stress practical significance of knowledge for further life, to create educational problem situations highlighting significance of the obtained knowledge for the development of logic and abstract thinking ability to self-analysis.

 

References:

  1.    Alekseeva M.I. Motives of students training// - Kyiv: Radyanska shkola, 1981. – P. 15( in Ukrainian)
  2.   Аseev V.H. Problem of motivation of a person: Theoretical problems of psychology of a person// - Moscow: Nauka, 1977. – P. 18 (in Russian)
  3.   Ilyin E.P. Motivation and motives// - SPb: Piter, 2002. – P. 408(in Russian)
  4.   MackelandD.Motivation of a person// - SPb: Piter, 2007. – P.507(in Russian)
  5.   Pekhota O.M. Educational technologies// - Kyiv: A.S.K., 2003. – P.19( in Ukrainian)
Comments: 5

Suvorova Tetiana

Уважаемая Людмила, Ваш доклад заслуживает на внимание. Спасибо за интересное изложение. С уважением, Татьяна.

Zalevskaya Alexandra Alexandrovna

Уважаемая коллега! Вы правы относительно роли мотивации учения и привели полезные примеры работы со студентами. Хотелось бы пожелать Вам также взять на вооружение возможности использования новых информационных технологий в обучении языкам - они способны повысить мотивацию за счет доступа к ценным содержательным ресурсам и использования ранее не применявшихся видов организации работы не только на уроке, но и в дополнительных видах активности студента. Желаю дальнейших успехов, Залевская Александра Александровна

Parzulova, Mariyana

Спасибо за интересную статью. Коллега, желаю Вам успехов в будущей работе! М. Парзулова

Balasanian Mariana

Уважаемая коллега, благодарю за интересную статью. Прочитала с большим удовольствием. С уважением, Баласанян М.

Khokhlova Viktoriya

Уважаемая коллега, спасибо за интересный материал!Любопытно было почитать!Удачи в дальнейших исследованиях!
Comments: 5

Suvorova Tetiana

Уважаемая Людмила, Ваш доклад заслуживает на внимание. Спасибо за интересное изложение. С уважением, Татьяна.

Zalevskaya Alexandra Alexandrovna

Уважаемая коллега! Вы правы относительно роли мотивации учения и привели полезные примеры работы со студентами. Хотелось бы пожелать Вам также взять на вооружение возможности использования новых информационных технологий в обучении языкам - они способны повысить мотивацию за счет доступа к ценным содержательным ресурсам и использования ранее не применявшихся видов организации работы не только на уроке, но и в дополнительных видах активности студента. Желаю дальнейших успехов, Залевская Александра Александровна

Parzulova, Mariyana

Спасибо за интересную статью. Коллега, желаю Вам успехов в будущей работе! М. Парзулова

Balasanian Mariana

Уважаемая коллега, благодарю за интересную статью. Прочитала с большим удовольствием. С уважением, Баласанян М.

Khokhlova Viktoriya

Уважаемая коллега, спасибо за интересный материал!Любопытно было почитать!Удачи в дальнейших исследованиях!
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