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THE OTTOMAN TURKEY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EASTERN POLICY OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE IN XIX CENYURY 90-S

THE OTTOMAN TURKEY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EASTERN POLICY OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE IN XIX CENYURY 90-S
Tigran Khachatryan, research associate, ph.d. of , associate professor

Kh. Abovyan Armenian State Pedagogical University, Armenia

Conference participant

Beginning from the late 80s of the 19th century Kaiser Germany took some steps to increase its political role in Ottoman Turkey. The first visit of Vilhelm II to Ottoman Turkey took place at that time. The purposeof the visit was the marriage of Vilhelm’s sister Sofia and the Greek heir. Late in August, 1889, Vilhelm II visited Athens and afterwards in November 2-6 he went to Turkey – Constantinople with his wife.

Vilhelm II’s visit to Turkey caused a lot of disturbance mainly in the Russian Court. Alexander III arrived in Berlin in 1889, October 11-13. Durind the long conversation with Bismark the Tsar was interested in the visit of Vilhelm II to Constantinopleand wanted to find out whether Turkey was really eager to join the Triple Alliance. Bismark dispelled Tsar’s doubts putting down Vilhelm’s visit to only youth interests. Due to Bismark he wished to visit Constantinople and then go back to his motherland, as to reach Athens and not see Constantinople seemed unreasonable to him. The Chancellor assured the Tsar that Germany did not have any political interests in Turkey[1]. Actually Vilhelm II’s visit to Constantinople had serious political and economic aims, as the consruction of the railway chain was arranged[2]  by means of which Germany was going to reach political and economic domination over Asia Minor. Therefore, in 1890 a German-Turkish commercial agreement was signed and as a result Germany got the control over the Turkish customs[3]. The most remarkable thing was that still in December of 1890, when the above mentioned agreement was being discussed at Raikhstag, Simens had a special speech. The head of German bank announced that times when the German production in Turkey remained in shadow because of English and French entrеpreneurs' policy. He added that it was time to act independently in that country. At the end, representing the German policy towards Ottoman Turkey, Simens announced that they are interested only in setting up newcustoms offices at the Bosphorus and Dardanelles[4].

So, it seems like the colonial policy of Kaiser Germany towards Ottoman Turkey was growing, and the main factors of the process were the purchase of concessions connected with Berlin-Bagհdad from Turkey in 1888, the visit of Vilhelm II to Ottoman Turkey, German-Turkish commercial agreement and etc.

Thus, getting large economic prevalence over Turkey Kaiser Germany was aspiring to transfer it into policy and achieve political dominance as well. And the Sultan, taking into consideration the hard international osotion of Turkey, and trying to get Germany’s support in the sphere of international diplomacy, started to satisfy Germany’s ambitions and inclinations in  building of the railway without noting that this will make Turkey’s international diplomacy more complicated and will cause breakdown of Turkey.

In 1891 the representative of “German Bank” Kaulla, arrived to Constantinople. He was to negotiate with Sultan for stretching the railway up to Baghdad. Following the advice of the Ambassador of Germany in Constantinople, Kaulla  offered Sultan first to explore the route of the future railway and afterwards to allocate a land for its construction. Abdul Hamid II agreed and promised to support financially as well as in the organization of the process[5]. But financial difficulties and the skepticism in Turkish promises made Germany temporarily delay the construction of the railway and keep cautious policy especially towards railway being built in Persian Gulf and Baghdad territory. Receiving the report from Kaulla about the financial situation of Turkey, Zimens held a conference in Berlin in May, 1892, where it was decided that it was more convenient to get concessions for the construction of Ankara-Kaisir railway before starting the construction of the way up to Baghdad, and to build Eskishekhir-Konia part in the South[6]. The results of the conference were immediately informed to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Germany betook the special policy for getting concessions to build Eskishekhir-Konia railway. It is worth to mention that German bank took into consideration also those ways which had important military function and the railways were especially constructed in those directions. From this point, the concession directed to Salonik-Monastir which was gained in 1890, was very important[7]. And the province of Konia was significant for its riches, where not only German entrepreneurs who acted in the territory of Turkey, but also English and French entrepreneurs were eager to have industrial centers. That was the reason why the above mentioned organizations were trying to fail Germans’ attempts and firmly resisted German bank penetrations. For this reason Kambon, the French Ambassador in Constantinople was trying to gain concessions for the construction of Smirna-Kassabu railway, which was the main part of Eskishehir-Konia railway. In 1892, he reminded Sultan that not giving concessions for the construction of the above mentioned railway will be considered as “an irreverent treatment towards France”[8]. Nevertheless, Sultan refused that requirement under the reassurances of Germany[9].  

 Little by little, the situation between Turkey and English and French ambitions was getting anxious. They were trying to prevent Germany’s active foreign policy in Turkey. This time English Ambassador Ford had a speech in Constantinople. On January 5, 1893 he told Sultan that his government was strictly against the decision to devolve the construction of Eskishehir-Konia railway to Germany[10]. He assured that it was a destroying blow to the interests of Great Britain. This menace was accompanied with the activation of naval forces of England.

The Russian Ambassador was also against the above mentioned decision, emphasizing that the fund of Konia was the main means to cover the debt of Turkey towards Russia, though they cannot let  Germany control those territories. The German Ministry of Foreign Affairs rebutted under the pressure of  “German Bank”, and as a result on January 7, 1893,  Marshal, the deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs informed the ambassador of Germany in London that he was going to annul the announcement of English ambassador, which directly meant to attack Germany, which would exacerbate the interrelations of Germany and England[11].

To inhibit the English pressure on Germany and to enlarge the German plan of the construction of the railway in Ottoman Turkey, Kaiser Germany used Egyptian issue. In many problems connected with Egypt, Germany had always been on English side, bearing in mind that this way the relations between England and Germany may be exacerbated. For this purpose, after Ford’s speech, on January 6, 1893, Germany gave contrary opinion on the problem to which he had given a positive reply before. This was about the intension of England to increase its armed forces in Egypt. This time, the English side longed for Germany’s support, as Russia and France were against its objectives. For this reason English Ambassador in Cairo immediately sent a telegramme to the prime-minister Rozbery asking him to solve the problems with Germany connected with Turkey, so that to get Germany’s support again for his plans in Egypt[12]. London authorities changed their previous policy towards Germany. Rozbery announced that he himself did not have anything against Germany’s economic activities in Turkey. Negotioations between German Ambassador Radolin and English Ambassador Ford which took place in Constantinople settled the small but very important problem, which was gainful for both of them[13].

But German diplomacy was not only struggling to overcome English obstacles, but also against English-Turkey confidential negotiations. Ambassador Radolin told about it in details in his notes from December 23rd, 1892 till January 9th, 1893. Just since his first letter Radolin presented the actions and structure of Ottoman government as well as using German methods of diplomacy in Turkey[14]. From this letters one can notice that Sultan was negotiating with Kaula and Radolin about concessions without Turkish Great Vezir Kyamil pasha (the English were trying to fail German plans with the help of vezir). That’s why when the negotiations were already successfully finished, they  met a big opposition from Kyamal pasha, because the Great Vezir was not aware of lots of issues which were considered already solved. Radolin realized this very well and he informed the Embassy staff about Sultans independent actions, due to which Sultan had always had confidential and private negotiations, meanwhile introducing his actions as acts of Turkish Diplomatic Institutions’ representatives.

In the note dated January 9, 1893 Radolin explained in details the last stage of the concessions’ providing. He emphasizes that not only England, France and Russia were against the German plans but also “the Turkish society, which is displeased with the fact that Sultan gives everything to Germany”[15]. The Great Vezir who had a great reputation, following the advice of the English, introduced a special batch of documents, which introduced all the counterfeits of Germany, the colonial policy of Germany in Turkey and exhorted Abdul Hamid II not to provide concessions to the Germans. Vizir was trying to persuade that all the financial investments of Germany had thrown Turkey into temptation and confusion. A special commitee in which the Great Vezir, lawyers and public figures were included,.was organized for the consideration of the documents produced by Kyamil. While the committee was making a decision, Sultan decided to stop the concessions’ providing to Germany and informed Radolin about it asking him to wait a little bit[16]. The latter switched to real actions and on January 7, 1893 and getting instructions from Berlin, started new activities. Radolin informed Abdul Hamid II about the Kaizer’s solicitude due to which Kaizer had believed Sultan’s promises and had always thought, that finally Sultan would bring into life the plan which had so much vital importance for both of the countries. And the German Ambassador added that Sultan will get rid of difficulties as soon as he makes a positive decision. On January 9, Rajib bey visited Radolin and informed him that after the long conversation with Sultan, the latter had called the Great Vezir and ordered him to quicken the process of concessions’ providing to Germany[17].

Thus, German-Turkish relations were brought to practice. Getting the construction of the important Berlin-Baghdad railway, Turkey and Germany got firmly economically connected. Gerrmany not only protected Turkey but alsօrepresented itself as the confederate of Turkey, so that each procedure would be exercised based on legal point of view. Germany also tried to vanish the Great Powers’ plans of separation of the Turkish territory and figured itself as the protector of Turkey.

Late in the 90s of 19th century Germany already had rather firm basis in Turkey. Ottoman Turkey’s role and meaning was growing up for Germany. That’s why the political mission of Germany in Turkey was strengthened. In Autumn 1897 Marshal Fon Biebershteine, the German Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, was appointed the Ambassador of Germany in Constantinople[18]. During his mission Marshal did everything for his good prestige and surprised Ottoman governing circles with his cunning. 

Yet on March 5, 1898 in his first letter directed to reichchancellor Hohenloeine, Marshal first glorified Vilhelm II’s Eastern policy, and then presented all the means and directions which would promote the German fund investments. He was assuring that they must use all the possible means to entirely involve Turkey into their plans. Marshal was excluding even the smallest rebates to their opponents. He mentioned in his letter that Germany might be rigor in each part of Turkey in order not to let it be available for anyone else. He believed that Berlin-Baghdad railway with all its sectors must be constructed by Germans, thanks to which they would domain the valleys of Euphratesand Tigris, as well as the Persian Gulf. At the end Marshal especially mentioned that they had to be sure that no one would surpass Germany in that territory[19].

Special activities were organized by political circles. German financial investments in Turkey were increased, and yielding to Marshal’s reassurances the quantity of German military forces was also increased. He attained his goal and a special military delegation arrived in Turkey, who prepared many Turkish officers and sent them to Germany to be trained and deepen their knowledge. These measures might increase the role of Germany in Turkey.

 In his report dated March 5, 1898 Marshal wrote about the results reached by the delegation ruled by Fon der Holts, and showing the strengthening of Germany’s position in Turkey, assured that if they could send one more general to Turkey endowed with Holts’s talent, the German policy in Turkey could be esteemed as fully successed[20]. In May 1898, Marshal informed the officials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs that he had persuaded the Sultan to order 250 000 rifles in German factories. Besides, the Sultan had agreed to order by his own means 200 million bullets instead of 100 million, which  came to 25 million marks[21]. Thus, thanks to Marshal’s policy German ammunition producing factories, named “Mauser”, “Lyove”, and etc, got great profits in a very short time.

 In the first half of 1898 thanks to Marshal and Morgan cooperation one more group of Turkish officers was sent to Germany[22]. In the same telegraph Marshal was explaining the advantages and the useful points of his own diplomacy for Germany. From his point of view, it was very important to make the Turks believe that the strengthening of the German psychology in the Turkish army, was first of all within the scopes of interest of Turkey. Though, he was mentioning, that they must not show that Germany was interested in all that. “Nevertheless, the Turks must be sure that Germany is the offering party and Turkey is the consumer”[23].

 In his letter dated April 9, 1898, Marshal demanded Reich Chancellor Hohenloeine to keep more active foreign policy and get the construction of the railway up to Baghdad.  He thought that the whole Middle East would be connected to Germany after that, and that they could use those achievements for their own interests. Marshal was exhorting all the German entrepreneurs and companies to quicken the activities connected with the construction of the railway. He believed, that they should act quickly and invest as much as possible as other interested countries were managing a sly diplomacy trying to persuade the Sultan to give them concessions. But making big financial investments Germany would solve that  problems at once. Besides Marshal offered to make arrangements for economical adoption of the Euphrates and Tigris and for organizing the navigation in these two rivers. In this message  Marshal  introduces the contracts with the Anatolian  major engineer  Cander whuch led to lengthening of railway to Baghdad[24].

After conversation withMarshal Cander arrived in Berlin and leaning upon Morgan’s information about Vilhelm II being very much interested in buliding of the ralway network, he with Zimens offered to involve ‘’Zeehandlung’’  (a Prussian financial company that was very much interested in the matter) in bulding the railroad system. But then there was a conflict  connected with  Cander's  acting of his own, which made the minister of foreign affair  B. Bryulov angry. He believed that everything happened because of  self-willings of Marshal,  who hadn't informed Berlin about it.  But Bryulov  gave in, as the problem was connected with Germany’s foreign interests. He didn’t turn down  “Zeehandlung”, but German Bank was given the right to control that company. At the same time Bryulov gave special instructions to Marshal and demanded to support Cander and the German Bank[25].

Morgan, the Military Attaché and Consultant of German troops in Turkey began his activities in Constantinople. In one of his reports Morgan described the state of Turkish military forces and especially pointed out readiness of Turkish troops in those parts of Channels.  The Military Attache paid special attenion to the fact that Turkey had reinforced the control on Bosporus and  Dardanelles, which  was especially directed against  the Great Powers.  All that let Morgan act from positions of active policy in Near East and announce. ''We have  all the reasons to insist on neccessity to keep the completeness of Ottoman Turkey,  which  give us huge  economical achievements, and for the future it will give military reinforcement as well.  Thats why we should enlarge military fortifications.  Only experienced German officers can support Sultan in it,  with their help we can keep our achievements, and undertake new ones’’[26].

This dispatch gave birth to protest of German diplomat Rihtgofen, who was temporarily leading  the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.  Rihtgofen   informed about it Bryulov  and noted that Morgan's varied activity in Constantinople  caused outrage of the Great Powers and partticulary Russia  and  certainly had bad  influence on Russian-Germany relations. Rihtgofen thought   the militarization  of  Turkey will be certainly noticed by other countries, and it would lead to worsening of relations between all sides.  Rihtgofen's  worries  didn’t last long as Wilhelm II considered it impracticable and  exhorted Morgan to be calm[27]. But  it didn’t  limit Morgan’s activity in Constantinople. After  official  visit of Wilhelm II Morgan began more activ diplomatic and military activity.

Thus,  Kaiser Germany’s Eastern policy in Middle East represented by Ottoman Turkey, had estable basis. Ottoman Turkey was connected with Kaiser Germany by military, economical, financial relations. There were all suitable conditions for colonial policy in Middle East. For that purpose Wilhelm II’s official visit to Ottoman Empire was organized  and  fulfilled.

The  most important step to conquer Asia Minor was taken  in 1888,  when the agreement between ''German Bank'' and Ottoman Turkey  related to the buliding of  Berlin –Bagհdat railrod system was reached. After building the railroad Kaiser Germany’s position in Middle East became stronger. The cooperation between Germany  and Turkey in the political, military and economical fields became more practical.

Wilhelm II‘s first  visit to Constantipole  laid the foundation for new era  in the relations between Germany and Turkey.

 

 


[1]Die Grosse Politik Europeische Kabinete 1871-1914. Sammlung«der diplomatischen Akten des auswärtigen Amtes», Berlin 1922, B. 6, dok №1358.

[2] Ibid.

[3]E. Reventlov, Von Potsdam nach Doorn, Berlin 1940, S. 298.

[4]Stenographische Berichte über die Verhandlungen des Deutschen Reiches, Berlin 1890,B.2, S.888-889.

[5]«Die Grosse Politik Europeische Kabinete 1871-1914. Sammlung«der diplomatischen Akten des auswärtigen Amtes», Berlin 1923, B. 14, dok 3961.

[6]Helfferich K., Georg von Siemens, B.3, Berlin 1923, p.  62.

[7]Ibid, p. 49-50; See also՝A. Cheradame, La question d Orient La Macedonie, Le chemin de fer de Bagdad,Paris 1903, p. 19-20.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10]«Die Grosse Politik Europeische Kabinete 1871-1914. Sammlung«der diplomatischen Akten des auswärtigen Amtes», Berlin 1923, B. 14, dok № 3965.

[11]Ibid,dok № 3966.

[12]Ibid, dok №  3967.

[13]Ibid, dok № 3969, №3970, №3971, №3972,№ 3973.

[14]Ibid, dok№3963.

[15]Ibid, dok№3970.

[16]Kemal Bey Ismail, The Memois, London 1920, p. 241-243.

[17]«Die Grosse Politik Europeische Kabinete 1871-1914. Sammlung «der diplomatischen Akten des auswärtigen Amtes», Berlin 1924, B. 14, dok № 3970.

[18] Б. Бюлов, Воспоминания, Москва 1935, с. 132.

[19]Ibid, dok№  3339..

[20]Ibid, dok№3339.

[21]Ibid, dok№3340.

[22]Ibid, dok№  3341.

[23]Ibid.

[24]Ibid,  dok№3375.

[25]Ibid, dok№  3376.

[26]Ibid, dok  №  3342.

[27]Ibid, dok№  3342.

Comments: 10

Alexander Sorokin

Very interesting scientific article! Author's contributions is important!

Honchar Maryna

Уважаемый Тигран Хачатрян! Статья интересная, познавательная, имеет аналитический характер. Желаю Вам успехов в дальнейших исследованиях. С уважением, Марина Гончар.

Kruchinin Sergei

Уважаемый Тигран Хачатрян! Ваша статья «Османская Турция в контексте восточной политики Германской империи в ХIХ веке» рассматривает некоторые аспекты мировой политики конца ХIХ века: статья посвящена взаимоотношениям Германии и Турции и повышенному интересу к развитию этих отношений со стороны Англии, Франции и России. Рецензируемая статья написана в публицистическом стиле и представляет собой анализ исторических событий в контексте их влияния на развитие международной политики. На протяжении всего текста статьи автор не просто отображает конкретные факты в ходе истории, но и выражает собственное мнение на роль конкретных исторических личностей и их действий в ходе истории. Договор между Турцией и Германией о строительстве железной дороги охарактеризован автором как заключение экономического, финансового и политического союза двух стран. В работе отмечены особенности немецкой, английской, французской и русской политики и их конкуренция по отношению к влиянию на Турцию. В конце статьи сделан вывод о том, что первый визит Вильгельма II в Константинополь представлен в статье как начало новой эры в отношениях Германии и Турции. Из недостатков статьи можно отметить некоторую повторяемость мыслей. Отличная аналитическая статья. С уважением!!! Article "Ottoman Turkey in the context of the Eastern policy of the German Empire in the nineteenth century," examines some aspects of world politics of the late nineteenth century: the article is devoted to the relationship of Germany and Turkey, and increased interest in the development of these relations on the part of Britain, France and Russia. Peer-reviewed articles written in journalistic style and presents an analysis of historical events in the context of their impact on the development of international policies. Throughout the text of the article the author is not simply displays the specific facts in the course of history, but also expresses his own opinion on the role of specific historical figures and their actions in the course of history. Agreement between Turkey and Germany to build a railroad described by the author as the conclusion of economic, financial and political alliance between the two countries. The paper noted the peculiarities of German, English, French and Russian politicians and their competition with respect to the effect on Turkey. The article concludes that the first visit of Wilhelm II in Constantinople presented in the article as the beginning of a new era in relations between Germany and Turkey. Shortcomings of the article can be noted some thoughts repeatability.

Treschalin Michail Yuriyevich

Уважаемый Тигран Мартинович! Очень интересный, познавательный и серьезный анализ. Но общее впечатление, что Вы опубликовали только часть большой работы. Жду продолжения. С уважением д.т.н., профессор М.Ю. Трещалин

Tigran Khachatryan

Уважаемый Господин Клюйков!Спасибо вам за комментарий на статью. Изучив Ваш комментарий, я заметил, что Вы довольно детально проанализировали статью и идеи, которые выражены в нем. Но, хотелось бы отметить, что все факты, которые приведены в статье, отражают ту действительность, которая выражена в исторических документах Архива. Эти архивные документы впервые представляются в таком широкомасштабном обороте.

Tigran Khachatryan

Уважаемый Владимир Викторович, благодарю Вас за комментарии и высокую оценку на мою статью, надеюсь что наше сотрудничество в дальнейшем даст свои плоды в процессе развитии моих научных навыков.

Aleksey Konovalov

Статья отражает сферу увлечений автора - касается предметного анализа исторических событий. Эмпирики достаточно. Ключевых выводов не хватает.

Verstiuk Volodymyr

Уважаемый Тигран Хачатрян! Ваша статья актуальна. Приведенные аргументы и факты действительно дают все предпосылки утверждать о начале “новой эры в отношениях между Турцией и Германией”. С уважением, Владимир Верстюк.

Roman Kljujkov

Уважаемый Тигран Хачатрян! Большим историческим материалом Вы воссоздали сложную палитру (еще не картину) тайной политики пяти империй в одном из центров их экономических интересов. И всё это было «выдавлено из тюбиков» исторических документов на «тонкую дощечку» доклада «с вырезом для большого пальца» с целью нарисовать малюсенький самоочевидный вывод «The cooperation between Germany and Turkey in the political, military and economical fields became more practical». Всё несомненное богатство красок Вашей палитры осталось на самой палитре – неиспользованным и без надежды на использование! Жалко трудов, потраченных на «выдавливание». С уважением, Клюйковы

Simonian Geworg

Отличная аналитическая статья. С уважением Г.С.Симонян
Comments: 10

Alexander Sorokin

Very interesting scientific article! Author's contributions is important!

Honchar Maryna

Уважаемый Тигран Хачатрян! Статья интересная, познавательная, имеет аналитический характер. Желаю Вам успехов в дальнейших исследованиях. С уважением, Марина Гончар.

Kruchinin Sergei

Уважаемый Тигран Хачатрян! Ваша статья «Османская Турция в контексте восточной политики Германской империи в ХIХ веке» рассматривает некоторые аспекты мировой политики конца ХIХ века: статья посвящена взаимоотношениям Германии и Турции и повышенному интересу к развитию этих отношений со стороны Англии, Франции и России. Рецензируемая статья написана в публицистическом стиле и представляет собой анализ исторических событий в контексте их влияния на развитие международной политики. На протяжении всего текста статьи автор не просто отображает конкретные факты в ходе истории, но и выражает собственное мнение на роль конкретных исторических личностей и их действий в ходе истории. Договор между Турцией и Германией о строительстве железной дороги охарактеризован автором как заключение экономического, финансового и политического союза двух стран. В работе отмечены особенности немецкой, английской, французской и русской политики и их конкуренция по отношению к влиянию на Турцию. В конце статьи сделан вывод о том, что первый визит Вильгельма II в Константинополь представлен в статье как начало новой эры в отношениях Германии и Турции. Из недостатков статьи можно отметить некоторую повторяемость мыслей. Отличная аналитическая статья. С уважением!!! Article "Ottoman Turkey in the context of the Eastern policy of the German Empire in the nineteenth century," examines some aspects of world politics of the late nineteenth century: the article is devoted to the relationship of Germany and Turkey, and increased interest in the development of these relations on the part of Britain, France and Russia. Peer-reviewed articles written in journalistic style and presents an analysis of historical events in the context of their impact on the development of international policies. Throughout the text of the article the author is not simply displays the specific facts in the course of history, but also expresses his own opinion on the role of specific historical figures and their actions in the course of history. Agreement between Turkey and Germany to build a railroad described by the author as the conclusion of economic, financial and political alliance between the two countries. The paper noted the peculiarities of German, English, French and Russian politicians and their competition with respect to the effect on Turkey. The article concludes that the first visit of Wilhelm II in Constantinople presented in the article as the beginning of a new era in relations between Germany and Turkey. Shortcomings of the article can be noted some thoughts repeatability.

Treschalin Michail Yuriyevich

Уважаемый Тигран Мартинович! Очень интересный, познавательный и серьезный анализ. Но общее впечатление, что Вы опубликовали только часть большой работы. Жду продолжения. С уважением д.т.н., профессор М.Ю. Трещалин

Tigran Khachatryan

Уважаемый Господин Клюйков!Спасибо вам за комментарий на статью. Изучив Ваш комментарий, я заметил, что Вы довольно детально проанализировали статью и идеи, которые выражены в нем. Но, хотелось бы отметить, что все факты, которые приведены в статье, отражают ту действительность, которая выражена в исторических документах Архива. Эти архивные документы впервые представляются в таком широкомасштабном обороте.

Tigran Khachatryan

Уважаемый Владимир Викторович, благодарю Вас за комментарии и высокую оценку на мою статью, надеюсь что наше сотрудничество в дальнейшем даст свои плоды в процессе развитии моих научных навыков.

Aleksey Konovalov

Статья отражает сферу увлечений автора - касается предметного анализа исторических событий. Эмпирики достаточно. Ключевых выводов не хватает.

Verstiuk Volodymyr

Уважаемый Тигран Хачатрян! Ваша статья актуальна. Приведенные аргументы и факты действительно дают все предпосылки утверждать о начале “новой эры в отношениях между Турцией и Германией”. С уважением, Владимир Верстюк.

Roman Kljujkov

Уважаемый Тигран Хачатрян! Большим историческим материалом Вы воссоздали сложную палитру (еще не картину) тайной политики пяти империй в одном из центров их экономических интересов. И всё это было «выдавлено из тюбиков» исторических документов на «тонкую дощечку» доклада «с вырезом для большого пальца» с целью нарисовать малюсенький самоочевидный вывод «The cooperation between Germany and Turkey in the political, military and economical fields became more practical». Всё несомненное богатство красок Вашей палитры осталось на самой палитре – неиспользованным и без надежды на использование! Жалко трудов, потраченных на «выдавливание». С уважением, Клюйковы

Simonian Geworg

Отличная аналитическая статья. С уважением Г.С.Симонян
PARTNERS
 
 
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