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Dnipropetrovsk State Medical Academy, Ukraine
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Ukraine";
Purpose of research. Peasants’ questionnaires were collected in the rural settlements of Dnipropetrovsk region in order to estimate health status interviewing by thei rsubjective vision.
Materials and methods.The field study has been conducted among 75 peasants located in rural settlements of Dnipropetrovsk region(experimental group),and data of sociological survey among 75 town-dwellers living in Dnipropetrovsk city (control group). Questionnaireincluded 24 standard questionsfocused on the point of view respondents as well as their attitude toward different types of additional potable water treatment. Test –questionnaire subjective estimation of the peasants health contained 29 questions, whose answered "yes", or "no". General estimation have showneach respondent answerscalculated as follows: "excellent" health – 0 – 2points; "good" – 3 – 5points; "satisfactory" – 6 – 9 points; "poor" – up to 10 points.Thus, negative wereanswers "yes" to 1 – 25 questions, "no" – toquestions27–29, "poor" to question26. Criterion of estimation in the baseline study carried out age for adult population(both men and women) – from 35 to 55 years, average impact of potable water varied – 5 – 10 years and over 10 years, dwelling in this region: 5 – 10 years and over 10 years.
Keywords: questionnaire, subjective estimation,healthstatus, respondent, rural settlements, peasants, experimental and control group, sociological survey.
Results and discussion. According to the sociological survey, an average term of dwelling from 5 to 10 years at the peasants’ population (experimental group)was statistically amounted to 23.93±0.35 %,compare to city-dwellers (control group) 22.37±0.19%(p < 0.05).The data obtained in the study showed that quantity of inhabitants with 10 years term of dwellingwas varied from (78.03±0.52) % to (74.87±2.28) % in both groupsof supervision (Figure 1.).
Figure 1. Average term of dwellingfor experimental and controlgrouprespondents located in Dnipropetrovsk region.
Generally, above 10 – year period of consumptionpotable water from local sources have been available for 78.73±1.12 %peasants population and 74.93±2.22 %town-dwellers. The whole distribution for thoserespondents, who determined with answer, was shifted in the measure 49.20±29.53 % compared with control group 48.25±26.68 %.
Professional compositionincluded: 56.50±3.01 %worker staff(p < 0.05) and 42.60±1.45 %paper – shuffler (p < 0,001)among the peasants population. Percentige of paper – shuffler among town-dwellers was higher57.87±0.47 %in comparison with worker staff 42.60±1.45 %(p < 0.05).Our investigations were informative for respondents, who determined with answer: 49.55±6.95 %of peasants and 50.23±7.63 % respondentsin thecontrol group.
Our study describes data on average age related both to peasants’ population (33.33±0.52) yearsand town-dwellers (35.07±0.54) years.It is well documented that distribution on the gender shift showed that only 51.93±0.81 %of women more than 56.10±0.66 %of men took partin a questionnairein the statistical evaluation of the given data(p < 0.001) (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Gender composition for respondents in experimental and control group.
The sametendency as well as absence of respondents’ complaintswas carried out among city inhabitants. Thus, respondents from control groupanswered "no", if they bring up any health problems with cardiovascular system: each 56 from 75 respondents, e.i. 73.47±1.34 %; if they have any vision problem: each 58 town-dwellers – 74.87±2.28%; or possible defness: every 65 respondents 85.13±0,97 % inhabitant of city.
Detailed analysis subjective vision state of health among respondents from rural settlements by the percentige of positive answers "yes"have shown, that all questionswere classificated in order to 20 positions. The first place takes 70.13±0.33% of statistically significant peasantsanswers, if they have ever had sudenly getting up moodor happinesswithout reason (p < 0.001). Healthy life standards were on the second place as well as quantity of interviewing covered healthylife style – 66.77±1.79 %(p < 0.05).On the third placewere located 55.33±2.74 %of peasants, having meteorological predisposition; 53.97±0.38 %respondents from rural settlements, felling high level of working and mental capacity, as well as before (p < 0.001).Above 47.53±1.07 % of rural inhabitants felt parahypnosiss through agitation, 34.97±0.84 % of respondents have discomfort throught choose of certain meals(p < 0.001). Seven place covered 32.53±1.21 %of peasants, occupied by complaints about pain in the back(p < 0.05); the last 31.37±0.41 %of respondents complaints about violation of memory; over 27.87±0.08 % focused on the pain in joints (p < 0.001). Tenth place wasoccupied by displays from cardiovascular system, namely 24.30±1.87 % of peasants, as well as 24.30±1.87%felt symptoms of hipertensive illness(p < 0.05, t = 6.573), 24.30±0.57 %–shortbreathing at the rapid walking.
As analysis questionnaire data testifies, the first places among inhabitants inthecontrol group occupy positive answers "yes" on the followings questions: "Haveyou ever hadsudenly getting up of moodorhappiness?" –79.77±1.07 %of respondents(p < 0.001); 79.07±0.70 % of town-dwellers showed high capacity, as well as before, and 72.83±1.18 % regulary visitedcity beachs (p < 0.05).On the one hand, city inhabitants followed high life style standards according to the results of questionnaire. On the other hand, respondents in the control group have poor state of healthin order to their point of view by the results of self–test questionnaire subjective estimation. Totally, for control group a reliable tendency to increase complaints about somnipathies through agitation, as count 61.03±0.14 % of respondents (p < 0.001), no less sensible city inhabitants tometeorological changes – 55.27±2.46 %, e.i. 30.47±0.08 % carried out severe pain in joints (p < 0.001).
Taking into acount respondents middle age:35.07±0.54years,professional composition– paper – shuffler, the most respondents complaintswere focused on the muscularsceletal systemdisorders – 25.17±2.04 % (p < 0.05, t = 3.102); cardiological medicationsuseage – 24.70±0.70 % (p < 0.05); specific cardiac insufficiencyshifts, as well as lower extremities edemata: 23.70±1.70 % (p < 0.05).Complaints about violation of memorycovered around 23.50±1.73 % of cityinhabitants. Shortbreathing at the rapid walking was observed among 23.27±0.43 %, andpain in a hepatic area noticed 21.40±0.32 % of respondents from control group (p < 0.001). Symptoms of dizziness were characterizedfor 21.03±0.37 % of city inhabitants (p < 0.05, t = 6.031).The majority of town-dwellers – 21.03±0.37 %felt discomfort during meals(p < 0.001, t = 15.152), e.i.20.40±1.65 % of urban population have an off-flavour in an oral cavity.
Among city inhabitants were carriedout tendency to increase complaints about violation of digestion, as showed 17.33±0.20 % of polled, confirmed by both statistical criteria (p < 0.05, t = 3.759). Besides, for young respondents, presented by men56.10±0.66 %,increased number of central nervous system complaints, namely 17.23±0.17 % of population inthis group, i.e. hardness to concentrate attention (p < 0.05, t = 5.202). The minority of respondents:12.03±0.89 %among city inhabitants were easily to cry (t = 2.374). On the last place city-dwellers have showed symptoms of hypertensive illness, by the results of sociological survey – 11.87±0.29 %of interviewing(p < 0.05, t = 6.573), every 7respondent, e.i. 8.56±0.62 % felt noise, a tingle (p < 0.001, t = 10.325).
Aninterviewing carried out self–test questionnaire as well as subjective estimationstate of healthby the following criteria: "good", "satisfactory", "poor", "unsatisfactory".Consequently, on the first place located subjective estimation state of healthas well as "satisfactory"for 39.02±5.54 %questionnaired peasants. Second position belongs to "poor health"– 30.73±5.47%, the third place carried out for 23.97±5.37 % of self–testanswer as "unsatisfactory health". At least, 26.77±1.79 % peasants from local settlements estimated themself as well as"good health". Majority of interviewing among city inhabitants, e.i. 42.88±7.26 %have showed "satisfactory health",31.14±7.51 %consider to have "poor health", only 28.77±1.80 % estimated their health condition as "good". The minority of city respondents – 23.96±6.69 %estimated their health as well as "unsatisfactory".
Total estimation health status among interviewing in both groups by the general quantity of answers "no"have tendency to increase. Therefore, most of the peasants respondents from local settlements carried out "poor health"– 23.73±2.28 %. "Satisfactory" estimation own state of health was shiftedto 20.02±1.62 % of polled, 17.92±1.73 % consider to have "good health". On the last place were 14.13±0.33 %of interviewing peasants in the settlements (experimental group), carried out "excellent health", those answeres varied from 0 to 2 marks(Figure 3).
Figure 3. Generalsubjective self –estimation state of health interviewing peasants in the settlements (experimental group),by10 –ball scale.
Unfavorable tendency wasobserved among answers of interviewing city-dwellers (control group). The follow-up surveys have followed that 20 respondents, e.i. 23.47±1.73 % have "poor health";every23 interviewing – 22.91±2.29 %estimated theirstate of health as well as "satisfactory"; 20 city inhabitants, e.i. 19.22±2.10 % have shown "good health";12 respondents, namely 14.93±0.83 % consider to have "excellentstate of health".
Conclusions.For retrospective survey until 2011-2013 years, standardized questionnaire was designed for interviewing, which were constantly locatedon the rural settlements over 10 years, age group varied (from 33.33±0.52 to 35.07±0.54)years. Gender and professional composition in the experimental group carried out by women – working staff, for control group was represented by men – paper – shuffler. The data obtained in the sociological study showed, that most of the peasants population estimatedtheirstate of health as well as "unsatisfactory": 23.73±2.28 %,self–estimation such as "satisfactory health"was found in20.02±1.62 % of respondents. The largest effect has been found in 23.47±1.73 %of interviewing city-dwellers (control group), carried out "poor health"against 22.91±2.29 % of respondents in order to have "satisfactory"health condition.
In the course of this part of the study given data was link with healthy lifestyle, carried out among respondents in both groups, on the basis of positive answers "yes" testify to 29, 30, 31question of questionnaire. According to the data of follow-up study, percent of negative answers"no", collected from the given respondents, have tendency to increasein order to demonstrate worsening state of population health. After collecting questionnaires from 150 respondents in both groups (n = 75) new data will be received in order to improve that majority of respondents self – estimated their health as well as "satisfactory" – most of answers varied (from 39.02±5.54 to 42.88±7.26)%.