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The article deals with learning technologies that are effective in the training of future teachers in the formation of inter-ethnic tolerance in terms of university studies. It is proved that obtaining practical experience by the future teachers to educate students in interethnic tolerance may be performed by using the method of project training.
Keywords: technology training method, future teachers project training, ethnic tolerance, students in secondary schools.
В статье рассматривается технологии обучения, которые являются эффективными в подготовке будущих учителей к формированию межнациональной толерантности учеников в условиях ВУЗа. Доказано, что преобретение практического опыта будущих учителей по воспитанию межнациональной толерантности в учеников может осуществлятся путем использования метода проэктного обучения.
Ключeвые слова: технологии обучения, метод проэктного обучения, будущие учителя, межнациональная толерантность, ученики общеобразовательных школ.
Statement of the problem.Tolerance of the individual is one of the current challenges .To resolve it scholars are engaged, as well as practitioners of various social institutions. Important role in its solution belongs to the teacher , who is the main leader of the ideas of peaceful co-existence in international society. In terms of education,modernization of its new social role lies in readiness to bring upyoung people in the global democratic space.
In a multicultural society it is the teacher who is to initiate the active support of a cultural dialogue through which students would be able to know the essence of others , themselves throughcomparison and interaction with others, to acquire the skills of empathy, practical cooperation between different ethnic groups. Equally important is the role of the teacher on educational level, to serve as a bridge of ideas fundamental principle of political strategy - of peaceful co-existence between states, countriesand people, rejecting any military solution of ethnic and religious conflicts .
Due to expansion and deepening of human communication there is a growing need in the formation of personality, who is able to build this relationship on the principles of tolerance : respect, acceptance and understanding of the diversity of our world's cultures, forms of expression and ways of being human, harmony in diversity.  The development of the global information space of a teacher confronts the task to form in the younger generation 's ability to live and work in a fundamentally new environment based on the principles of tolerance , understanding and cooperation.
In this regard, there’s asearch for technology training ,-training that would prepare future teachers to work in today's multicultural world.
Effective in preparing future teachers for the formation of inter-ethnic tolerance under universitytraining of students is, in our opinion, the design method of training as a student engages in active participation in public life and learns professional competence through direct action. Awareness of the need to prepare future professional to educate pupils in ethnic tolerance is carried out not only in the theoretical training, but when the future teacher learns to perceive and understand the diversity of cultures of the world, forms of expression and ways of being human in daily life. Directlyin such activities and professional outlook, skills of interaction, independence judgments, critical thinking, boldnessin action and reflexivity are formed, and as a result , future professionals form a set of knowledge and skills, personal qualities that define their professional competence .
Analysis of recent research and publications.The issue of tolerance of the individual concerns the current scientific and educational community , world and national level. Among contemporary research in Ukraine major fundamental achievements in this direction have been studied by O.Bezkorovayna , I.Beh , V.Kremen , M. Fitsuly , A. Shvachko .
Strategic directions of tolerance in education determines O.Savchenko. Pedagogical aspects of this issue highlights Sukhomlinskyi,characterizing features of modern transformational changesin education as a social process .
The scientist notes that tolerance in the current context of education should be seen as a general methodologicalapproach.
The founder of the concept of multicultural education is an American scientist D. Banks.
The European scientific world is actively seeking coexistence of different people. Among itsrepresentatives are the evelopersofintercultural pedagogy - Esinher G. , A. Thomas , L Ekstrand.
The study of the scientific achievements of foreign scientists contribute to the deepening and expansion of theoretical and practical experienceoftolerance of future teachers.
Gaining practical experience in trainingof future teachers of ethnic tolerance among students , ashas been noted above, can be carried out efficiently through the use of project-based learning .
A project is everything that is made up or planned. Project (derived from Latin,means " thrown forward ") is conceived as a prototype of the object. In World Encyclopedia this phenomenon is interpreted as a " prototype , the prototypeof the object offered.
Development of the project requires , first , knowledge about the objects of design , function and operation of environmental activities ( reality), introduced in the imagination transformed objects , and secondly , knowledge, techniques and conceptual design tools as a specific form of activity "[ 4 , c. 234 ].
As stated by O.Korzh the project work contributes to students' tolerance ( tolerance to anotherperson, understanding that all people are individual and unique, that everyone is entitled to their own opinion ), empathy ( the ability to see the " relation " of every member that occurs during comprehension "identical" experience of human problems , the ability to express oneself and the relationship to otherperson, the ability to convey understanding to a partner,one’sfeelings or internal situation (" the way of existence with one another ") [ 6].
This method takes on new goals, objectives , content and consequently the results.
Among the educational projects that contribute to preparing students for the formation of inter-ethnic tolerance is " We are different,we are equal ", " Formation of intercultural tolerance of the individual in the context of youth subcultures ", " Europe Day ", etc. . Toward methodological trainingoffuture teachers to educate students on ethnic tolerance we offer theproject "Learning to nurture tolerant personality."
Aim: practical training of future teachers to educate the pupilss on ethnic tolerance .
Usage of project method will provide: deepeningand broadeningthe knowledge of future teachers on tolerance as a universal value , a means of international communication , the formation of interest in this type of activity, developing skills to plan , organizing activities and predictingthe results , developingskills to diagnose the level of formation of tolerant behavior of pupils . Duration: 2 - 3 months.
Results of the project : presentation of the project by the methodical association of class teachers .
Terms of the project:
1) students’study the ethnic composition of pupils in the class ;
2) study of ethnic and cultural history of the future expert representatives of the nations ;
3) development of goals , objectives , content and methods of education in the students of ethnic tolerance ;
4) presentation of the method of forming inter-ethnic tolerance in pupils ;
5) study the impact of the project;
6)presentation of the project by the methodical association of class teachers .
7) to gain experience by future teachers on the formation of ethnic tolerance.
Stages of the project:
1. Preparation (selection of methods for the study of problems).
2. Exploring the ethnic composition of pupils group and the level of tolerance relations.
3. Exploring issues of ethnic relations in the student group
4. Study the formation of tolerance in parents.
5. Development of methods to influence the system settings of the pupil ;
6. Presentation of the project by the methodical associationofclass teachers of the school ;
7. Evaluation of the project.
At the preparatory stage the theoretical training of project participants is held: the selection of methods, which determine the level of formation of tolerant relations of pupils, methodical selection of educational, encyclopedic , regional literature , conducting the workshop that would stimulate students to work on the project , a series of exercises related to ethnic, linguistic tolerance , the formation of impartiality and the ability to overcome their stereotypes and stereotypes of pupils.
At the stage of studying the ethnic composition of the pupils group,students-participants of the project are conducted with training on drafting questionnaires, interview training , working with spring framework,receiveconsultationson the collection and analysis of information.
Students will identify possible areas of work (history of settlementin theland, geographical originof residents in displacement history , traditions and customs, food , clothing , household items, education traditions , family values , traditional medicine , etc.). An important task at this stageis thatstudents are learning to analyze , systemize, create a portfolio, artifacts and so on.
An important step in the student's work on the project is to determine the level of formation of tolerance in parents.The next step -studentsdevelop a set of methods to influence the installationsof the pupil.
Students receive consaltations on building motivation of pupils for their support during the project.
- Selection of interesting problems;
- Creating conditions for self-assertion, self-learning;
- Underlining the importance of students ;
- Selection of responsesto the success of work.
An important condition for the effectiveness of project method is the procedure of reflection. During the reflection, students discuss achievementsof their goals and analyze the group relationships.
Application of the project willencourage:
1) the formation of professional skills in the field of training of future teachers with the formation of ethnic tolerance in pupils ;
2) the development of a balancedproblem solutionsand skills related to problem solving relationships tolerant of different nationalities;
3) the development of reflective skills.
1. Banks, James. Multiethnic education: Theory and practice. Toronto: Allyn and Bacon, 1981. - 502 p.
2. Essinger, H,: Inerkulturelle Erziehung in multikulturellen Gesellschaften. In: Marburger, H. (Hg.): Schule in der multikulturellen Gesellschaft: Ziele, Aufgaben und Wege interkultureller Erziehung. Frankfurt / M: Verlag fur interkultureller Kommunikation, 1991. - 223 p.
3. Multicultural Education [ electronic resource ] / Lakemba Public School. - Mode of access : http://www.schools.ash.org.au/Lakemba/multied.html
4. Goncharenko U. S. Social and Pedagogical Dictionary / U. S. Goncharenko , ed. VV Radul . - K.: EksOb , 2004. - S.234 .
5. Declaration of Principles of Tolerance . Adopted by the General Conference XXVIII member states of UNESCO (October 25 - November 16, 1995). - Paris : United Nations, 1996. - p. 176.
6. Korzh O. Amethod of projects as a source of professionally significant qualities of future doctors / Elena Korzh / / Proceedings of Uman State Pedagogical University named after Paul Ticina Uman. - Uman , 2013 . - P.126 - 131.
7. Pehota AM Educational Technology [ Textbook ]. / O. Pehota , A3. Kiktenko , ON Lyubarskaya et al. - K.: ASK , 2004. - 256 p.
8. Polat E.S.New Pedagogicaland Information Technologies in education system : [Handbook for students of pedagogicalcolleges system of developingof ped. personnel ]. / ES Polat , M. Buharkyna , N.V.Moiseev , A.E.Petrov. - Moscow: Printinghouse" Academy ", 2002. - 272 p.