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PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY AS AN INSTRUMENT OF MANAGING DELIMITATION CONFLICTS

Автор Доклада: 
Rodyk H.
Награда: 
PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY AS AN INSTRUMENT OF MANAGING DELIMITATION CONFLICTS

УДК 327.56

PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY AS AN INSTRUMENT OF MANAGING DELIMITATION CONFLICTS

Rodyk Habriella, Junior Researcher at the Department of International Information
National University “Lviv Politechnic

The article deals with the problems of delimitation conflicts after the post-Cold War period. The main methods of preventive diplomacy as the principle instrument of warning the outbreak of violence and hostile of conflicts escalation are described. Preventive diplomacy strategies are considered as well.
Keywords: preventive diplomacy, boundary conflicts, territorial claims, preventive conflict strategies, early conflict warning.

Статтю присвячено проблемам територіальних конфліктів після Холодної війни. Також окреслено основні методи превентивної дипломатії як основного інструменту попередження проявів жорстокості і ворожості в процесі ескалації конфліктів. Також розглянуто основні стратегії превентивної дипломатії.
Ключові слова: превентивна дипломатія, територіальний конфлікт, територіальні претензії, превентивні стратегії, раннє попередження конфліктів.

Conflicts on the basis of territorial division and boundaries claims are as old as times. With the development of civilization it was natural that some regions and states developed quicker than the others and the goal of more powerful states was to annex weaker regions for increasing their territories, potency and access to benefits. Nowadays the essence of such type of conflicts is mixed up a bit: we do not have evident rapacious conflicts, but one can observe latent claims of aforementioned issues.

Boundaries are an interesting phenomenon. They bring states together whether they want it or not. States with a common boundary share at least minimum degree of relation and cannot totally ignore each other. In fact, boundaries create a prima facie hostile situation because “my neighbor is my enemy” (Nordquist, 2000). Boundary conflicts affair with states’ separating lines that in conflict situations are usually undelimited or undermarcated or because of contested passing of boundary lines. Moreover, nation’s interests in such cases are frequently intersected exactly on the frontier areas.

Conflicts between neighbors over the control of space are a very important issue for the time being, because it is one of the greatest threats to the world peace. Very often such conflicts are characterized by violence, using weapon which leads to menace to civilians.

In a world made up of many states that incorporate several nationalities, the territorialization of nations has every potential for becoming one of the most disruptive factors in the twenty-first century. It is already a matter of concern that over two hundred ethnic and religious minorities and subordinate majorities throughout the world “are contesting the terms of their incorporation into the ‘world order’ ”. In this perilous climate, it is good to try to solve territorial claims once they burst into open confrontation; it is better still to prevent them from escalating into mass violence (Ayissi, 2000).

The current interests of the up-to-date society are to produce effective methods of regulating ongoing territorial and boundary conflicts. One of the supreme creations of the human spirit is the idea of prevention. Like liberty and equality, it is a seminal concept drawn from a reservoir of optimism that centuries of epidemics, famines, and wars have failed to deplete. It is an amalgam of hope and possibility which assumes that misery is not an undefiable mandate of fate, a punishment only redeemable in a later life, but a condition that can be treated like a disease and sometimes cured or even prevented (Сahill, 1996). Great attention is paid to the preventive diplomacy as to the powerful instrument of preventing, regulating or suppression of territorial or ethnic conflicts. Preventive Diplomacy is a new diplomatic concept that is liked by many UN member states which includes the prevention of suffering of humans and providing an alternative way of dealing the conflicts rather than with expensive political and military ways. UN under the agreement of related government or states is playing an active role in many areas such as good governance, humanitarian and economic and social development (Lee, 2009). Especially post-Cold War period that involved a large number of ethnic conflicts with civil and interstate disturbances and which is often determined as the beginning of the New World Order proves the effectiveness of the methods of preventive diplomacy in managing ethno political conflicts with changeable progress. It means that sometimes no finalized ways of preventive diplomacy, as a quite new approach to conflict regulating, can put situation into stalemate usually because of the exaggerated attitude of state’s governments to its significance without a proper understanding of its mechanism. Let’s try to explore the benefits of preventive diplomacy in managing territorial and boundaries ethno political conflicts.

Preventive diplomacy – is the complex of actions, peacekeeping operations, directed to notification emerging disputes between parties, prevent escalation of conflicts and disputes in limiting the scope of conflict and its main goal is to settle the dispute before the outbreak of violence.

Early conflicts warning is a considerable part of early prevention, preventive actions can save a lot of human lives and natural resources and goods. Very little amount of territorial and boundaries conflicts are unexpected, most of them exist for a very long period in linger stage before their outbreaks.

Preventive diplomacy requires the ability to sniff trouble in its early stages and than take steps to avoid it. This does not happen routinely or predictably (Jentleson, 2000).

The practice shows that every conflict is unique, even if, at the first sight, conflicts have common claims, as in our items – boundary or territorial challenges. That is why it is obvious that there can not be a standard preventive diplomacy strategy, usually preventive actions require mixed strategies international mediation, negotiating and barging strategies, preventing military deployment.

Preventive diplomacy strategies include such methods as: international mediation, negotiating and bargain strategies, mediated negotiations, preventive military deployments and other methods for successful peacemaking process. All these methods intend to achieve trade-off and durable interstate agreement.

Some states try to use methods of preventive diplomacy to software national security, for instance, in the “National Security Strategy of the United States” preventive diplomacy is declared as a very efficient, flexible, adequate to the wide range of potential threats tool for national security and even regional and global security.

Judging by the information mentioned above, there can be made a conclusion that preventive diplomacy is an essential part of world’s peace preservation. Were it not for the frequent practice of preventive diplomacy on many levels, this conflicted world would be a much more hostile place than it is (Zartman, 2000). A large majority of boundary conflicts de-escalated through methods of preventive diplomacy and mostly by mediated negotiations.

Thus each time more and more nations realize that preventive diplomacy is an important policy tool, effective either in solving the problem of conflict prevention or as a tool of national security.

References:
1. Ayissi, Anatole “Territorial Conflicts: Claiming the Land”. Preventive negotiations: Avoiding Conflict Escalation. Rowman&Littlefield Publishers, inc.: New York, 2000.
2. Cahill, Kevin, M. Preventive Diplomacy: Stopping Wars before They Start. Basic Books: New York. 1996.
3. Jentleson, Bruce W. “Preventive diplomacy: A Conceptual and analytic framework”. Opportunities Missed, Opportunities Seized:Preventive Dilomacy in the Post-Cold War World. Rowman&Littlefield Publishers, inc.: New York, 2000.
4. Lee, Shin-wha. "International Conflict and Preventive Diplomacy : The Role of UNPKO in the 21st Century" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2009-05-26<http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p73157_index.html>
5. Nordquist, Kjell-Ake “Boundary conflicts: Drawing the line”. Preventive negotiations: Avoiding Conflict Escalation. Rowman&Littlefield Publishers, inc.: New York, 2000.
6. Zartman, William “Prevenrive Diplomacy: Setting the Stage”. Preventive negotiations: Avoiding Conflict Escalation. Rowman&Littlefield Publishers, inc.: New York, 2000. 

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