facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley
Wiki

SOCIAL COHESION AS A KEY ELEMENT OF ENTIRE CIVIL SOCIETY FORMATION

Автор Доклада: 
Шалбин В. Л.
Награда: 
SOCIAL COHESION AS A KEY ELEMENT OF ENTIRE CIVIL SOCIETY FORMATION

SOCIAL COHESION AS A KEY ELEMENT OF ENTIRE CIVIL SOCIETY FORMATION.

Shalbin Vladimir L., PhD
Ivanovo State University of Civil Engineering

Author analyzes the main issues of socio-political transformation at the end of the 19th –the beginning of the 20th century. Special attention is paid to consideration of the social cohesion as an integral characteristic of the process of civil society formation quality. The main subject of the article is social action as an invariable indicator of social transformation construction.
Key words: Social cohesion, social integration, solidarity, civil society, intelligentsia, social transformation, information-oriented society, social action, social space, social periphery.

In the condition of the worldwide process of globalization, modernization and democratization, the civil society found its independent power, became leading, determinative and decisive factor in evolutional process. New tendencies appeared in the relations between the state and the society. They have more dynamic and interdependent character and came closer to the vital interests of each of these actors. By-turn, social cohesion, at our viewpoint, gives just that characteristic of the process of modern civil society formation quality, which can orient society in the condition of social transformation, oppose destruction, crisis, and decline, neutralizes tense conflicts and promote social stability, its improvement and strengthening.

Undoubtedly, social cohesion, that means social integration, order promotion, providing social and national cohesion, prevention of social alienation from the government - is the result of civil society maturity, stuffing process of civil society formation by qualitative content.

Nevertheless, dialect character of civil society development indicates that in the interest of reliable scientific knowledge there is productive statement of the question, which is not formulated as weather civil society was established or not, but in what extent, or on what level of development is it?
When the civil society is the place of self-production of social justice and the community of cohesiveness, the question is where should we search for potential of cohesiveness in the civil society and how should we mobilize this potential.

It’s important to say, that character of definite epoch, its independent culture-mental, vision, technical space, social subject’s status defines conditions and modulate the character of social reorganization. First of all, we are interested in the qualitative process of social transformation from the traditional forms of existence (industrial society) to the developed civil society in the new conditions of postmodern, which is directly actual problem, as in features of Russian society, as for the global world.

Answering the question today, what is the reason of the underdeveloped social cohesion in the modern world, we are facing the rage of problems, which prevent an optimization of social system in essence, the problems which can prevent deep disclosure on internal social potential. One of the problems is the growth of the social isolation in the individual postindustrial society, including deficit of morality.

“In social sphere postmodernism correspond to the consumer society and mass media, the main characteristics of which detected as amorphous, fuzzy and indefinite. There is no definite social-class structure. The level of the consumption - mostly material – comes out as the main issue of the social stratum division. This is the society of general conformism and compromise. It‘s hard to employ such a notion as the people to this society, because it turns into faceless “electorate”, into amorphous mass of “consumers” and “clients”… Postmodern man… inclines to live in one day, not very concerns himself with tomorrow, fortiori with far future. Professional and finance success becomes the main stimulus for him. And he should reach this success not at the end of the life, but as sooner as possible. For the sake of this postmodern man is ready to waive his principals… His view is less of sufficient solid support, because all forms of the ideology detects fuzzy and indefinite…this view can be defined as neo-fatalism…man can’t perceive himself as the master of his own life… He understands that a lot of things in his life depend on play of chance, success and good luck… Postmodern society loses its interest to the purposes”. [1, P.304]

General view, mental field, cultural space is some kind of mosaic here, that is why social transformation doesn’t detected here by overpersonal subjects (classes, nations, etc.), but specified by individuals and there independent associations, on the one hand, and on the other hand – it’s defined in the main part by system-organized processes of technical, technological and informational aspect. "Elite (first of all political) and society”, “intellectual – representatives of the Mass Media”, etc. become the clearest display of socio-subjective diverse.

Principle of social development mechanism through the subjective transformation in the modern post-traditional world reveals semantic, communicative, constructive behavior of the subject. We can observe that during civil society formation the most important thing today are reconsideration of the social integrity, its “conversion” through view-semantic, value setting. That means the change of the manner of social representation for contemporaries, revaluation of the most important means of life support, etc.

The transformation of our society to the post-socialistic epoch through “Perestroika” is the confirmation of our words. It weren’t revolutionary shock: there wasn’t revolutionary violation, mass bloodshed, civil war. This transformation to capitalism “from above” was ensured by widespread implementation of different myths and by misrepresentation of historical facts, conversion of public consciousness through destruction of previous ideology and undermining of life support of that environment, which was ensured by that ideology: the absence of products in the shops, reduction of the injustice to the decision about nationalities issue (deportation, etc.). There was information society resource used in full, in which textual form of social existence and peculiarity of its verbal definition have the most important meaning.

One can agree with P. Bourdieu, that “capacity to implement explicitly, to make public, objective, obvious, proper, that means official, something that should have access to the objective and collective existence…has the horrible social power – power to make groups, forming common sense, obviously expressed consensus for any group. Really, this work for elaboration of categories – revelation and classification – is made uninterruptedly, in every moment of ordinary existence, because of that struggle, which opposes agents with different sensation of social world and positions in this world, different social identity with a help of any kind of formulae: good and bad declarations, blessings or condemnations… It’s clear that one of the basic formula of political power in many archaic societies was in almost magical power: to name and to call for existing with a help of nominations”. [2, P.66-67]

Transformation was formed here on the existential-psychological level of social subjects being, in many respects the model of Ahieser A.S.: the society felt discomfort of its existence in new conditions of post-industrialization and globalization, that’s why, adapting to them, restore its comfort, psychological self-sensation and self-identity through the change of ideals, that means new vision of reality. Consequently, the vision was found to be really important and effective instrument in mechanism of social transformation, which was implemented in former Soviet republics, while transforming to capitalism. [3]

Nevertheless, change of value-semantic content within society didn’t interfere with the origin of erosion of social cohesion, revealed during the process of social periphery growth, increase of physical distance between social groups.

In this connection, we can note that the most important difference in social space is relation between power, supremacy and subjection. It structures social space directly, pointing centers and periphery out there, determining center seizure policy, appropriation of welfare and opportunities connected with this process. Exactly so social space of town, territory, state in whole, even world space are organized: there are always central areas picked up, resources and means of impact on other, periphery parts of this space.

P. Bourdie not only examined social space from the position of power and appropriation, but also showed how it’s structured through real political struggle. He notes: “Capability to dominate in appropriated area, above all at the expense of appropriated (material or symbolic) scarce welfare, which distributed to it, depends on available capital. The capital allows keeping away from undesirable people and things, minimizing costs thereby (especially time), which are needed for their appropriation. On the contrary, those, who is deprived of capital, are kept away either physically or nominally from the most scarce in social point of welfare and condemn to be in contact with people or things which are more undesirable and less scarce. The absence of capital brings the experience of finiteness to the most abysmal depths: it roots to the ground. And on the contrary, possession of capital provides apart from physical closeness to scarce welfare (place of abode), the presence as you would simultaneously in different places due to economical and symbolic domination over transport and service lines”, [4, P.69] which are also characteristics of social space – means of overcoming it in time.

Thereby, characteristics of the terms “social center” – “social periphery” determine peculiarities of social transformation. At the same time, there is always the instance, where transformation is recognized and determined as it is, as definite means in context (space) of delivered aims, which means civil society. Social transformation is direct consequence of different social subjects, their status and “energy potential”, that’s why transformation is constant “correction” of real condition of this subjects, specification of their position through the change of social structures and relations. Social transformation is means and result of subjective difference, which are connected with unequal positions of the subjects in society, their different functions. It expresses qualitative social change, and restore definite social structures correspondence and subjective interactions (differences) within social space due to them, promote development of stability and cohesion in this space.

The mechanism of social transformation, and the civil society formation correspondingly, always connected with dialect process of revelation and settlement of contradictions. That is why there are the stages where the contradiction reveals and settles: “antithesis” reveals an isolation of a new subject and its critical relation to this reality. It could be hold by inertia of the system, its institutions, technologies, etc., but isolation of the new subject from its base-society reveals new space, which should be structured and assimilated. In this case “synthesis” is transformation, which completes the mechanism of formation and open the way of reorganization, the process of social development, the development of the civil society.

Cohen and Arato emphasize, that society consisted of pluralistic and conflict interests, that is why there is a problem to implement the cohesion in all societies. [5] The pluralism of different interests presents as in open and democratic societies, as between the different societies. It means, that we should imply the presence intergroup cohesion between different societies. Assumption, that social reality consist of different conflict interests lead to the conclusion that social conflict, social action, social protest collective actions are key notions for the social development.”Social action” is the authentic expression of the civil society, and it should be the main form of the civil protection from the supremacy of economy and policy.

“Action” is the key notion of philosophy today and almost all social and cultural sciences; the efforts of creation the “theory of action” in all this disciplines are in the focus of attention of contemporary theories”.[6] “The social action model differs from other forms of community intervention in that it is grassroots based, conflict oriented, and geared to mobilizing disadvantaged people to act on their own behalf”.[7, P.329]

Solidarity is the result of individual experience where everyone is responsible for another, because they have the same interests on the strength of common identity.[8] The cohesion isn’t viewed as discernment of initial individuality, human essence in all people. It is viewed as ability to see traditional differences (religious, racial, cultural, etc.).[9]

Social transformation is more constructive model of social changes, because it touchs upon all social relations, transforming their essential characteristics, so far as beside the economical factors there is a range of other forces and tendencies of social transformation which happens not only through the social revolution but through cultural, informational, technological, ecological impact. In this connection social transformation is not identical with social revolution which is only the one kind of deep social reorganization. But we could also note that there are important forms of social reorganization as informational revolution, revolution in education, in the way of life, etc. There is identical mechanism: subjective-cultural projection is developed, which take off previous forms and means of legitimacy of proper infrastructures and organizations (systems), and mobilize the society in the direction of indicated alternative changes.

Thereby, we can conclude, that every epoch elaborate its own “models” of social changes quality, where means of transformation are well-founded. But the role and place of the subject in the process of social transformation construction is invariable: its behavior and characteristics determine the specificity of transformation, the process of civil society formation and its main content and integral characteristic of quality – social cohesion, as the indication and the source of social action. Social action in this case is directed on transformation of institutional means, which express values, interests and aims of the group, as it indicates the level of group cohesion, integration, order, stability and steadiness, resoluteness for self presentation of its needs.

Литература.

  • 1 Миронов В.В. Философия: Учебник для вузов , Москва, Норма, 2005. С.304.
  • 2 Бурдье П. Социальное пространство и генезис классов \\ Социология политики. М.: Socio-Logos, 1993. С. 66-67.
  • 3 Ахиезер А.С. Модернизация в России и конфликт ценностей. М., 1994.
  • 4 Бурдье П. Социология политики: Пер. с фр. Н. А. Шматко / Сост., общ. ред. и предисл. Н. А. Шматко. - М., 1993.С.69.
  • 5 Cohen J., Arato A. Civil Society and Political Theory. 1992.
  • 6 Joas Hans The Creativity of Action. 2005.
  • 7 Fisher R. Social Action Community Organization: Proliferation, Persistence, Roots, and Prospects // Strategies of Community Intervention, Macro-Practice. Rothman J., Erlich J., Tropman J. (Eds.) / Itasca (Ill.), 1995. P. 327.
  • 8 Хабермас Ю. «Демократия, разум, нравственность». М., 1992.
  • 9 Rorty R. Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity. Cambridge, 1989. 
0
Your rating: None
PARTNERS
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.