facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley
Wiki

Euroregional COOPERATION of UKRAINE IN the INTEGRATION PROCESSES

Автор Доклада: 
Gordienko V. P.
Награда: 
Euroregional COOPERATION of UKRAINE IN the INTEGRATION PROCESSES

УДК 339.92

EUROREGIONAL COOPERATION OF UKRAINE IN THE INTEGRATION PROCESSES

Gordienko Vita Pavlivna, Ph.D in Economics
State higher educational establishment “Ukrainian academy of banking
of the National bank of Ukraine”

The scientific and practical aspects of transfrontal regional development on the basis of euroregional conception are considered in the article. It was certain, that increasing of regions development level on the basis of eurointegration is one of the basic Ukrainian problems. It is well-proven that the insufficient use of geopolitical potential of country is conditioned the shortage of the organizational and financial providing.
Key words: transfrontal collaboration, European integration, European region, competitiveness of region, transfrontal cluster.

В статті розглянуті наукові та практичні аспекти транскордонного розвитку регіонів на основі впровадження єврорегіональної концепції. Визначено, що однією із основних проблем України є підвищення рівня розвитку її регіонів на основі євроінтеграції. Доведено, що недостатнє використання геополітичного потенціалу країни обумовлене браком організаційного та фінансового забезпечення.
Ключові слова: транскордонне співробітництво, європейська інтеграція, єврорегіон, конкурентоспроможність регіону, транскордонний кластер.

Introduction. Integration processes in Europe predetermine for Ukraine the special actuality the questions of effective forms for the European collaboration in form transfrontal collaboration. Modern euroregional collaboration comes forward to one of main instruments of regional economic policy mechanism of realization which positively influences on development of frontier (boundary) territories and state on the whole.

Analysis of the last researches and publications. Considerable attention is spared the problems facing the development of interregional and boundary collaboration in works of such domestic scientists, as: V. Andriychuk, P. Belen'kiy, O. Garasyuk, M. Dolishniy, N. Mikula, V. Pula, A. Filipenko, O. Chmir et al. The results of their researches embrace the wide circle of questions of the noted problem. In the same time questions of the scientifically-methodical providing of European regions creation and stimulation of their development are investigated not enough.

Objective. The purpose of the article is a scientific study of effective development directions of border areas on the basis of European regions implementation in the conditions of integration processes.

The main material research. Modern development is impossible without the participation of Ukraine in European integration processes, which play an important role in the democratization of political system, modernize the economy, overcoming the technological backwardness, attracting foreign investment and advanced technologies, creating new jobs, increasing competitiveness of domestic products, entering new global markets and economic and social progress. United Europe is today demonstrating the ability operatively to settle economic, social, environmental and political problems.

Ukraine has significant competitive advantages in the world economic system and for their effective use can participate in global integration processes. Unique natural resources potential of Ukraine can play an important role in the global economy. In a state cadastre on beginning of 2009 8658 deposits were counted 97th types of minerals [2]. In terms of coal reserves, iron, manganese and titan and zirconium ores, graphite, kaolin, potash salts, sulfur, clay, Ukraine belongs to one of the leading countries. (After the volumes of supplies of coal, ferrous, manganese ores, titan and zirconium ores, graphite, kaolin, potassium salts, fire-clays Ukraine belongs to one of leading countries of the world.) Recreation complex within the Azov-Black Sea, the Carpathian and Polisky subsectors has international economic and social importance. Unique agro-climatic and landed resources can be of great value in forming of world economic connections, in fact after the estimations of different research workers on territory of Ukraine from 6,7 to 12 percents of world black earths are concentrated. In same queue natural resources and terms are complemented a present production, labour and scientific and technical potentials.

In the conditions of globalization the important factor of development of productive forces is geopolitical and economic-geographical position of the state. In this relation Ukraine has competitive edges, namely: advantageous geographical location, general borders with EU, Russia closeness to the basic markets of production distribution, transit transport ways and others like that. However the modern analysis of Ukrainian regional development testifies to the presence of negative tendencies, in particular deepening of interregional contradictions, increasing of disproportions and intensifying of economic and social problems. Having regard to been let in on the ground Ukraine as the powerful European state, perspective direction is including of it to participating in a transfrontal collaboration. Development of interregional and frontier collaboration exactly is a modern world tendency and objective necessity, which sent to the improvement of the depressed territories state, to smoothing of different regions development levels and providing competitiveness of them.

Transfrontal territories are examined modern economic science as potential "poles of increase", which have prospects and terms for intensive development. In practice it is confirmed by realization of market reforms in Ukraine as a result of which a national economy becomes more open due to activation of external economic connections with other states. At these terms frontier territories of the nearby states become original enclaves where general investment projects will be realized after different directions of activity.

In accordance with European scope convention about a transfrontal collaboration between territorial communities or authorities a "transfrontal collaboration" means any general actions sent to strengthening and deepening of good-neighborliness’s between territorial communities or authorities which are under jurisdiction two or a few Contractual Parties, and on a conclusion to that end of any necessary agreements or achievement of agreements. A transfrontal collaboration comes true within the limits of competence of territorial communities, certain an internal legislation [1]. Transfrontal copulas arise up in the field of policy, economy, guard of natural environment, culture demographic adjusting and others like that.

Modern transfrontal collaboration of the states which have a general border shows up more fully in creation of the European regions. By the law of Ukraine "About a transfrontal collaboration" [5] the organizational form of administrative-territorial units of the European states, that executes in accordance with two- or multilateral agreements about a transfrontal collaboration is certain as the European region,

Ukraine owns necessary potential for an euroregional collaboration, in fact has land borders with seven states. From 27 regions of Ukraine 19 is frontier. On territory of such frontier areas, as Volyn, Zakarpattia, Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv, Luhansk Odesa, Sumy, Kharkiv, Chernivtsi, Chernihiv the eight European regions - "Boog", "Overhead Twig", "Dnepr", "Carpathians", "Nujniy Dynai", "Slobozhanschyna", "Donbas" and "Yaroslavna" are created [4]. Work is conducted on creation of the European region of "Syan" with participation of the frontier Ukrainian areas and Polish provinces, the primary purpose of which is adaptation of Ukraine to the economic terms and social standards of European Union. Perspective direction of the European regional policy realization is he Black Sea region of Ukraine, which develops dynamically, has considerable prospects in the use of transit and energy resource potential. On European Union initiative creation of the European region of Black sea Region is planned, according to sample to the European region "Adriatic", which will be entered by the Odesa area.

Unfortunately, European regions created with participation of Ukraine did not become the poles of economic development acceleration and on the modern stage remain declarative educations. It is necessary to develop conceptual principles of European regions development with the use of eurointegration experience of developed states in order to their becoming the effective structures in the mechanism of regional economic policy realization.

The European countries have a considerable experience in creation of the European regions in which the process of national economies integration began yet in a middle ХХ century, putting beginning to new conception of continent of "Europe of regions". In accordance with the marked conception the idea of the European regions creation consists in transformation of borders of the states from the lines of dividing into institution of international unity. Over then 150 European regions are created in the countries of Western, Central and East Europe [3], within the limits of which transfrontal and interterritorial collaboration develops stably. Informative centers, agencies of regional development, are created in every European region what assists the receipt of financial help for transfrontal projects. The legislative base of creation and functioning of the European regions are the agreements, celled by international organizations, CE, Association of Frontier Regions in particular: European scope convention about a transfrontal collaboration between territorial communities or authorities (in 1980); European charter of frontier and transfrontal regions (in 1981); European charter of local self-government (in 1985); European charter of regional self-government (in 1997).

A transfrontal collaboration is actively supported by European Union for the achievement of such strategic aims, as possibility of opening new markets of production, providing safety and political stability distribution in Europe, increasing of backward regions development level, speed-up development of national economies in post socialist countries and others like that. A ponderable value in an euroregional collaboration is played by sponsorship of European Union using the row of initiatives programs and projects, such as: INTERREG, PHARE CBC, TACIS CBC, PHARE CREDO, MEDA, CARDS, LACE. Every program has the ratified budget after different directions of frontier collaboration, such as: collaboration in development of power circuits, of communication and transport systems regional and territorial planning and others like that. In particular European Union is financially support international cooperation about eighty programs within the framework of initiative of Association INTERREG, that laid down : in a period 1994-1999 are 2 milliards 400 million euro; 2000-2006 - 5 milliards of euro; on a period 2007-2013 it is planned to spend 7 milliards 750 million euro [6]. In 90th of past century European Union began a transfrontal collaboration with the countries of Central and East Europe (Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia), that foresaw his financing from the resources of PHARE. The program of transfrontal collaboration of TACIS CBC operates successfully, which is sent to creation of possibilities for the local and regional structures of frontier regions of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova in defense of environment to development of a transport infrastructure, fight against the organized crime and others like that.

Usually the institutes of European Union spare greater attention to financing the frontier collaboration of EU countries-members or countries, which are candidates in membership. It costs to underline that the project of Slovakia, sent to European integration of Ukraine, starts in 2011 within the framework of which the monetary resources of European Union will be given for regional development of country which is not the EU member.

The important instrument of transfrontal collaboration financial and economic support on the modern stage of European integration deepening is a complex of levers of new Neighborhood European Policy (NEP) of EU. In accordance with NEP beginning from 2007 the new budgetary cycle of European Union began counted on 2007 - 2013, European Commission changed going near the grant of financial and technical help to the countries-neighbors of EU.

The sufficient financing of the European regions development programs allows to settle operatively the problems of increasing population life standard of frontier territories, creation and development of a transport and communication infrastructure, guard of natural environment, liquidation of technogenic catastrophes and natural calamities consequences, collaboration in the field of economics, educations, health protection, culture, sport and others like that.

The successful European regions functioning in Western Europe is depending on clear determination of transfrontal collaboration concrete aim. The international air field was built for maintenance of France, Germany and Switzerland frontier areas. Euroregional collaboration allowed improving an economic situation in the frontier regions of France, Belgium and Luxemburg after the set limitations of production permanent on metallurgical enterprises. The transfrontal collaboration of Spain and Portugal was sent to the improvement of development of rural territories, where a volume of GDP per capita was below on 44 - 72% from a middle index. The primary objective of the European region with participation of France and Spain was a construction to the tunnel which had to unite both countries.

The European regions aims with participation of Ukraine are more general. Basic from them a such as: development of friendly and partner relations; stimulation of economic and social regions development; improvement of the natural environment; liquidation of natural calamities consequences and others like that. These European regions did not yet bring perceptible results accordingly. Not a single large-scale project is realized in their limits. In addition, retentive factors in an euroregional collaboration are:

  • substantial differences in the customs and tax legislation of the nearby states;
  • absence of unique scientifically reasonable euroregional collaboration conception;
  • the limited vision of strategic prospects of the European regions development from the central and local institutes point of view;
  • a substantial difference in the level of countries-participants development in the European region;
  • a different level of frontier infrastructure development;
  • a low level of Ukrainian organizations participating in the realization of the European region strategic aims;
  • absence of financial resources and inconsistency in determination mechanisms of the transfrontal programs and projects financing;
  • absence of clear functions distribution between the management levels in the sphere of transfrontal collaboration;
  • absence of general planning skills in the sphere of the European regions development.

Taking into account aforesaid it is possible to define such basic tasks of further development of the European regions: realization of measures for the gradual removal of administrative and legal obstacles which restrain a transfrontal collaboration; bringing of the Ukrainian legislation to conformity with international norms and development of bills what must regulate activity of the European region management; complex state program of euroregional collaboration development and their proper financing.

Also it is very important to determine the criteria of estimation the European regions competitiveness with participation of Ukraine. Absence of transfrontal statistics does not allow showing the level of their development. In order to receipt the objective data about efficiency of the European regions functioning it is necessary to use the information about the economic results of enterprises activity, realization of the pre-arranged large-scale projects on joint ventures and new workplaces creation, unemployment rate, common amount of transitions through a border, terms of national minorities residence, absence or presence of ethnic conflicts. The marked information will allow conducting the deep analysis of the European regions development, defining their competitiveness which will assist prognostication of tendencies and directions of further transfrontal collaboration.

Introduction of cluster development policy is necessary strategy in a transfrontal collaboration, which will assist the increase of the European regions competitiveness. Realization of cluster approach within the framework of frontier collaboration will allow deciding the row of tasks, namely: improvement of investment climate, acceleration of negative tendencies overcoming in foreign trade, strengthening the processes of territorial labour division, enterprises innovative activity increasing and others like that. It is necessary to create such model of production, that the European region undertook the role of "center" through which an information exchange comes true, co-ordination of collaboration measures between participants transfrontal to the cluster. It is necessary also to create a corresponding structure in the organs of regional state administration which would engage in exceptionally these questions. Due to the European region will become the important instrument of regional economic policy mechanism of realization which will positively influence on frontier territories development and state on the whole.

Conclusions. Interregional and frontier collaboration development is a modern world tendency and objective necessity sent to the improvement of the depressed territories, smoothing of different regions development levels and providing competitiveness of them. In the same time the European regions created with participation of Ukraine did not become the poles of economic development acceleration and on the modern stage remain declarative educations. The basic tasks of further development of the European regions are: realization of measures for the gradual removal of administrative and legal obstacles which restrain a transfrontal collaboration; complex state program of euroregional collaboration development and their proper financing; determination of the European regions competitiveness criteria; introduction of cluster development policy. The decision of such tasks in a complex will allow improving investment and innovative attractiveness of territory, accelerating overcoming of negative tendencies in foreign trade, to strengthen the processes of territorial division of labour, to bring down the cost of the made products and promote the social standards of population life quality.

Literature:

  • 1. Європейська рамкова конвенція про транскордонне співробітництво між територіальними общинами або властями від 21.05.80 р. [Electronic resource]. – Мадрід. - Access Mode.
  • 2. Національна доповідь про стан навколишнього природного середовища у 2008 році [Electronic resource] / Міністерство охорони навколишнього природного середовища України. – К., 2008. - 393 с. 
  • 3. Пила В.І., Чмир О.С., Гарасюк О.А., Терещенко Т.В. Сучасна регіональна політика і транскордонне співробітництво. – Хмельницький, 2006. – С.15.
  • 4. Про затвердження державної програми розвитку транскордонного співробітництва на 2011 – 2015 роки [Electronic resource] : Постанова Кабінету Міністрів України від 01.12.2010 р. №1088. 
  • 5. Про транскордонне співробітництво [Electronic resource] : Закон України від 24.06.2004 №1861-ІV. 
  • 6. Ястшембська В. Роль єврорегіонів і транскордонного співробітництва у процесі європейської інтеграції [Electronic resource]. 
8.33333
Your rating: None Average: 8.3 (3 votes)
PARTNERS
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.