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Ивано-Франковский университет права имени Короля Даниила Галицкого
Ivan Luckiy, lecturer, doctor of jurisprudence, full professor
Ивано-Франковський университет права имени Короля Данила Галицького
Oleg Zarichanskiy, lecturer, doctor of education, associate professor
The article considers thesocial components in the formation of legal culture of the future life safety professionals in a modern building of the Ukrainian state. Confirmed,that social norms they direct a person in complicatedprocesses of social life, aim him at choosing socially approved behavior and activity. In connection with this the task of accustoming the subjects of educational activity to the values of different legal culturesis actualized.
Key words: socialization, legal socialization, legal culture, life safety specialist, cadet-life-saver.
В статье рассматриваются социальные составляющие вформированииправовой культуры будущих специалистов безопасности жизнедеятельностив условияхсовременного строительстваукраинского государства. Подтверждено,что социальные нормы ориентируют личность в сложных процессах социальной жизни, нацеливают ее на избрание социально одобряемого поведения и деятельности.В связи с этим актуализировалась задача приобщения субъектов образовательной деятельности к ценностям различныхправовыхкультур.
Ключевые слова: социализация,правовая социализация, правовая культура, специалист безопасности жизнедеятельности, курсант-спасатель.
Among making public relations, which stimulate legal progress, forming and development of legal culture of a personality, an important place belongs to the social relations, social sphere of public life. Today none of tasks of state, in particular legal policy can be successfully realized without taking into account of social aspects of social development of the society. Influence of social sphere and foremost social relations, on the development of legal culture of safe life specialists is carried out by means of social orientation activity of the state, providing of social rights and freedoms of citizens, conditioning for realization of social potential of a person.
By the decision of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine from May, 29 1995 № 366 the Program of Legal Education of Population of Ukraine was adopted, which indicates that "the establishment of the legal democratic state of Ukraine requires the substantial increase of legal awareness of citizens, their legal culture, steady observance of the requirements of legislation, its skilled application. This Program foresees the formation of necessary terms for acquisition and use of legal knowledge by a great number of population, fastens basic directions of legal educational activity and primary measures on their realization" [3, p. 357].
The purpose of the Program is "an increase of the general level of legal culture and perfection of the system of legal formation of population, acquisition of necessary level of legal knowledge, forming the feeling of respect to the right".
The basic tasks of the Program are: "an increase of the level of legal culture of population, in particular citizens, being in government service, creation of the proper terms for acquisition of knowledge of citizens about the rights, freedoms and duties; open informing of population about the legal policy of the state and legislation, providing of free access of citizens to the legal information generators, perfection of the system of legal formation of population, maintainance and development of domestic traditions in this sphere " [3, p. 357]. A legal culture in pedagogical, psychological, philosophical and legal literature is determined variously. Some authors in the concept of legal culture include the right, sense of justice, legal relations, legality, law and order, required behaviour [1, p. 15]. At determination of legal culture some researchers equate conceptslegal culture and legal culture of society. In particular, V. Salnikov determines the legalculture of society as "variety of public culture, reflecting the certain level of sense of justice, legality, perfection of legislation and legal practice, covering allvalues, createdby people in the area of law" .
A modern legal culture is a legal culture of the developed and effectively functioning civil society and legal state. By means of its essence and the core idea it is a culture of confession, defence and realization of rights and freedoms of a person and a citizen as higher values [4, p. 274]. A legal culture depends on legal education. In opinion of G. Yavorskaya, "legal education is a structural component of education in Ukraine, process of accession of legal knowledge, skills and abilities, forming of respect to the right, law, to the rights and freedoms of a person, proper legal orientations and estimations, legal behavioral options and reasons of good behaviour etc" .
The process of socialization compiles everything of the individual’s surrounding: family, neighbours, mates, instructors, colleges and acquaintances, mass media. It’s important to mention that socialization is not some short-term or one-time act. It’s being realized during the whole life of the person — from childhood until old age inclusive. It takes place in that way because the person’s life conditions so as the life itself are constantly changing, demanding assimilating into every coming new social roles as well as corresponding status changes. Though if in the process of child’s socialization social adaptation becomes the most important for him, that is assimilation with the social invironment, the most important, for a young or even socialy mature person is the interiorization or the forming of inner structure of personality’s psychology, the turning of the exterior world’s elements into interior “I am personality”. The result of interiorization reveals itself in individual’s personality. The very social nature cadet’s invironment and staff contains great potential, that must be skillfully used for reaching the main goal of its functioning and resolving socially meaningful tasks. Therefore such prerequisites do not work automatically, they are fulfilled in the directed learning and up-bringing process by the teacher-instructor staff, which has its own inner structure, corresponding administration bodies and accomplishes the range of various pedagogical functions: (professional training (educational), public, organization-administrative up-bringing). The accomplishment of pedagogical functions in cadets’ staff can’t be limited by stricktly defined framework. All those functions are connected with each other, and to some extent,mutually dependent, but every of them having its own specific sence.
Contents of moral-legal socialization of a cadet consists in involving himinto getting moral and legal norms, values, moral and legal culture; conscious, socially active performance. Three main ways of legal socialization of cadet-life-saverpersonality are identified: training, experience share, symbolic socialization.
Socialization through training is based on mastering the knowledge and the moral and legal norms, which cultivate respect to existing rules of political and juridical systems and social roles. Moral, political and legal norms, knowledge of public and political institutions and the mechanisms of their functioning are also included in this process.
Socialization through sharing experience (getting own experience) is the product of personal social, political legal conduct and personality activity. Through different roles, which are forced to be played, the cadet and the officer masters various principles of society organization and of functioning of the state-governed (political) structure. They practice gained knowledge, norms and values. Depending on the gap degree of between these norms and personal experience the initial adjustment can be reinforced or deformed.
Psychological, professional and legal development of a definite personality of a cadet-life-saverconstitutes the social process.
Within birth the person steps into the world of values, supports the system of social-legal norms, prohibitions and permissionsthat provide the possibility of personal relationships and stability of social system. Mastering the safety of vital functions of legal values, norms and standards of behavior is fulfilled by the specialist during all his life and happens in the process of his socialization. Initial elements of legal culture are cognized by him from early age from various sources: from his family, friends, teachers, literature, mass media. In different role situations of legal culture forming, the cadet masters the knowledge about requirements of norms of morality and law, gets the skills and knowledge of appropriate socially approved behavior by the society. In the course of time, due to the increase of the level of social roles, his knowledge in the field of law are replenished. Abreast the spontaneous character of getting these attainments, mastering functioning values and norms in the society, the leading role goes to purposeful legal up-bringing in the boarding institutions.
Naturally, that the adaptation period of the cadets of boarding institution essentially differ from alike in public institutions. We consider, the adaptation process of cadets is the first phase of the process of forming of social-professional maturity.
Social norms occur as the necessary component of any sphere of personality socialization of a cadet-life-saver. Being an objective reality, they direct the person in complicated processes of social life, aim it at selecting a socially-approved behavior and performance. In connection with this, the task of accustoming the subjects of training activity to values of various legal cultures became actualized .The process of their mastering by the personality of a cadet includes several aspects: cognitive (the knowledge of and understanding of functioning social norms); axiological (evaluation of norms as just); deontological (recognition of norms as obligative); behavioural (the ability of a personality to action due to the requirements of norms).
In the process of personality socialization of a cadet-life-saverwe can observe him mastering certain types of behavior through the cognition of a legal norms, forming of the according evaluative attitude towards them and accepting them as their own rules of behavior and performance, that’s why methodologically important is the point on socialization levels.
The usage of law levels of socialization gives the future specialist an opportunity to take part in the life of the society with different effectivity, to fulfill functions and roles according to their social status with various measure.
The analyses of psychology-pedagogical literature and dissertation researches [6; 7]allowed to define the following main stages of the personality socialization of a cadet-life-saver: early stage (from birth to the beginning of learning at school) study (from the beginning of study at school to the end of the general and professional education); social maturity; the end of socialization (from the moment of ceasing the official service).
Of a great importance in the process of legal socialization of a personality is the legal up-bringing. Among the methods of legal up-bringing it’s necessary to point out the general methods and the special ones. To general methods we can ascribe social-economie, state-legal, social- psychological and cultural- up-bringing. Special methods of socialization are used by law enforcement bodies. These are control- up-bringing activities, which are attributed to the certain category of people inclined to violation of law in cases direatly indicated in law.
Social establishment of the personality is closely connected with the up-bringing process, during which the personality is influenced various factors: both positive and negative. The general aim of legal up-bringing consists in forming of legal culture within the personality, wich is compiled of the conscious attitude of the personality towards its rights and duties, respect of the law, readiness to keep the requirements of it, to fight the rules-and-law violation. In the first place the subjects of up-bringing are state and public institutions and organizations, that use different methods, means and forms for that. Among the forms of legal up-bringing is necessary to single out the following: training, study, popularization as well as the up-bringing influence of the law, law-executing and law-enforeing practice .The criterion of the legal civility of people is the real actions and delds in legal sphere. The awareness and performance of the person exist in interconditionality and compatability. On the level of intellectual and emotional development crucially depends his behavior.
The socialization of a personality, forming of his awareness and culture depends not only on the up-bringing, and on the influence of micro and macroenvironment, peculiarities of personal experience, but also on his natural, psychological qualiyies: abilities, temperament, character, etc. These qualiyies add each person unique perception opinion, ideas and requirements and also reactions to these ideas and requirements. In spite of the fact, that the motives of officers, behavior, his opinion and interests, aims and purposes are defined by social factors, the above mentioned qualities of a personality play a significant role in selecting this or that variant of behavior .
The availability of legal knowledge in the person is the condition of development of legal interests in all spheres of social life, that are gained in the process of mastering legal notions and impressions. Legal education forms the ability of legal direction and the possibility to accumulate it into reality.
In the stage of initial learning (freshman) future life-safety specialist familiarizes himself with: the basics of lawmaking about education; regulations of selection committee and rules of selection by a higher educational institutions; international normative educational acts.
These attainments are gained as in the process of self-education so during specially organized classes in according educational institution, etc.
On the first and second course in the institutions we can observe legal adaptation of cadets to classes and behavior in the institution. They gain knowledge about statutes, daily routine, behavior rules, rights and responsibilities of cadets, punishment for braking of corresponding norms and rules.
On the third and fourth courses cadets deepen general legal knowledge in the field of legislation. Special attention is paid to learning of normative acts about education and professional activity. The cadets’ specialization is by all means considered. Legal training is also held for further learning (familiarization with normative acts of magistracy and postgraduate work), future professional activity.
The above mentioned specific peculiarities of educational up-bringing process in the institutions of MES of Ukraine make certain basis of its effectivity. But in every separate case it’s necessary to have attentive reasonable individual approach toward the cadet’s personality. The cadets’ staff (platoon, course) is an important element of educational up-bringing process organization in the institution of MES (Ministry of Emergency Situations). It stands out as the main subject and object of pedagogical impact of teacher-instructor staff of the institution. Cadets’ staff is a joint object (subject) and differs, first of all, in peculiar psychology, in which a great urgency fills the social-psychological processes and phenomena (A. A. Kuzmenko , G. H. Javorska , etc.) as just: team opinions and discussions, moods, traditions and customs, needs and interests, aims and purposes, cooperation and empathy, likes and dislikes, trust. All those constituents have an integrative character, strengthen the staff, farour the creation of optimal psychological atmosphere.
Undoubtedly, there are factors, that psychologically deform the staff: leadership, rivalry, competition, some personalities’ ambitions, etc). Cadets’ staff is the one of the many varieties of social units and has complicated inner structure. There are two comparatively independent structures in the sub-unit staff: official and unofficial.
Official structure is the organizational staff structure with the fixed status of its members, subordination system, defined in regulation papers, statutes, orders, instructions. It corresponds to aims fulfillment, for which the staff is formed, and is created whith consideration of specific conditions of institutions and tasks solutions. The basis of such structure is the appointed authority and chosen group of the staff. Organizational structure regulates functional relationship between the members of the staff, farours the stability maintance in it. The leading role in this structure belongs to junctionaril. In organizational structural joint the guidance of all aspects of staff life is laid. Unofficial structure is formed in the process of interpersonal communication of the staff members. It reflects their certain interests and level of awareness. Interpersonal relationship become apparent in concrete activity and to some extent influense the life of personalities and the staff as a whole. Especially important are the relationship between the cadets and the officers, that is between functionaries and those under the command. Unofficial structure is more dynamic than that of the official, which depends on the character of team activity, business relationship, established personality qualities, etc. As the result of common activity a whole system of connections and relationships emerges, having social- psychological character, that leads towards the creation of micro-groups.
All members of common cadets staff are connected with each other satisfactory and also through the accomplishment of common socially meaningful tasks. The structure and system of interaction between certain staffs are provided by staff organization of institutions of MES of Ukraine. The activity of training units flows together into one whole according to common and personal aims and purposes, facing the cadet’s staff (unit, course). Studying in the MES institutions, every cadet, as a rule, within the activity in the main staff, is at the same time a member of one or several other minor ones (study group, hobby group, team, etc.), in which they take part due to their interests, needs, inclinations.
In that way, it can be affirmed of a high level of social maturity of the personality of the life-safety specialist, if it includes intellectual, official, political, legal and moral maturity. The foundations of legal socialization are: training, sharing experience, symbolic socialization. The great significance in the process of legal socialization of a personality belongs to legal up-bringing, which farous the forming of legal culture. To general methods of forming of legal culture of cadets life-savers we can ascribe social-economic, state-juridical, social-psychological and cultural up-bringing.