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The paper considersthe problem of improving the child's vocabulary development is caused by the need to solve problems together, conducted the study, despite its thematic integrity and logical-semantic completeness, still shows a number of derivative problems that require a separate study, in particular, there is an urgent problem of training and retraining teachers to organize lexical work.
Keywords: development, senior preschoolers, vocabulary.
В статті розглянуто проблему вдосконалення процесу розвитку словника дитини, що зумовлена необхідністю розв’язання сукупності завдань; проведене дослідження, незважаючи на його тематичну цілісність і логіко-змістову завершеність, все ж виявляє низку похідних проблем, що потребують окремого вивчення, зокрема нагальною є проблема підготовки та перепідготовки педагогічних кадрів до організації лексичної роботи.
Ключові слова: розвиток, старші дошкільники, словниковий запас.
Встатье рассмотрена проблема совершенствования процесса развития словаря ребенка, котораяобусловлена необходимостью решения совокупности задач; проведено исследование, но несмотря на его тематическую целостность и логико-смысловую завершенность, все же существует рядпроизводных проблем, требующих отдельного изучения, в частности,насущной является проблема подготовки и переподготовки педагогических кадров к организации лексической работы.
Ключевые слова: развитие, старшие дошкольники, словарный запас.
Problem:The problem ofimproving thechild'svocabularydevelopmentis caused bythe need tosolvetogethertasksthat emphasizethe importance ofposition,which is reflectedin publicdocuments(National Doctrine of Education DevelopmentinUkraineХХ?century, the „Children of Ukraine”, the Laws of Ukraine„On Education”,basic componentsof preschool educationin Ukraine”).
The analyses of the existing researches and unsolved as problem aspects. Modern research on preschool vocabulary linguodidactics dedicated work with children, familiarizing them with the word in various activities, especially the understanding of the meaning of children of different age groups, mastering generalizing the meaning of words, the introduction of such, which denote elementary concepts (N. Gavrish, A. Ilkova, L. Kolunova, А. Lavrent'ev, A. Smaga, E. Strunina) [1, 3, 4]. During the research proved that education in the preschool attention to the words of the sides in content, its semantics, specification of meanings of words, enriching relationships with other words to develop accurate usage. A number of studies devoted to the study of special features children learning their native language vocabulary, G. Bavykin, A. Bohatyryova, A. Ivanenko, N. Ivanova, V. Loginov, J. Lyakhovsky, N. Saveliev, A. Smaga, E. Strunina, V. Yashin [3, 4]. The problem of enriching vocabulary covered in the dissertations L. Alekseienko-Lemovskoyа, Makarenko, Y.Rudenko . At the same time remain unsolved aspects of lexical work with children of preschool age, and gives prospects for further development of this scientific problem.
The aim of the articleto analyzethe results of research on vocabulary development of children older preschool age.
Summary of the basic material of the research. The general trendof educational systems and learning technologies is the transition from traditional models, forms of training to innovation - developing, humanistic-oriented. Innovation applies to both organizational and pedagogical conditions of the educational process and appropriate methods of didactics.In thistroubled context of exceptional importance for our research experience gained many years of experiment with the introduction of pre-school educational establishments of Ukraine experimental model of vocabulary older preschoolers. This empirical material on the one hand, and Multilevel intelligence - on the other, made it possible for the reasoned selection of contemporary preschool didactics aspect of research - learning vocabulary Ukrainian children older preschool age. Thus its processing system has allowed to clearly define the subject of study - the concept and methods of dictionary older children of preschool age.
As a result of the search carried out proved that the development of vocabulary older preschoolers are in the process of solving intellectual and practical challenges posed to the environment for a child following successive stages: „I hear- I understand - use”. The above gives reason to believe that the study proved the hypothesis, and its goal is reached. For detailed reasoning tasks completeness of work, outline the key facts and generalizations.Refined and scientifically grounded nature of the concept of „development dictionary older school age children”from the standpoint of the system, communicative, active approach. The development dictionary senior preschool age children are considered as the essence of the process, reflecting the positive trend of quantitative and qualitative changes due to learning words different categorical groups who are at different levels of understanding. The development of the dictionary is concentrating not only on the quantitative accumulation of vocabulary, but also in quality by expanding the semantic field.Methodical principles of the problem of vocabulary older children of preschool age. In particular it was established that older preschoolers develop vocabulary predetermined set of external and internal factors, namely: special organization of speech environment, based on learner-oriented interaction among participants; speech educator, as an example of a beautiful and proper speech, proper didactic and methodological support of educational and educational process to link preschool education, the introduction of technology development of vocabulary in various stages of pre-school children, which will ensure the development of vocabulary.
Shownfeatures of perception, understanding and application of vocabulary older children of preschool age, stage of development patterns and vocabulary older preschoolers. Based on the criteria found features of the apparatus of perception, awareness and use of vocabulary in children early and preschool age.
There are criteria, parameters, characterized the level of learning vocabulary older preschoolers. The study defined criteria and performance levels of older preschooler vocabulary learning: motivation (interest in words, the desire to acquire Ukrainian vocabulary; habit Ukrainian words, self-control and control to correct use of vocabulary), semantic (number of words in thematic groups, which adopt a child; number of words whose meaning the child understands and can explain; accuracy usage), expressive (emotional expressiveness of speech, speech in the presence of figurative words and sayings, word formation).Based on established criteria and indicators under the age of children was characterized at mastering the vocabulary of preschool age children: adequate, above average, average, satisfactory, the original.Sufficient learning vocabulary characterized by persistent interest in words, the desire to acquire Ukrainian vocabulary, the need for improvement of Ukrainian language, Ukrainian habit of speech, ability to use еvaluationvocabulary, self-control and control use of vocabulary, enough words in thematic groups, which adopt a child; number of words whose meaning the child understands and can explain, emotional, speech in the presence of figurative words and sayings, the ability to word-formation. Older Preschoolers with a sufficient degree of learning vocabulary is appropriate to use words in free speech.
Children, the level of learning vocabulary which is defined as above average showed strong interest in words, the desire to acquire Ukrainian vocabulary; habit Ukrainian words, enough words in thematic groups, which adopt a child, the number of words whose meaning the child understands and can explain, emotional availability of figurative speech in words and sayings, the ability to word-formation. However, children were not able toеvaluationself-control and control to use vocabulary. They have no need for improvement of Ukrainian language. Children with definite level necessary to stimulate speech on the part of adults.For older preschoolers with a mean level of learning vocabulary inherent steady interest in words, the desire to acquire Ukrainian vocabulary; habit Ukrainian words, enough words in thematic groups, which adopt a child, the number of words whose meaning the child understands and can explain. However, children were not able to еvaluation, self-control and control to use vocabulary. They have no need for improvement of Ukrainian language. Children with definite level necessary to stimulate speech on the part of adults. Their speech was emotional, it has almost no figurative words and sayings. But they are not capable of word formation. presence in broadcasting.Satisfactory level of learning different vocabulary exists an interest in words, the desire to acquire Ukrainian vocabulary, enough words in thematic groups, which adopt a child. However, children were not able to еvaluation, self-control and control to use vocabulary. They have no need for improvement of Ukrainian language and Ukrainian speech habit. Older Preschoolers are not always able to understand and explain the meaning of certain words. Their speech no different imagery. Children from the set level is also necessary to stimulate speech on the part of adults. Their speech was emotional. Children with satisfactory learning vocabulary is not capable of word formation.
For entry-level learning vocabulary peculiar to a sufficient number of words in thematic groups. Their interest in words was reliable. Children understand the basic meaning of words only. However, children were not able toеvaluation, self-control and control to use vocabulary. They have no need for improvement of Ukrainian language and Ukrainian words habit and desire to acquire Ukrainian vocabulary. Their speech no different imagery, emotion, ability to word-formation.
Modeled theoretically substantiated and experimentally verified pedagogical conditions of dictionary senior preschool age children: creating a positive emotional background and situation of children in immersion Ukrainian-speaking communicative environment, implementation techniques of vocabulary older school age children in various kinds of speech activity (artistically speaking, training and speech, speech-play), Dictionary of targeted integration of the different types of speech activity (artistically speaking, teaching -speech, speech-play), the interaction of pre-school with his family on Dictionary work.
It is shown that the most effective are the following principles Dictionary of working with children older preschool: bahatovariantnosti; unity of speech and intellectual activity as a condition of enriching vocabulary, vocabulary development as a means of expression; update the dictionary based on establishing logical connections, taking into account the nature of the environment. Experimental model of vocabulary older preschoolers in different kinds of speech activity (artistic speech, speech training, speech-game) included three successive stages of work: imitative, reproductive, educational, constructive, productive, developing. So the first stage - imitative, reproductive - was immersion children in Ukrainian vocabulary through the use of art and language activities that allowed them to learn the best form of literary language, enrich vocabulary, contributed to understanding the meaning of words, raised interest in words.
In the second stage - training and constructive - orientation took place the child in vocabulary and its differentiation by using educational and language activities, allowing children organize vocabulary learning provided synonyms, antonyms, meaningful words. Third stage - developing-productive - provided the active use of words in the free speech of the child through speech-gaming activities. At the final stage of the implemented pedagogical conditions such as: integration of targeted experimentally verified the effectiveness of methods of vocabulary older preschool age children as a system of pedagogical actions and differentiated multi-level organization of training: at the level of partner interaction „teacher - children”, „Children - children”, „child - children”, „parents - Children”at the level of professional training in accordance with the principles of integrity, individual approach and phased development of professional and retraining, at a good didactic and methodological support; at phased implementation of teaching methods, where each of the stages, with a specific goal and its related content, methods and forms of work , acting both as an organic part of the continuous process of enriching vocabulary.
Revealed positive dynamics of quantitative and qualitative results of experimental work. As a result of model implementation, teaching conditions, experimental methods of vocabulary older school age children are aware of literal and figurative meanings of words that can explain them; form connotations meanings of words, selects synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, take in your own speech figurative speech. Recommendations and future development direction. The study, despite its thematic integrity and logical-semantic completeness, still shows a number of derivative problems that require a separate study, in particular there is an urgent problem of training and retraining of teachers to organize lexical work in preschool education.