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В статье рассматриваются проблемы развития психологической готовности личности к деловому общению на иностранном языке. Предлагаются и апробируются в експерименте модель и психолого-педагогические средства, эффективно влияющие наразвитие у студентовпсихологической готовности к деловому общению на иностранных языках.
Ключевые слова: психологическая готовность, студент, иностранный язык, деловое общение, развитие.
Development of Ukraine as a modern European country requires radical changes in economic and legal areas of our country, as well as in the sphere of education and science, more qualified specialists with University degrees, the formation of their psychological disposition to business communication in foreign languages. The organization of educational process in higher educational institutions (HEIs) is expected to be provided in accordance with European standards of language proficiency.
The previously conducted studies showed that the level of linguistic competence, especially the students’ psychological disposition to business communication in foreign languages is insufficient. The practice of foreign languages teaching proves that undergraduates after taking examination at the end of the second year of university study gradually lose their communication skills in foreign language, thus their ability to exchange information with experts of related professions from other states is decreasing. For most students business communication in a foreign language is extreme, complicated and stressful as business language implies the definition of a specific language corpus and emphasis on particular kinds of communication in a specific context.
Until now, students’ psychological disposition to business communication in foreign languages ??was not the subject of proper scientific analysis, and psychological and pedagogical effective means of formation of the above disposition in the educational process in universities haven’t been experimentally tested. Moreover rigorous linguistic analysis is fragmented and is more frequently based on the written forms of language such as correspondence, annual reports, and articles in business journals. Most studies are devoted to the study of pedagogical aspects of the problem (O.B. Pavlik, V.R. Mychkovska , I.V. Gerasymchuk, etc.).. Only certain aspects of psychological skills and abilities of foreign language communication were investigated by O.I. Bondarenko, A.F. Volobueva, I.V. Kykylyk, S.P. Teteruk etc.
Therefore, finding ways and means of forming an effective students’ psychological disposition to business communication in foreign languages in the educational process is one of socially, scientifically and practically important problems of Educational and Age psychology.
The aim of the study is approval and testing of the model and program for the development of students’ psychological disposition to business communication in foreign languages.
In formative experiment which was carried out among the 3rd Year students of Vinnitsa State Pedagogical University named after M.M. Kotsyubynskiy (64 students- experimental group (EG) and 64 - control group (CG)
We suggested the structure of students’ psychological disposition to business communication in foreign languages, which represents the unity and interconnection of components: motivational, cognitive, operational and emotional dispositions. Motivational disposition is a system of internal motives that lead a person to learning business language and adding it to professional communication with others. Cognitive disposition is a system of personal knowledge of a foreign language: vocabulary, knowledge of grammar, phonetics, and others. This component of disposition is being developed in the learning process by enhancing mental functions such as student’ perception, thinking, memory and development of capacities such as phonological hearing and others. Operational disposition is characterized by a system of speech skills, person’s ability to use obtained knowledge of the language in oral or written communication. Emotional disposition describes the ability of students to mental regulation of their behavior, their emotions and feelings within the process of foreign languages communication.
In our previously held stating experiment we found out problems that exist with the formation of students’ each of the above components of psychological disposition. That's why we suggested a model of psychological and educational program that aimed to improve the level of students' psychological disposition to business communication in foreign languages.
The students of experimental group were involved in optional classes 2-3 times a week for one academic year. Classes were conducted by foreign language teachers and psychologists. Investigation of efficient impact of the suggested means and methods on improving of EG students’ psychological disposition to business communication in foreign languages was carried out in several subgroups numbering 16 people.
At the initial and final stages of forming experiment level measurements of each component of psychological disposition were carried out. As a tool for motivational, cognitive, operational and emotional disposition study we have used methods described in [1, 2]. Let us focus on the nature and characteristics of psychological and educational impact on the development of experimental group students.
The structure of the leading, main reasons that motivate students to study and communicate in business foreign language, as we have found earlier, is as follows - cognitive reasons (1st group), the motives of personal development and professional self-improvement (3rd group), the motives of exchanging information and business communication (5th group). They are the mostly important ones for students of all years, all specialties, for both young men and ladies.
In forming experiment in order to increase the weight of the leading reasons students of experimental group were involved in a series of conversations, discussions, making appointments, confirming plans, introductions outlined by the special program. The goal was to develop students' awareness of the importance of business communication in a foreign language in the present context. Role playing games that were held in a foreign language to make students develop not only their cognitive motivation, motivation of personal development and exchange of information, but also shaped and improved cognitive and operational components of psychological disposition to business communication. For this purpose, professionally-oriented, informatively rich new material, which caused positive motivation was selected. We tried to select the proposed actions that should meet the following requirements: to be interesting to students, its content to meet their professional interests and in the material some disputable issues to be presented to provoke discussion, debate etc.
In the control group students, who had no optional classes on business foreign language cogency indices of all groups slightly decreased comparing with the initial phase of the experiment.
Improvement of cognitive and operational components of disposition was reached by involving the experimental group students in special activities, exercises, analysis of professional situations in a foreign language and others.
Thus we took into account the following features. The main emphasis was on the content discussed. Students enrolled in foreign language discussion, trained ability to express their points of view, debate, deny, add etc. Great emphasis was paid to the formation of their conceptual apparatus of professional origin. Students were given the definitions of professional concepts in a foreign language, and new terms were introduced, by their interpretation in English rather than translation.
One of the problems of psychological disposition of students for business communication in a foreign language determined by us, is not much in the formation of cognitive component (knowledge of grammar, vocabulary, etc.), but in operational one, due to the fact that students have weak writing skills in business communication, and possess insufficient level of communicative abilities. Therefore, to develop skills in written business language we used special training of business letters processing, introduced basics of English scientific and academic writing, resumes, documents for employment, recommendations and others.
Development of operational component of disposition also contributed to the performance of students design work, the essence of which was written in English, design their own research specialty (scientific papers, reports, messages, etc.). Communication skills of experimental group students were developed by creating an atmosphere in the classroom, giving them a sense of security and values as individuals, which helped reveal the potential of each personality. Especially important is the role of a teacher who can use her expertise, their personal qualities that help create a favorable psychological climate.
Professional content of a foreign language class expected not only learning within a given unit of speech or acts of communication, but rather acquiring general principles of their use. Linguistic structures and acts of intercourse were not "tied up" to a certain situation. When they are learned, they can be used creatively, transferring from one to another context of professional communication,
The classes were used as special tasks, techniques and methods to enhance mental activity of students (problematic task, solving interactive communicative tasks, situations, etc.), exercise on the development of professional interests (simulations of communication that requires professional knowledge of students, professional modeling inaccuracies in the information , the possibility of setting hypotheses), reading professional literature in a foreign language.
The creation of a natural language environment in the classroom and facilitated for organization of debates, discussions of various issues related to the professional interests of students. This opens up opportunities for communication, exchange of views, interests and experience in the field of knowledge related to their future professional activities.
Communication in foreign language contributed to the development of foreign-language abilities, particularly verbal memory, language prediction, differential auditory sensitivity of EG students, because it was necessary to keep listening, memorizing, reproducing and responding. Active engagement in communication allowed those who were taught to use their potential by developing their foreign language capacities and abilities.
The effectiveness of cognitive and operating components’ formation of students’ psychological disposition in the experimental group was judged by means of assessment of their knowledge and skills in Business language by expert - teachers. 62.5% of EG students according to the experts underwent significant changes in these components of disposition.
Moreover, in addition we analyzed the changes in some aspects of cognitive and operational disposition, which took place in the control and experimental groups.
The analysis showed that for all selected indicators of psychological dispositionfor business communication in foreign languages students of experimental group are considerably ahead of the control group. To determine whether the significant results were obtained, we used the statistical test data, using Student's t-criterion.
Participation of students in the performance of EG programs helped to improve their level of emotional disposition to communicate in a foreign language, to reduce anxiety in the process of learning and communication of business foreign language. Thus by the results of our experiment of formation of students’ psychological disposition to business communication in foreign languages it can be concluded that the proposed model is adequate and the program is effective and by using it we can improve University graduates training of their disposition to business communication in foreign languages.