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ATTITUDES TOWARD PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN 15-16 AGED BOYS AND GIRLS FROM DIFFERENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CATEGORIES

ATTITUDES TOWARD PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN 15-16 AGED BOYS AND GIRLS FROM DIFFERENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CATEGORIES
Maciuleviciene Edita, lecturer, candidate of sociology

Renata Rutkauskaite, lecturer, doctor of sociology

Lithuanian Sports University, Lithuania

Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Lithuania";

 

This study was to determine and compare attitudes to physical education in adolescents with different physical activity. The results of study showed that attitudes to physical education in 15-16 aged boys and girls depends on their physical activity and not depends on gender. A positive view to physical education has physically active schoolchildren, both boys and girls. More dissatisfied with the physical education lessons are low physical activity schoolchildren. 
Keywords: attitude to physical education, adolescents, physical activity.

Цель исследования определить и сравнить отношение к физической культуре среди учеников разной физической активности. Результаты показывают, что отношение 15-16 летних школьников к физической культуре зависит от их физической активности и не зависит от их пола. Позитивный взгляд на физическое воспитание имеет физическо активные школьники. Более недовольны уроками физической культуры школьники с низкой физической активностью.
Kлючевые слова: отношение, школьники, физическая активность, физическая культура.

Recently, a significant phenomenon such social, economic and domestic changeovers not only increasingly frees man from the hard physical labor, but also severely restricts the activities of muscle. That is the reason why failures settled biological equilibrium of the organism: the individual body systems are becoming increasingly vulnerable. Part of diseases spread and keep progressing among young people (including schoolchildren). The reason for that is deteriorating overall physical activity [6, 8]. Pupils' reluctance to train physically determines the following reasons: lack of leisure time, another favorite activity, lack of habit, laziness. Less frequently, schoolchildren reluctance determines: favorite sports absence in school, a large stress of study, lack of necessary equipment, health [6, 8]. Developing a positive attitude towards physical education, is essential to introduce a healthy lifestyle regime since childhood, making it not only a means to improve the physical condition, but also spirituality, creative activities, will develop and maintain that into adulthood [3, 11, 12]. This is particularly important because already in early childhood begins the formation of bio-medical and behavioral risk factors - obesity, high blood pressure, causes some of the metabolic rate, children begin to drink alcohol, smoke, eat irrationally, become sedentary [4, 7].

Relevance: in modern society, physical activity is a healthy lifestyle component. Physical education lessons are very important, but not very appreciable by schoolchildren. In modern society is very important to examine schoolchildren attitudes towards physical education, their wants and needs, according to that create programs to attract schoolchildren to participate in physical education classes, and to be lifelong physically active. The aim of this study was to determine and compare attitude toward physical education in 15-16 age girls and boys from different physical activity categories.

 Material and methods. The study was undertaken in randomly selected five Kaunas secondary schools, Lithuania. The participants were healthy schoolboys and schoolgirls of 9th- 10th grade aged between 15 and 16 year (girls - n=176, boys – n=170). Collection of the data has been coordinated with the school leadership. Participants filled out two questionnaires: about the attitude to physical education lessons and Physical activity of schoolchildren was established using the modified short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) [1]. The total volume of physical activity, defined as metabolic equivalents (METs) per week, consisted of the amount of energy expended on vigorous, moderate, and walking activities over the last seven days. According to the recommendations of the IPAQ Guidelines all the respondents were divided in three physical activity categories.

Appropriate statistical methods (mean, (x) and the standard deviation (SD), one–way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson’s correlation based upon the experimental design were applied. The statistical analysis was performed using a database management system SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) for Windows program package. Qualitative evidence to evaluate interdependence was used chi square (?2) criteria. Considered statistically significant cases at p <0.05.

 Results. In respect to the total amount of physical activity, the subjects comprised three groups: vigorous physical activity group (≥ 3001 METs/week) fulfilled 28% schoolchildren (22 % girls and 34 % boys), moderate physical activity group (1387–3000 METs/week) – 27 % schoolchildren (18 % girls and 36 % boys respectively) and low physical activity group (≤ 1386 METs/week) – 45 % schoolchildren (60 % girls and 30 % boys respectively, p<0.05). Comparing the different physical activity schoolchildren views on physical education classes, we found out that physical education classes do not like pupils from low physical activity category, both boys and girls. Also there is different view to the like in physical education classes, only schoolchildren from low physical activity category said that they like then teacher let do nothing, and only the high physical activity schoolchildren pointed out that they like to learn something new in physical education classes (p<0.05). That physical education classes are necessary think most of vigorous physical activity group boys (82.1 %) and girls (63 %). Schoolchildren from low physical activity category attitudes are significantly different (p<0.05): 76.7 % boys and 78.7 % girls think that physical education lessons are not necessary (Figure 1).    

        

* – p < 0.05 compared schoolchildren from moderate physical activity (MPA) and low physical activity ( LPA) categories.

Most physical education classes do not attend because of illness vigorous physical activity schoolchildren (p<0.05) comparing schoolchildren from moderate and low physical activity categories. All girls from vigorous physical activity category and 82.4 % boys' do not attend physical education classes only because of disease. Laziness as the reason for attendance mentions more low-and moderate physical activity schoolchildren comparing with schoolchildren of vigorous physical activity (p<0.05), i.e. 38.3 % low physical activity girls and 30 % boys and 50 % moderate physical activity girls and 38.9 % boys do not attend physical education classes because of laziness. Comparing the different physical activity schoolchildren views of whether physical education classes should be mandatory, we do not found out statistically significant differences between different physical activity categories, many of schoolchildren think that physical education classes should be optional.

Discussion. A positive view to physical education lessons first of all are formed at school, and also in others environments after school: family, society. However, the majority of schoolchildren attitudes to physical education classes determine the quality of the physical educational process [5]. Physical education should be an important part of that requirement and does more than provide some minutes of moderate-vigorous activity. It also teaches students how to integrate exercise into their lives in order to establish a lifetime of healthy living. Unfortunately, only 3.8 % of elementary, 7.9 % of middle, and 2.1 % of high schools provide daily physical education or its equivalent for the entire school year, not all schools do not require students to take any physical education at all [10]. Hence unhappy because of physical education lesson schoolchildren understand the benefits of lessons, but would like to improve their quality. Our results show that most schoolchildren do not want the theoretical physical education classes, and believes that physical education classes should be optional.  Poor schoolchildren physical condition and lack of physical activity required to seek new ways and means. Process of democratization of society should be reflected in the general physical education process. It is important that physical education teacher, establishing a training program, would be taken into account and schoolchildren wishes. Many researchers have proved that a child who is busy in interested activities, not just results are better, but also these activities latter usually turns into a constant need. It can be assumed that the schoolchildren favorite sports items during physical education lessons in school will increase the closeness of the motor; the schoolchildren will be more active, their view to physical education will become positive, will increase the need to do physical exercises [2, 9].

Conclusion. Adolescent girls and boys view to physical education depends on their physical activity and not depends on gender. A positive view to physical education has physically active schoolchildren, both boys and girls. More dissatisfied with the physical education lessons are schoolchildren from low physical activity category.

References:

1. Ainsworth, B.E., Levy, S.S. Assessment of health-enhancing physical activity: methodological issues/ In: Oja P, Borms J (Eds.) Health Enhancing Physical Activity. Perspectives – the Multidisciplinary Series of Physical Education and Sport Science (6)/ Oxford (UK): Meyer & Meyer Sport Ltd., 2004.

2. Chung, M., Phillips, D. A. The relationship between attitude toward physical education and leisure-time exercise in high school students/ The Physical Educator, 2002.- 59, 126-138.

3. Gordon-Larsen, P., Nelson, M.C., Popkin, B.M. Longitudinal physical activity and sedentary behavior trends: adolescence to adulthood// American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2004. -27 (4), 277-83.

4. Harrison PA, Narayan G. Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence// Journal of School Health, 2003;73(3), 113–120.

5. Krousca J. A. Middle school students' attitudes toward a physical education program. Doctor dissertation. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1999. 

6. Lohman, T.G., Ring, K., Pfeiffer, K., Camhi, S., Arredondo, E., Pratt, C., Pate, R., Webber, L.S. Relationships among fitness, body coposition and physical activity// Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 2008, 40 (6), 1163-1170.

7. Norrie. M., Mustard, J. F. Early Years Study: Final Report/ The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 1999.

8. Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Castillo, M.J., Sjostrom, M. Physical fitness in childhood and adolecsence: a powerful marker of health.// International Journal of Obesity, 2008b, 32 (1), 1–11.

9. Penny, D., Jess, M. Physical education and physically active lives: a lifelong approach to curriculum development/ Sport, Education and Society, 2004, 9, 269-287.

10. School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006// Journal of School Health, 2007, 27 (8).

11. Sherar, L.B., Mirwald, R.L., Erlandson, M.C., Baxter-Jones, A.D.G. Is Boy’s Physical Activity in Childhood associated with being Overweight in Mid-Adulthood? A Longitudinal Study Spanning 35 Years/ Canadian Studies in Population, 2007, 34, 85-99.

12. Tammelin, T. Physical activity from adolescence to adulthood and health-related fitness at age 31. /Doctor dissertation. Oulun University, 2003. 

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