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Barvenko Olga, lecturer, candidate of of psychology, associate professor
South-Russian State University of Economics and Service, Russia
This paper deals with problems of professional mobility of specialists which can be described as the ability of the subject to react flexibly to constantly changing conditions and demands of the society, professional environment and the labor market. . One of the primary tasks of universities is to train specialists capable of the professional mobility. But it should be noted that the professional mobility is a result not only of education but also its determinant. In order to create a need for professional mobility it is necessary for an individual to develop motivation to self-educate, actualization, to setup further personal growth.
Keywords: professional mobility, professional competence, learning activities
Our modern society is characterized by high mobility of professional staff. This is one of the indicators of how they are doing in the professional environment. The mobility is considered to be a person's ability to change their status or position in the social, cultural and professional environment
Many scientists studied the issue of professional mobility (Sorokin P., Durkheim E., Weber M., Schutz A., Scheler M.) The methodology of analyzing the professional career was developed and the mechanisms of changing the type of working activities were studied (Zaslavskaia T., Ryvkina R., Podmarkova V.), the peculiarities and characteristics of professional mobility were examined (Dudina O., Ratnikova P., Kalinowski Y., Tomin N., Amosova O.).
It should be noted that the professional mobility is an ambiguous and multifaceted concept. It can be seen both literally (moving to another country, changing the residence), and a person's ability to realize themselves in their profession best, according to their abilities and skills, expanding and deepening the nature of their activities, demonstrating their professional competence.
The mobility is represented in the research both as the quality of an individual and as a process itself. “The duality of such a category as “the mobility” is characterized by the fact that people can be mobile if they possess some personal and professional qualities, but their mobility might be expressed only in their activities and we could speak about the extent and level of mobility only if it is realized in activities”. (Goryunova, 2005)
The professional competence includes professional, communicative and personal properties of a specialist which help to achieve qualitative results in their work.
Reflexive mechanisms of thinking are the foundation of the mobility, i.e. the ability to regulate their own professional career. Reflection determines the relation of a person to himself or herself as a subject of a professional activity.
The person constantly tries to find the sense of his or her life, goals and means for their solving and approval of their actions with the actions of others, choosing what they should deal with, what they should convert to suit their needs. (Osnitskaya, 1996)
The person infiltrates any new information, experiences through their own system of criteria of social and personal significance, and correcting, assimilates them, enriching the inner world, his or her world view. They refract the outside influence through the accumulated and well-ordered experience, interpret it and selectively respond to it.
The mobility is the ability of the person to react flexibly to constantly changing conditions and demands of the society, professional environment, the labor market. One of the primary tasks of universities is to train specialists capable of the professional mobility. (Balyagova, 2010)
As it is said in the dictionary for the users of www.psihotesti.ru the professional mobility is “the opportunity and the ability to shift successfully to another activity or change the type of work. The professional mobility means the possession of generalized system of professional techniques and skills to apply them effectively to perform any tasks in related industries, and to move from one activity to another comparatively easily. The professional mobility also means a high level of generalized professional knowledge, willingness to rapid selection and implementation of the best ways to perform various tasks in the area of their profession. With rapid changes in technology professional mobility is an important component of the qualification structure of a specialist”.
The professional mobility means also both the ability and the willingness of an individual not only to learn new techniques and technologies rapidly but to acquire new knowledge and skills needed for effective action.
The vertical mobility is considered as walking up the career ladder and the horizontal mobility means a movement to improve the professional skills and the change of the type of work within the same activity without a qualitative change in occupation and qualities.
The basis of the professional mobility is a high level of general professional knowledge, knowledge of the system of professional techniques and the ability to apply them effectively to do any task in their job. (Balyagova, 2010)
E.V. Dobryshina defines “the professional mobility as the quality of an individual to provide the internal mechanism of human development, human activities determined with the events which change the environment, which results in human self-realization in profession and life, the process of transformation of an individual and his/her professional and living environment”. (Dobryshina, 2007)
E.V. Dobryshina identifies the following components of the professional mobility:
-Willingness to changes;
-Professional and social activities of an individual.
The professional competences give a specialist some opportunities to navigate in their profession, to be competitive in the labor market, get prepared to continue their training and self-training.
Professional and social activities determine not only personal adaptation to new conditions of work, but also change them.
Goriunova L.V. presented a model of formation of the professional mobility of a specialist through the development of the following competencies:
- Social and communicative competences which ensure readiness of an individual to socialization in the modern society, adapting to new changes;
- Educational competencies which ensure readiness of students to learn the world, to improve skills, to self-improve and self-educate;
- General scientific competences which provide basic general knowledge and general knowledge of profession needed to adapt to the transformation of the society and work;
- Value-semantic and common cultural competencies which ensure the success of awareness of the need to continue self-education, self-improvement, motivation and self-training, self-promotion in the professional environment (Goryunova, 2005).
The mobility of a specialist determines not only the social and personal factors, but also the internal changes of an individual and their efforts to reflective analysis of their professional role and self-esteem of their professional activities. It is not only a person's ability to change the type of their activities, but also the ability to make independent decisions on the development of a new educational environment, enhance their professional environment, their self-promotion.
Thus, the professional mobility includes:
- Properties and qualities of an individual (openness, flexibility, etc.);
- Abilities (reflection, self-regulation, goal setting, etc.)
- Knowledge (general, general professional knowledge, professional knowledge, key skills and competencies);
- Ability (developed cognitive abilities, creativity, divergence, critical thinking);
It should be noted that the professional mobility is a result not only of education but also its determinant. In order to create a need for professional mobility it is necessary for an individual to develop motivation to self-educate, actualization, to setup further personal growth, change of profession. In this situation some adaptation mechanisms and self-training skills play a very important role. To train a specialist it is necessary to establish a system of value orientations, to teach them to simulate their future, to create an image of their future profession. A graduate should understand the variety of development opportunities, have needs and opportunities of professional activities, perceive the world in motion, adapt to its changes, i.e. to be mobile.
A student has already got some experience (life, professional), which can not ensure the development of self-reflection; on the contrary, it becomes possible due to their involvement in the educational process. However, the education itself becomes a prerequisite for their development as a subject of learning activity. (Barvenko, 2004)
A specialist acts as the subject of learning in most cases under the influence of the changing life situation: the need to change the social status, career, to get a job, to expand life perspectives. According to Kostromina S.N. the main motivator for learning activity with adults is their life situation, forcing people to relearn within the dynamic changes in today's labor market which affect its content and structure. (Kostromina, 2001).
In modern Russia such a situation can be confirmed by “the boom” of further education for adults caused by the situation on the labor market.
When a person decides to continue their education, they realistically assess their abilities and capabilities; learn more responsibly, since they should take into account a number of factors. First, learning is not the primary activity for adults, it promotes optimal implementation of professional activities. Second, the very psychological attitude of adults to the process of learning is being changed. As an active and independent subject in its dominant activity, a professional brings this personal position on the learning process that makes sense of self-education activity particularly important to them. In the process of solving problems in their life, in social and productive activities a professional realizes the necessity to learn, to continue their education. (Bodalev, Rudkevich, 2003), (Bodalev, 1999), (Bodalev, 1999), (Kulyutkin, 1985)
As a subject of learning activity, a professional determines the aims of their study, chooses forms and methods, means and methods of work, regulates the process of learning, evaluates and corrects the results, develops their own experience. (Osnitskaya, Chuikov,1999)
“An adult being a subject of learning activity gives an account of their own capabilities and needs. They actively, consciously and purposefully implement the experience got into the process of learning, aware their capabilities and their place in the activities, occupy the author's position, showing their individual characteristics in formulating and solving problems”. (Barvenko, 2004)
It is very important that adult learning activities are integrated into the overall context of their life and motivation for learning, and have its own specific content in the process of studying a foreign language. Semantic relation of the subject to the situation of studying a foreign language is ambiguous. For example, the data of our observations illustrate this situation: students learn the language to become highly qualified individuals who can make a career. Since the factor of professional competence is central to the process of adult life, many of them who become professionals, learn a foreign language to maintain their status, for both professional and social self-affirmation, and housewives do it in order to expand the communication area.
According to the research by I.Y. Avidon the motives of potential mobility are “business” (obtaining knowledge and experience, learning a foreign language), “physical”, “travel” and “psychological” (need for achievement or protective behavior). (Avidon, 1998)
Thus, there is a wide range of motivational incentives, making an adult study a foreign language.
The characteristic features of adult learning activities include their openness to self-development, an ability to develop themselves, in the fact that an adult realizes their abilities, skills and the need for new knowledge, in their self-organization and self-responsibility and interest in training activities. First of all, they are socially mature individuals with mental mechanisms of perception, memory, thinking, conscious of themselves an independent people. Adult learning activity is inseparable from the general context of their life. During the process of individual life course the motives are being ranged, personal values system is being expanded, the style of relationships are being changed, the reflection occurs, the life is being built, the contradictions between it and personal abilities and circumstances are being determined, there is the need to continue their education.
The subject of learning is able to identify the information request, to choose a learning model, consciously adopt a definite part in learning, to use a different experience in training activities, to have the ability to self-regulate. (Kolesnikov, 2003).
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